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Full text of "Regiments of Indian Army"

regiments of the Indian Army 

List of regiments of the Indian Army 



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Contents 

Articles 

Indian Army 1 

Regiments of the Indian Army 27 

List of regiments of the Indian Army 27 

Indian Army Regiments 32 

Arunachal Scouts 32 

Brigade of the Guards 33 

Gurkha regiment 36 

Bihar Regiment 37 

Parachute Regiment 41 

Punjab Regiment 41 

The Madras Regiment 43 

The Grenadiers 47 

Maratha Light Infantry 52 

Rajputana Rifles 56 

Rajput Regiment 60 

Jat Regiment 69 

Sikh Regiment 75 

Sikh Light Infantry 84 

Dogra Regiment 92 

The Garhwal Rifles 95 

Kumaon Regiment 106 

Jammu & Kashmir Rifles 1 14 

Jammu and Kashmir Light Infantry 117 

Assam Regiment 120 

Mahar Regiment 124 

Mechanised Infantry Regiment 127 

Naga Regiment 130 

The Ladakh Scouts 133 

Assam Rifles 136 

Indian Army Armoured Corps 141 

Indian Army Armoured Corps 141 



Armoured Regiments (62) 144 

President's Bodyguard (India) 144 

1st Duke of York's Own Skinner's Horse 152 

2nd Lancers (Gardner's Horse) 156 

3rd Cavalry 159 

4th Duke of Cambridge's Own Hodson's Horse 162 

7th Light Cavalry 165 

8th King George's Own Light Cavalry 169 

9th Royal Deccan Horse 172 

5th King Edward's Own Probyn's Horse 175 

14th Prince of Wales's Own Scinde Horse 179 

15th Lancers 181 

16th Light Cavalry 184 

The Poona Horse 187 

18th King Edward's Own Cavalry 192 

The Central India Horse (21st King George V's Own Horse) 196 

41 Armoured Regiment (India) 198 

42 Armoured Regiment (India) 199 
45th Cavalry Regiment 200 
61st Cavalry Regiment 201 
62nd Cavalry Regiment 201 
67 Armoured Regiment (India) 202 
90 Armoured Regiment 202 

Regiment of Artillery 203 

Regiment of Artillery 203 

Engineer Groups 207 

Indian Army Corps of Engineers 207 

Madras Engineer Group 210 

Bengal Engineer Group 214 

Bombay Engineer Group 219 

Indian Army Corps of Signals 224 

Indian Army Corps of Signals 224 

Army Aviation Corps 226 

Army Aviation Corps (India) 226 



Territorial Army 231 

Territorial Army (India) 23 1 

Services 235 

Corps of Military Police (India) 235 

Military Nursing Service (India) 236 

References 

Article Sources and Contributors 240 

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 243 

Article Licenses 

License 246 



Indian Army 



Indian Army 



Indian Army 



__ 


"M 




\«H»/ 





Indian Army Seal 


Founded 


15 August 1947 - Present 


Country 


India 


Type 


Army 


Size 


1,429,900 Active 

personnel 

960,000 Reserve 

personnel 

158 Helicopters 


Part of 


Ministry of Defence 
Indian Armed Forces 


Headquarters 


New Delhi, India 


Colour 


Gold, red and black 


Website 


indianarmy.nic.in 


Commanders 


Chief of the Army Staff 


General V K Singh [2] 


Notable 
commanders 


Field Marshal Cariappa 
Field Marshal Manekshaw 



The Indian Army (IA, Devanagan: ^TrofW *ra#H, Bharatiyan Thalasena) is the land based branch and the largest 
component of the Indian Armed Forces. 

According to the IISS, in 2010 the army had a strength of 1,129,900 active personnel and 960,000 reserve 
personnel, making the Indian Army the world's largest standing volunteer army. 

Its primary mission is to ensure the national security and defence of the Republic of India from external aggression 
and threats, and maintaining peace and security within its borders. It also conducts humanitarian rescue operations 
during natural calamities and other disturbances. The President of India is the Commander-in-Chief of the Army. 
The Chief of Army Staff (COAS), a General, is a four star commander and commands the army. There is typically 
never more than one serving general at any given time in the Army. Two officers have been conferred the rank of 
field marshal, a 5-star rank and the officer serves as the ceremonial chief. 

The Indian Army came into being when India gained independence in 1947, and inherited most of the infrastructure 
of the British Indian Army that were located in post-partition India. The Indian Army is a voluntary service and 
although a provision for military conscription exists in the Indian constitution, it has never been imposed. Since 
independence, the army has been involved in four wars with neighboring Pakistan and one with the People's 



Indian Army 



Republic of China. Other major operations undertaken by the army include Operation Vijay, Operation Meghdoot 
and Operation Cactus. Apart from conflicts, the army has also been an active participant in United Nations 
peacekeeping missions. 

Mission 



Indian Army 



^® 





Headquarters 



New Delhi 



History and traditions 



Indian military history 

British Indian Army 

Indian National Army 

Army Day (15 lanuary) 



Equipment 



Equipment of the Indian Army 



Components 



Regiments 



Personnel 



Chief of Army Staff 
Ranks and insignia 



The Indian Army provides that "The Indian Army is the land component of the Indian Armed Forces which exists to 
uphold the ideals of the Constitution of India." As a major component of national power, alongside the Indian Navy 
and the Indian Air Force, the roles of the Indian Army are as follows: 

• Primary: Preserve national interests and safeguard sovereignty, territorial integrity and unity of India against any 
external threats by deterrence or by waging war. 

• Secondary: Assist Government agencies to cope with 'proxy war' and other internal threats and provide aid to 



civil authority when requisitioned for the purpose 



,.[5] 



Indian Army 



History 



British Indian Army 

Further information: List of regiments of the Indian Army (1903) 

A Military Department was created within the Supreme Government of the East India Company at Kolkata in the 
year 1776. Its main function was to sift and record orders relating to the Army that were issued by various 
Departments of the Government of the East India Company 

With the Charter Act of 1833, the Secretariat of the Government of the East India Company was reorganized into 
four Departments, including a Military Department. The army in the Presidencies of Bengal, Bombay & Madras 
functioned as respective Presidency Army until April 1895, when the Presidency Armies were unified into a single 
Indian Army. For administrative convenience, it was divided into four commands at that point of time, namely 

Punjab (including the North West Frontier), Bengal, Madras (including Burma) and Bombay (including Sind, Quetta 

[71 
and Aden). 

The British Indian Army was a critical force for the primacy of the British Empire both in India and across the 
world. Besides maintaining the internal security of the British Raj, the Army fought in many other theaters - 
Anglo-Burmese Wars, First and Second Anglo-Sikh Wars, First, Second and Third Anglo-Afghan Wars, First and 
Second Opium Wars in China, Abyssinia, Boxer Rebellion in China. 



First World War 

In the 20th century, the British Indian Army was a crucial adjunct to 
the British forces in both the World Wars. 

1.3 million Indian soldiers served in World War I (1914—1918) for the 
Allies, after the United Kingdom made vague promises of 
self-governance to the Indian National Congress in return for its 
support. Britain reneged on its promises after the war, following which 
the Indian Independence movement gained strength. 74,187 Indian 



troops were killed or missing in action in the war 



[8] 




Indian Army personnel during Operation 
Crusader in Egypt, 1941. 



The "Indianisation" of the British Indian Army began with the 
formation of the Prince of Wales Royal Indian Military College at 
Dehradun in March 1912 with the purpose of providing education to 
the scions of aristocratic and well to do Indian families and to prepare selected Indian boys for admission into the 
Royal Military College, Sandhurst. Indian officers given a King's commission after passing out were posted to one of 
the eight units selected for Indianisation. Political pressure due to the slow pace of Indianisation, just 69 officers 
being commissioned between 1918 and 1932, led to the formation of the Indian Military Academy in 1932 and 
greater numbers of officers of Indian origin being commissioned 



[9] 



Second World War 

In World War II Indian soldiers fought for the Allies. In 1939, British officials had no plan for expansion and 
training of Indian forces, which comprised about 130,000 men (in addition there were 44,000 men in British units in 
India in 1939.) Their mission was internal security and defense against a possible Russian threat through 
Afghanistan. As the war progressed, the size and role of the Indian Army expanded dramatically, and troops were 



sent to battle fronts as soon as possible. The most serious problem was lack of equipment 



[10] 



With the fall of Singapore in 1942, about 40,000 Indian soldiers were captured. They were given a choice and 30,000 
joined the Indian National Army. Those who refused became POWs and were mostly shipped to New Guinea 



[11] 



Japan's Indian National Army had little effect on the war. 



[12] 



Indian Army 



In the African and Middle-Eastern Campaigns, captured Indian troops were given a choice to join the German Army 
to eventually "liberate" India from Great Britain instead of being sent to POW camps. Those along with Indian 
students who were in Germany when the war broke out made what was called the Free India Legion. They were 
originally intended as pathfinders for German forces in Asia but they soon were sent to help guard the Atlantic Wall. 
Few who were part of the Free India Legion ever saw any combat and very few were ever stationed outside of 

ri3i 

Europe. At its height the Free India Legion had over 3,000 troops in its ranks. 

Indian units served in Burma, where in 1944-45 five Indian divisions were engaged along with one British and three 
African divisions. Even larger numbers operated in the Middle East. Some 87,000 Indian soldiers died in the war. 

Inception 

Upon independence and the subsequent Partition of India in 1947, four of the ten Gurkha regiments were transferred 
to the British Army. The rest of the British Indian Army was divided between the newly created nations of Republic 

of India and Republic of Pakistan. The Punjab Boundary Force, which had been formed to help police the Punjab 

ri4i 
during the partition period, was disbanded, and Headquarters Delhi and East Punjab Command was formed to 

administer the area. 

Conflicts and Operations 
First Kashmir War (1947) 

Immediately after independence, tensions between India and Pakistan began to boil over, and the first of three 
full-scale wars between the two nations broke out over the then princely state of Kashmir. Upon the Maharaja of 
Kashmir's eagerness to accede to India against the will of the 95% Muslim population of Kashmir, a 'tribal' invasion 
of parts of Kashmir began with mostly people from the NWFP region helping out the local Kashmiri population. 
The men included Pakistan army regulars. Soon after, Pakistan sent in more of its troops to prevent Indian 
annexation by force. The Maharaja, Hari Singh, appealed to India, and to Lord Mountbatten of Burma, the Governor 
General, for help. He signed the Instrument of Accession which was largely seen as a deal by the Kashmiri 
population and Kashmir acceded to India (a decision ratified by Britain). Immediately after, Indian troops were 
airlifted to Srinagar. This contingent included General Thimayya who distinguished himself in the operation and 
in years that followed, became a Chief of the Indian Army. An intense war was waged across the state and former 
comrades found themselves fighting each other. Both sides made some territorial gains and also suffered significant 
losses. 

An uneasy UN sponsored peace returned by the end of 1948 with Indian and Pakistani soldiers facing each other 
directly on the Line of Control, which has since divided Indian-held Kashmir from Pakistan-held Kashmir. A host of 
UN Resolutions (38-47) were passed calling for a plebiscite to be held in Kashmir to determine accession to India 
or Pakistan. These Resolutions however were never accepted by India. Tensions between India and Pakistan, 
largely over Kashmir, have never since been entirely eliminated. 



Indian Army 



Inclusion of Hyderabad (1948) 




Major General El Edroos (at right) offers his 

surrender of the Hyderabad State Forces to Major 

General (later General and Army Chief) Joyanto 

Nath Chaudhuri at Secunderabad 



After the partition of India, the State of Hyderabad, a princely-state 
under the rule of a Nizam, chose to remain independent. The Nizam, 
refused to accede his state to the Union of India. The following 
stand-off between the Government of India and the Nizam ended on 12 
September 1948 when India's then deputy Prime Minister Sardar 
Vallabhbhai Patel ordered Indian troops to secure the state. With 5 days 
of low-intensity fighting, the Indian Army, backed by a squadron of 
Hawker Tempest aircraft of the Indian Air Force, routed the Hyderabad 
State forces. Five infantry battalions and one armoured squadron of the 
Indian Army were engaged in the operation. The following day, the 
State of Hyderabad was proclaimed as a part of the Union of India. 
Major General Joyanto Nath Chaudhuri, who led the Operation Polo 
was appointed the Military Governor of Hyderabad (1948—1949) to 
restore law and order. 

Medical Assistance during Korean War (1950-1953) 



During the Korean War, India sent the 60th (Parachute) Field 
Ambulance unit to aid the UN troops fighting against the Chinese and North Korean invasion of South Korea, 
though they decided against sending combat forces. The 60th PFA was included in the 1st Commonwealth Division. 

In the aftermath of the war, Indian soldiers were also sent to Korea to peace-keep. 

Liberation of Goa, Daman and Diu (1961) 

Even though the British and French vacated all their colonial possessions in the Indian subcontinent, Portugal 
refused to relinquish control of its Indian colonies of Goa, Daman and Diu. After repeated attempts by India to 
negotiate with Portugal for the return of its territory were spurned by Portuguese prime minister and dictator, 
Antonio de Oliveira Salazar, India launched Operation Vijay on 12 December 1961 to evict the Portuguese. A small 
contingent of its troops entered Goa, Daman and Diu to liberate and secure the territory. After a brief conflict, in 
which 3 1 Portuguese soldiers were killed, the Portuguese Navy frigate NRP Afonso de Albuquerque destroyed, and 
over 3,000 Portuguese captured, Portuguese General Manuel Antonio Vassalo e Silva surrendered to the Indian 
Army, after twenty-six hours and Goa, Daman and Diu joined the Indian Union. 



Sino-Indian Conflict (1962) 

The cause of the war was a dispute over the sovereignty of the widely-separated Aksai Chin and Arunachal Pradesh 
border regions. Aksai Chin, claimed by India to belong to Kashmir and by China to be part of Xinjiang, contains an 
important road link that connects the Chinese regions of Tibet and Xinjiang. China's construction of this road was 
one of the triggers of the conflict. 

Small-scale clashes between the Indian and Chinese forces broke out as India insisted on the disputed McMahon 

Line being regarded as the international border between the two countries. Chinese troops claim to have not 

1171 
retaliated to the cross-border firing by Indian troops, despite sustaining losses. China's suspicion of India's 



involvement in Tibet created more rifts between the two countries 



[18] 



In 1962, the Indian Army was ordered to move to the Thag La ridge located near the border between Bhutan and 
Arunachal Pradesh and about three miles (5 km) north of the disputed McMahon Line. Meanwhile, Chinese troops 
too had made incursions into Indian-held territory and tensions between the two reached a new high when Indian 
forces discovered a road constructed by China in Aksai Chin. After a series of failed negotiations, the People's 



Indian Army 



Liberation Army attacked Indian Army positions at the Thag La ridge. This move by China caught India by surprise 
and by 12 October, Nehru gave orders for the Chinese to be expelled from Aksai Chin. However, poor coordination 
among various divisions of the Indian Army and the late decision to mobilize the Indian Air Force in vast numbers 
gave China a crucial tactical and strategic advantage over India. On 20 October, Chinese soldiers attacked India in 
both the North-West and North-Eastern parts of the border and captured vast portions of Aksai Chin and Arunachal 
Pradesh. 

As the fighting moved beyond disputed territories, China called on the Indian government to negotiate, however 
India remained determined to regain lost territory. With no peaceful agreement in sight, China unilaterally withdrew 
its forces from Arunachal Pradesh. The reasons for the withdrawal are disputed with India claiming various logistical 
problems for China and diplomatic support to it from the United States, while China stated that it still held territory 
that it had staked diplomatic claim upon. The dividing line between the Indian and Chinese forces was named the 
Line of Actual Control. 

The poor decisions made by India's military commanders, and, indeed, its political leadership, raised several 
questions. The Henderson-Brooks & Bhagat committee was soon set up by the Government of India to determine the 
causes of the poor performance of the Indian Army. The report of China even after hostilities began and also 
criticized the decision to not allow the Indian Air Force to target Chinese transport lines out of fear of Chinese aerial 
counter-attack on Indian civilian areas. Much of the blame was also targeted at the incompetence of then Defence 
Minister, Krishna Menon who resigned from his post soon after the war ended. Despite frequent calls for its release, 
the Henderson-Brooks report still remains classified. Neville Maxwell has written an account of the war. 



Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 

A second confrontation with Pakistan took place in 1965, largely over 
Kashmir. Pakistani President Ayub Khan launched Operation 
Gibraltar in August 1965, during which several Pakistani paramilitary 
troops infiltrated into Indian-administered Kashmir and attempt to 
ignite an anti-India agitation in Jammu and Kashmir. Pakistani leaders 
believed that India, which was still recovering from the disastrous 
Sino-Indian War, would be unable to deal with a military thrust and a 
Kashmiri rebellion. India reacted swiftly and launched a counter 
offensive on Pakistan. Pakistan launched Operation Grand Slam in 
reply on 1 September, invading India's Chamb-Jaurian sector. In 
retaliation, the India's Army launched a major offensive throughout its 
border with Pakistan, with Lahore as its prime target. 




Tanks of 1 8th Cavalry of the Indian Army take 
charge at Pakistani positions during the 1 965 war. 



Initially, the Indian Army met with considerable success in the 

northern sector. After launching prolonged artillery barrages against 

Pakistan, India was able to capture three important mountain positions in Kashmir. By 9 September, the Indian Army 

had made considerable in-roads into Pakistan. India had its largest haul of Pakistani tanks when the offensive of 

Pakistan's 1st Armoured Division was blunted at the Battle of Asal Uttar, which took place on 10 September near 

Khemkaran. The biggest tank battle of the war came in the form of the Battle of Chawinda, the largest tank battle 

in history after World War II. Pakistan's defeat at the Battle of Asal Uttar hastened the end of the conflict 



[21] 



At the time of ceasefire declaration, India reported casualties of about 3,500 killed. On the other hand, it was 

r22ir23ir24i 
estimated that about 3,800 Pakistani soldiers were killed in the battle. About 190 Pakistani tanks were 

either destroyed or captured by India. India lost a total of 175 tanks during the conflict and about 100 more had to 

["21 ] [25] 

undergo repair. the decision to return back to pre-war positions, following the Tashkent Declaration, caused an 

outcry among the polity in New Delhi. It was widely believed that India's decision to accept the ceasefire was due to 
political factors, and not military, since it was facing considerable pressure from the United States and the UN to 



Indian Army 

stop hostilities. 

Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 

An independence movement broke out in East Pakistan which was brutally crushed by Pakistani forces. Due to 
large-scale atrocities against them, thousands of Bengalis took refuge in neighboring India causing a major refugee 
crisis there. In early 1971, India declared its full-support for the Bengali rebels, known as Mukti Bahini, and Indian 
agents were extensively involved in covert operations to aid them. 

On 20 November 1971, Indian Army moved the 14 Punjab Battalion 45 Cavalry into Garibpur, a strategically 
important town near India's border with East Pakistan, and successfully captured it. The following day, more clashes 
took place between Indian and Pakistani forces. Wary of India's growing involvement in the Bengali rebellion, the 
Pakistan Air Force (PAF) launched a preemptive strike on 10 Indian air bases at Srinagar, Jammu, Pathankot, 
Amritsar, Agra, Adampur, Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, Uttarlai and Sirsa at 1745 hours on 3 December. This aerial offensive, 
however, failed to accomplish its stated objectives and gave India its excuse to declare a full-scale war against 
Pakistan the same day. By midnight, the Indian Army, accompanied by Indian Air Force, launched a major 
three-pronged assault into East Pakistan. The Indian Army won several battles on the eastern front including the 
decisive of battle of Hilli, which was the only front where the Pakistani Army was able to build up considerable 

resistance. The operation also included a battalion-level airborne operation on Tangail which resulted in the 

T271 
capitulation of all resistance within five days. India's massive early gains was largely attributed to the speed and 

T2R1 

flexibility with which Indian armored divisions moved across East Pakistan. 

Pakistan launched a counter-attack against India on the western front. On 4 December 1971, the A company of the 

23rd Battalion of India's Punjab Regiment detected and intercepted the movement of the 51st Infantry Brigade of the 

Pakistani Army near Ramgarh, Rajasthan. The battle of Longewala ensued during which the A company, though 

being outnumbered, thwarted the Pakistani advance until the Indian Air Force directed its fighters to engage the 

Pakistani tanks. By the time the battle had ended, 34 Pakistani tanks and 50 armored vehicles were either destroyed 

or abandoned. About 200 Pakistani troops were killed in action during the battle while only 2 Indian soldiers lost 

their lives. Pakistan suffered another major defeat on the western front during the battle of Basantar which was 

fought from 4 December to 16th. By the end of the battle, about 66 Pakistani tanks were destroyed and 40 more were 

captured. In return, Pakistani forces were able to destroy only 1 1 Indian tanks. None of the numerous Pakistani 

[291 
offensives on the Western front materialized. By 16 December, Pakistan had lost sizable territory on both eastern 

and western fronts. 

Under the command of Lt. General J.S. Arora, the three corps of the Indian Army, which had invaded East Pakistan, 

entered Dhaka and forced Pakistani forces to surrender on 16 December 1971, one day after the conclusion of the 

battle of Basantar. After Pakistan's Lt. General A.A.K. Niazi signed the Instrument of Surrender, India took more 

than 90,000 Pakistani prisoners of war. At the time of the signing of the Instrument of Surrender, 9,000 Pakistani 

[231 
soldiers were killed-in-action while India suffered only 2,500 battle-related deaths. In addition, Pakistan lost 200 

tanks during the battle compared to India's 80. 

In 1972, the Simla Agreement was signed between the two countries and tensions simmered. However, there were 
occasional spurts in diplomatic tensions which culminated into increased military vigilance on both sides. 

Siachen conflict (1984) 

{{MainlSiachen conflict} The Siachen Glacier, though a part of the Kashmir region, was not officially demarcated 
on maps prepared and exchanged between the two sides in 1947. As a consequence, prior to the 1980s, neither India 
nor Pakistan maintained any permanent military presence in the region. However, Pakistan began conducting and 
allowing a series of mountaineering expeditions to the glacier beginning in the 1950s. By early 1980s, the 
government of Pakistan was granting special expedition permits to mountaineers and United States Army maps 
deliberately showed Siachen as a part of Pakistan. This practice gave rise to the contemporary meaning of the term 



Indian Army 



oropolitics. 

India, possibly irked by these developments, launched Operation Meghdoot in April 1984. The entire Kumaon 
Regiment of the Indian Army was airlifted to the glacier. Pakistani forces responded quickly and clashes between the 
two followed. Indian Army secured the strategic Sia La and Bilafond La mountain passes and by 1985, more than 
1,000 square miles (2,600 km2) of territory, 'claimed' by Pakistan, was under Indian control. [29] The Indian Army 
continues to control all of the Siachen Glacier and its tributary glaciers. Pakistan made several unsuccessful attempts 
to regain control over Siachen. In late 1987, Pakistan mobilized about 8,000 troops and garrisoned them near 
Khapalu, aiming to capture Bilafond La. [30] However, they were repulsed by Indian Army personnel guarding 
Bilafond. During the battle, about 23 Indian soldiers lost their lives while more than 150 Pakistani troops 
perished. [31] Further unsuccessful attempts to reclaim positions were launched by Pakistan in 1990, 1995, 1996 and 
1999, most notably in Kargil that year. 

India continues to maintain a strong military presence in the region despite extremely inhospitable conditions. The 
conflict over Siachen is regularly cited as an example of mountain warfare. [32] The highest peak in the Siachen 
glacier region, Saltoro Kangri, could be viewed as strategically important for India because of its immense altitude 
which could enable the Indian forces to monitor some Pakistani or Chinese movements in the immediate area. [33] 
Maintaining control over Siachen poses several logistical challenges for the Indian Army. Several infrastructure 
projects were constructed in the region, including a helipad 21,000 feet (6,400 m) above the sea level. [34] In 2004, 
Indian Army was spending an estimated US$2 million a day to support its personnel stationed in the 
region. [35]).</ref> 

Counter-insurgency activities 

The Indian Army has played a crucial role in the past, fighting insurgents and terrorists within the nation. The army 
launched Operation Bluestar and Operation Woodrose in the 1980s to combat Sikh insurgents. The army, along with 
some paramilitary forces, has the prime responsibility of maintaining law and order in the troubled Jammu and 
Kashmir region. The Indian Army also sent a contingent to Sri Lanka in 1987 as a part of the Indian Peace Keeping 
Force. 

Kargil conflict (1999) 



In 1998, India carried out nuclear tests and a few days later, Pakistan 
responded by more nuclear tests giving both countries nuclear 
deterrence capability. Diplomatic tensions eased after the Lahore 
Summit was held in 1999. The sense of optimism was short-lived, 
however, since in mid- 1999 Pakistani paramilitary forces and Kashmiri 
insurgents captured deserted, but strategic, Himalayan heights in the 
Kargil district of India. These had been vacated by the Indian army 
during the onset of the inhospitable winter and were supposed to 
reoccupied in spring. The regular Pakistani troops who took control of 
these areas received important support, both in the form of arms and 
supplies, from Pakistan. Some of the heights under their control, which 
also included the Tiger Hill, overlooked the vital Srinagar-Leh Highway 



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Map describing Kargil war. 



(NH 1A), Batalik and Dras. 



Once the scale of the Pakistani incursion was realized, the Indian Army quickly mobilized about 200,000 troops and 

Operation Meghdoot was launched. However, since the heights were under Pakistani control, India was in a clear 

strategic disadvantage. From their observation posts, the Pakistani forces had a clear line-of-sight to lay down 

indirect artillery fire on NH 1A, inflicting heavy casualties on the Indians. This was a serious problem for the 

[32] 
Indian Army as the highway was its main logistical and supply route. Thus, the Indian Army's first priority was to 

recapture peaks that were in the immediate vicinity of NHla. This resulted in Indian troops first targeting the Tiger 



Indian Army 



T331 
Hill and Tololing complex in Dras. This was soon followed by more attacks on the Batalik-Turtok sub-sector 

which provided access to Siachen Glacier. Point 4590, which had the nearest view of the NHla, was successfully 

[341 

recaptured by Indian forces on 14 June. 

Though most of the posts in the vicinity of the highway were cleared 
by mid-June, some parts of the highway near Drass witnessed sporadic 
shelling until the end of the war. Once NHla area was cleared, the 
Indian Army turned to driving the invading force back across the Line 
of Control. The Battle of Tololing, among other assaults, slowly tilted 
the combat in India's favor. Nevertheless, some of the posts put up a 
stiff resistance, including Tiger Hill (Point 5140) that fell only later in 
the war. As the operation was fully underway, about 250 artillery guns 
were brought in to clear the infiltrators in the posts that were in the 
line-of-sight. In many vital points, neither artillery nor air power could 
dislodge the outposts manned by the Pakistan soldiers, who were out of 
visible range. The Indian Army mounted some direct frontal ground 
assaults which were slow and took a heavy toll given the steep ascent 
that had to be made on peaks as high as 18,000 feet (5,500 m). Two 
months into the conflict, Indian troops had slowly retaken most of the 
ridges they had lost; according to official count, an estimated 

75%— 80% of the intruded area and nearly all high ground was back under Indian control. 

Following the Washington accord on 4 July, where Sharif agreed to withdraw Pakistani troops, most of the fighting 

came to a gradual halt, but some Pakistani forces remained in positions on the Indian side of the LOC. In addition, 

the United Jihad Council (an umbrella for all extremist groups) rejected Pakistan's plan for a climb-down, instead 

[371 
deciding to fight on. The Indian Army launched its final attacks in the last week of July; as soon as the Drass 

subsector had been cleared of Pakistani forces, the fighting ceased on 26 July. The day has since been marked as 

Kargil Vijay Diwas (Kargil Victory Day) in India. By the end of the war, India had resumed control of all territory 

south and east of the Line of Control, as was established in July 1972 per the Shimla Accord. By the time all 

T381 

hostilities had ended, the number of Indian soldiers killed during the conflict stood at 527. while more than 700 

[39] 
regular members of the Pakistani army were killed. The number of Islamist fighters, also known as Mujahideen, 

killed by Indian Armed Forces during the conflict stood at about 3,000. 




Memorial of Operation Vijay. 



United Nations Peacekeeping Missions 

The Indian Army has undertaken numerous UN peacekeeping 

• • [40] 

missions: 

Angola, UNAVEM I, 1988-1991 

Angola, UNAVEM II, 1991-1995 

Angola, UNAVEM III, 1995-1997 

Angola, MONUA, 1997-1999 

Bosnia & Herzegovina, UNMIBH, 1995-2002 

Cambodia, UNAMIC, 1991-1992 

Cambodia, UNTAC, 1992-1993 

Central America, ONUCA, 1989-1992 

Congo, ONUC, 1960-1964 

El Salvador, ONUSAL, 1991-1995 

Ethiopia & Eritrea, UNMEE, 2000-2008 




.. / 

Indian Army soldiers arrive in Korea in 

September 1953 for peacekeeping along the 

neutral buffer zone 



Indian Army 



10 




Haiti, UNMIH, 1993-1996 
Haiti, UNSMIH, 1996-1997 
Haiti, UNTMIH, 1997 
Haiti, MIPONUH, 1997-2000 
Iran & Iraq, UNIIMOG, 1988-1991 
Iraq & Kuwait, UNIKOM, 1991-2003 
Israel, UNDOF 

Liberia, UNOMIL, 1993-1997 
Lebanon, UNOGL, UNIFIL, 1958 
Middle East, UNEF I, 1956-1967 
Mozambique, ONUMOZ, 1992-1994 
Namibia, UNTAG, 1989-1990 
Rwanda, UNAMIR, 1993-1996 
Sierra Leone, UNOMSIL, 1998-1999 
Sierra Leone, UNAMSIL, 1999-2005 
Somalia, UNOSOM, 1993-1995 
Yemen, UNYOM, 1963-1964 

The Indian army also provided paramedical units to facilitate the withdrawal of the sick and wounded in the Korean 
War. 



Indian Army's T-72 with UN markings at the 

Belgian compound in Kismayo, Somalia, in 

support of Operation Continue Hope as a part of 

UNOSOM. 



Major exercises 



Operation Brasstacks 

Operation Brasstacks was launched by the Indian Army in November 
1986 to simulate a full-scale war on the western border. The exercise 
was the largest ever conducted in India and comprised nine infantry, 
three mechanised, three armoured and one air assault division, and 
included three independent armoured brigades. Amphibious assault 
exercises were also conducted with the Indian Navy. Brasstacks also 
allegedly incorporated nuclear attack drills. It led to tensions with 
Pakistan and a subsequent rapprochement in mid- 1987. 

Operation Parakram 

After the 13 December 2001 attack on the Indian Parliament, 

Operation Parakram was launched in which tens of thousands of Indian 

troops were deployed along the Indo-Pakistan border. India blamed 

Pakistan for backing the attack. The operation was the largest military 

exercise carried out by any Asian country. Its prime objective is still 

unclear but appears to have been to prepare the army for any future 

nuclear conflict with Pakistan, which seemed increasingly possible after the December attack on the Indian 

parliament. 




Indian Army T-90 tanks take part during an 
exercise in the Thar Desert. 



Indian Army 1 1 

Operation Sanghe Shakti 

It has since been stated that the main goal of this exercise was to validate the mobilisation strategies of the 
Ambala-based // Strike Corps. Air support was a part of this exercise, and an entire battalion of paratroops 
parachuted in during the conduction of the war games, with allied equipment. Some 20,000 soldiers took part in the 
exercise. 

Exercise Ashwamedha 

Indian Army tested its network centric warfare capabilities in the exercise Ashwamedha. The exercise was held in 

T431 
the Thar desert, in which over 300,000 troops participated. Asymmetric warfare capability was also tested by the 

Indian Army during the exercise. 

Operation Sudarshan Sakthi 

It took place at Baundi village, 40 km. south east of Banner in Rajasthan on 6 December 201 1. The Exercise, helmed 
by southern army command and the south western air command, seeks to build synergy between the army and the air 
force in a network centric environment. The exercise would take place in a theater of 175 km x 150 km area covering 
Banner, Jaisalmer, Pokhran and Pachpadra, said an officer from 21 Corpse. Both T-90 and T-72 tanks along with 
heavy duty guns would be in action in the exercise, the built up for which had began since September end. 

Youdh Abhays 

Exercise YUDH ABHYAS is part of an ongoing series of joint exercises between the Indian and United States 
Armies since 2005, agreed upon under the New Framework of India-US Defence Relationship. 

Commencing at the platoon level, the exercise has graduated to a 
command post (CPX) and field training exercise (FTX). 

The seventh edition of Yudh Abhyas is currently underway since 05 
March 2012 in two locations under the South Western Command. The 
US Army contingent is from the US Army Pacific (USARPAC), part 
of their Pacific Command (PACOM). The Command Post Exercise has 
an engineer brigade headquarters with its planners from both sides, 

& & H F Yudh Abhyas 2012 - U.S. and Indian Army 

while the Field Training Exercise comprises troops of 2nd Squadron military exercise Tr ailer(Produced and Shot by 

14th US Cavalry Regiment from 25th Infantry Division, Hawaii, along SSG Robert Ham.Cultural Advisor, SPC Mohan 
with a platoon of Strykers, and a similar sized Indian Army contingent 
of mechanized infantry. The event is all the more interesting as a 
number of key surveillance, communications and Improvised 

Explosive Devices detection and neutralisation technologies, available with both sides have been fielded in the 

• [45] 
exercise . 

Exercise Shoorveer 

On first week of April 2012 Indian Army has launched a massive summer exercise in the Rajasthan desert involving 
over 50,000 troops and several hundred artillery guns and infantry combat vehicles as part of its efforts to shore up 
its battle worthiness on the western front with Pakistan. The exercise, code-named "Shoorveer", is being conducted 
by the Jaipur-based South Western Command and will end in the first week of May. This is the largest ever exercise 
conducted by Indian army since 1947. 

The collective training started with honing up of basic battle procedures and tactical drills at tactical level. A number 
of field firings are being canied out to check the accuracy and lethality of the weapon systems. A large number of 
innovations and modifications carried out by units and formations to enhance combat power are being tested in the 
field. The troops will build the momentum of training gradually, with increased combat tempo to set the stage for a 




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Indian Army 



12 



major joint army-air force exercise in the later part of the exercise . The collective training started with honing up 
of basic battle procedures and tactical drills at tactical level. The exercise Shoorveer is scheduled to culminate when 
Sapta Shakti Command along with Indian Air Force will carry out swift battle manoeuvres and joint operations. A 
number of field firings are being carried out to check the accuracy and lethality of the weapon systems. 

Exercise Rudra Akrosh 

On may 2012 Indian army start testing the preparedness level of its units and to validate new age technology, battle 
concepts, organisational structures and networked operations, Western Army Command is conducting its summer 
training exercises in Punjab and Jammu and Kashmir. "Codenamed Exercise Rudra Akrosh, the war games are 
aimed to validate the operational and transformational effectiveness of various formations under the Western Army 
Command. The exercise which entered its culmination phase was also witnessed by Western Army Commander Lt 
General S R Ghosh. It includes various summer training manoeuvres where approximately 20,000 troops tested 
battle skills with state-of-the-art weapon systems in complete integration of the fighter and transport aircraft pitched 
in by the Indian Air Force. Besides interacting with the soldiers and officers coordinating the war games, Lt Gen 
Ghosh witnessed various battle manoeuvres by infantry troops, mechanised infantry, tanks, artillery, Heliborne 
troops and surveillance equipment. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and attack helicopters were also coopted in 
the operational scenario . Recently, the Jaipur-based South Western Command- also known as Sapta Shakti 



command- conducted its summer war games with more than 50,000 troops, latest weaponary and air assets 



[47] 









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Structure 

The army has a strength of about a 
million troops and fields 34 divisions. 
Its headquarters is located in the Indian 
capital New Delhi and it is under the 
overall command of the Chief of Army 
Staff (COAS), currently General V K 
Singh, PVSM, AVSM, YSM, ADC Indlan Army Structure (cllck to enlarge) 

Initially, the army's main objective was 

to defend the nation's frontiers. However, over the years, the army has also taken up the responsibility of providing 

internal security, especially in insurgent-hit Kashmir and north-east. 

Recently it has been proposed to enhance the strength of army by more than 90,000 to counter the increasing 
presence of Chinese troops along the LAC. 



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Commands 

The army operates 7 operational commands. Each command is headed by General Officer Commanding-in-Chief 
with the rank of Lieutenant General. Each command is directly affiliated to the Army HQ in New Delhi. These 
commands are given below in their correct order of raising, location (city) and their commanders. There is also the 
Army Training Commanded abbreviated as ARTRAC. The staff in each Command HQ is headed by Chief Of Staff 
(COS) who is also an officer of Lieutenant General rank. Besides these army officers may head tri-service 
commands such as the Strategic Forces command and the Andaman and Nicobar Command. 



Indian Army 



13 



Corps 

A corps is an army field formation responsible for a zone within a command theatre. There are three types of corps 
in the Indian Army: Strike, Holding and Mixed. A command generally consists of two or more corps. A corps has 
Army divisions under its command. The Corps HQ is the highest field formation in the army. Further information is 
available from Richard A. Renaldi and Ravi Rikhe, Indian Army Order of Battle,' Orbat.com for Tiger Lily Books: 
A division of General Data LLC, ISBN 978-0-9820541-7-8, 201 1. 

^Jr Headquarters, Indian Army, New Delhi 

• 50th Independent Parachute Brigade headquartered at Agra 

• Central Command, headquartered at Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh 

• I Corps — Currently assigned to South Western Command 

• Eastern Command, headquartered at Kolkata, West Bengal 

• 23rd Infantry Division headquartered at Ranchi 

• ? Artillery Division(PROPOSED) 

• ? Corps, headquartered at Panagarh, West Bengal(PROPOSED) 

• III Corps, headquartered at Dimapur, Nagaland 

2nd Mountain Division headquartered at Dibrugarh 
57th Mountain Division headquartered at Leimakhong 
56th Mountain Division headquartered at Zakhama 
IV Corps, headquartered at Tezpur, Assam 

71st Mountain Division headquartered at Missamari 
5th Mountain Division headquartered at Bomdila 
21st Mountain Division headquartered at Rangia 
XXXIII Corps, headquartered at Siliguri, West Bengal 

17th Mountain Division headquartered at Gangtok 
20th Mountain Division headquartered at Binnaguri 
27th Mountain Division headquartered at Kalimpong 
?th Artillery brigade 
Northern Command, headquartered at Udhampur, Jammu and Kashmir 

• XIV Corps, headquartered at Leh, Jammu and Kashmir 

3rd Infantry Division headquartered at Leh 
8th Mountain Division headquartered at Dras 
?th Artillery brigade 

XV Corps, headquartered at Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir 

19th Infantry Division headquartered at Baramulla, 
28th Mountain Division headquartered at Gurez 
?th Artillery brigade 

XVI Corps, headquartered at Nagrota, Jammu and Kashmir 

10th Infantry Division headquartered at Akhnoor 
25th Infantry Division headquartered at Rajauri 
39th Infantry Division headquartered at Yol 
10 Artillery brigade 
?th Armoured brigade 
Southern Command, headquartered at Pune, Maharashtra 

• 41st Artillery Division, headquartered at Pune, Maharashtra 



Indian Army 



14 



XII Corps, headquartered at Jodhpur, Rajasthan 

• 4th Armoured Brigade 

• 340th Mechanised Brigade 

• 1 1th Infantry Division headquartered at Ahmedabad 

• 12th Infantry Division (converting to RAPID) headquartered at Jodhpur 

XXI Corps, headquartered at Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh 

31st Armoured Division headquartered at Jhansi 
36th RAPID Sagar 

54th Infantry Division (India) headquartered at Hyderabad/Secunderabad 
?th Artillery brigade 
?th Air defence brigade 
475th Engineering Brigade 
South Western Command, headquartered at Jaipur, Rajasthan 

• 42nd Artillery Division headquartered at Jaipur 

• I Corps, headquartered at Mathura, Uttar Pradesh 

4th Infantry Division (converting to RAPID ) headquartered at Allahabad 
6th Mountain Division headquartered at Bareilly 
33rd Armoured Division headquartered at Hisar 
?th Engineering Brigade 

X Corps, headquartered at Bhatinda, Punjab 

16th Infantry Division headquartered at Sri Ganganagar 
18th RAPID at Kota 
24th RAPID at Bikaner 
6th Independent Armoured Brigade 
615th Independent Air Defence Brigade 
471st Engineering Brigade 
Western Command, headquartered at Chandimandir 

• 40th Artillery Division headquartered at Ambala 

• II Corps, headquartered at Ambala, Haryana 

1st Armoured Division headquartered at Patiala 
14th RAPID at Dehradun 
22nd Infantry Division headquartered at Meerut 
474th Engineering Brigade 

612th Mechanised Independent Air Defence Brigade 
IX Corps, headquartered at Yol, Himachal Pradesh 

26th Infantry Division headquartered at Jammu 
29th Infantry Division headquartered at Pathankot 
2nd Independent Armoured Brigade 
3rd Independent Armoured Brigade 

XI Corps, headquartered at Jalandhar, Punjab 

7th Infantry Division headquartered at Firozpur 
9th Infantry Division headquartered at Meerut 
15th Infantry Division headquartered at Amritsar 
23rd Armoured Brigade 
55th Mechanised Brigade 



Indian Army 15 

• Training Command, headquartered at Shimla, Himachal Pradesh 

Regimental organisation 

In addition to this (not to be confused with the Field Corps mentioned above) are the Regiments or Corps or 
departments of the Indian Army. The corps mentioned below are the functional divisions entrusted with specific 
pan-Army tasks. 

Arms 

1. Indian Infantry Regiments 

2. Armoured Corps Regiments - The Armoured Corps Centre and School is at Ahmednagar. 

3. Regiment of Artillery - The School of Artillery is at Devlali near Nasik. 

4. Corps of Signals - Military College of Telecommunication Engineering (MCTE), Mhow is a premiere training 
institute of the Corps of Signals. 

5. Corps of Engineers - The College of Military Engineering is at Dapodi, Pune. The Centers are located as follows - 
Madras Engineer Group at Bangalore, Bengal Engineer Group at Roorkee and Bombay Engineer Group at Khadki, 
Pune. 

6. Corps of Army Air Defence-Center at Gopalpur in Orissa State. 

7. Mechanised Infantry - Regimental Center at Ahmednagar. 

8. Army Aviation Corps(India) 

The Indian Territorial Army has units from a number of corps which serve as a part-time reserve. 

Services 

1. Army Dental Corps - Centered at Lucknow. 

2. Army Education Corps - Centered at Pachmarhi. 

3. Army Medical Corps - Centered at Lucknow. 

4. Army Ordnance Corps - Centered at Jabalpur and Secunderabad (HQ). 

5. Army Postal Service Corps - Centered at Kamptee near Nagpur. 

6. Army Service Corps - Centered at Bangalore and Gaya 

7. Corps of Electronics and Mechanical Engineers - Centered at Bhopal and Secunderabad. 

8. Corps of Military Police Indian Corps of Military Police - Centered at Bangalore 

9. Intelligence Corps - Centered at Pune. 

10. Judge Advocate General's Dept. - Centered at the Institute of Military Law kamptee, Nagpur. 

11. Military Farms Service - Centered at the Military Farms School and Center, Meerut Cantt. 

12. Military Nursing Service 

13. Remount and Veterinary Corps 

14. Pioneer Corps 



Indian Army 



16 



Other field formations 



.• 



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Division: An Army Division is an intermediate between a Corps and 
a Brigade. It is the largest striking force in the army. Each Division 
is headed by [General Officer Commanding] (GOC) in the rank of 
Major General. It usually consists of 15,000 combat troops and 
8,000 support elements. Currently, the Indian Army has 37 
Divisions including 4 RAPID (Re-organised Army Plains Infantry 
Divisions) Action Divisions, 18 Infantry Divisions, 10 Mountain 
Divisions, 3 Armoured Divisions and 2 Artillery Divisions. Each 
Division composes of several Brigades. 

Brigade: A Brigade generally consists of around 3,000 combat 
troops with supporting elements. An Infantry Brigade usually has 3 
Infantry Battalions along with various Support Arms & Services. It 
is headed by a Brigadier, equivalent to a Brigadier General in some 
armies. In addition to the Brigades in various Army Divisions, the 
Indian Army also has 5 Independent Armoured Brigades, 15 
Independent Artillery Brigades, 7 Independent Infantry Brigades, 1 
Independent Parachute Brigade, 3 Independent Air Defence 
Brigades, 2 Independent Air Defence Groups and 4 Independent 
Engineer Brigades. These Independent Brigades operate directly 
under the Corps Commander (GOC Corps). 

Battalion: A Battalion is commanded by a Colonel and is the Infantry's main fighting unit. It consists of more than 

900 combat personnel. 

Company: Headed by the Major, a Company comprises 120 soldiers. 

Platoon: An intermediate between a Company and Section, a Platoon is headed by a Lieutenant or depending on 

the availability of Commissioned Officers, a Junior Commissioned Officer, with the rank of Subedar or 

Naib-Subedar. It has a total strength of about 32 troops. 

Section: Smallest military outfit with a strength of 10 personnel. Commanded by a Non-commissioned officer of 

the rank of Havildar Major or Sergeant Major. 



A section of the Indian Army soldier during a 

reconnaissance mission training exercise in 

Alaska. 



Regiments 



Infantry regiments 

Upon its inception, the Indian Army inherited the British Army's 
organizational structure which is still maintained today. Therefore, like 
its predecessor, an Indian Infantry Regiment's responsibility is not to 
undertake field operations but to provide battalions and well trained 
personnel to the field formations, as such it is common to find 
battalions of the same regiment spread across several brigades, 
divisions, corps, commands, and even theaters. 

Infantry Regiments of the Indian Army recruit based on certain selection criteria, such as geographical location (the 
Punjab Regiment), Assam Rifles etc. some regimental recruitment criteria are unique to 




Indian Army 



17 



India with some regiment's recruitment pool falling on ethnicity, caste 
or religion such as the Gorkha Regiments, Jatt Regiment and Sikh 
Regiment respectively. Over the years various political and military 
factions have tried to dissolve the unique selection criteria process of 
the regiments over a fear that loyalty to the regiment or its ethnic 
people opposed to loyalty to the union of India and have succeeded 
somewhat with the creation of caste-less, religion-less, non-regional 
regiments, such as the Brigade of Guards & Parachute Regiment, but 
have generally met with little success or gained popular support 
amongst the rank and file Jawans. 

Like its British and commonwealth counterparts troops enlisted within 
the regiment are immensely loyal and take great pride in the regiment 
they are assigned too and generally spend their entire career within the 
regiment. 

Regiments in order of seniority within the Indian Army are: 

The Parachute Regiment 

Brigade of the Guards 

Maratha Light Infantry 

Mechanised Infantry Regiment 

Punjab Regiment 

Madras Regiment 

The Grenadiers 

Rajputana Rifles 

Rajput Regiment 

Jat Regiment 

Sikh Regiment 

Sikh Light Infantry 

Dogra Regiment 

Garhwal Rifles 

Kumaon Regiment 

Assam Regiment 

Bihar Regiment 

Mahar Regiment 

Jammu & Kashmir Rifles 

Jammu & Kashmir Light Infantry 

Naga Regiment 

I Gorkha Rifles (The Malaun Regiment) 

3 Gorkha Rifles 

4 Gorkha Rifles 

5 Gorkha Rifles (Frontier Force) 

8 Gorkha Rifles 

9 Gorkha Rifles 

I I Gorkha Rifles 
Ladakh Scouts 
Arunachal Scouts 
Sikkim Scouts [49] (Planned) 




Soldiers of the Garhwal Rifles. 




Soldiers of the Sikh Light Infantry 




Soldiers of the Madras Regiment. 



Indian Army 



18 



Mizo regiment (Planned) 

Meghalaya regiment (Planned) 

T521 
Manipur regiment (Planned) 



Artillery regiments 

The Regiment of Artillery constitutes a formidable operational arm of 
Indian Army. Historically it takes its lineage from Moghul Emperor 
Babur who is popularly credited with introduction of Artillery in India, 
in the Battle of Panipat in 1526. However evidence of earlier use of 
gun by Bahmani Kings in the Battle of Adoni in 1368 and King 
Mohammed Shah of Gujrat in fifteenth century have been recorded. 
Indian artillery units were disbanded after the 1857 rebellion and 
reformed only in 1935 when the Regiment was established. 




Artillery Insignia 



Armoured regiments 

There are 97 armoured regiments in the Indian Army. These include the following historic regiments dating back to 
the nineteenth century or earlier: 1st Skinner's Horse, the 2nd Lancers (Gardner's Horse), 3rd Cavalry, Hodson's 
Horse, 7th Light Cavalry, 8th Light Cavalry, 9th Royal Deccan Horse, Scinde Horse, Poona Horse, 15th Lancers, 
16th Light Cavalry, 18th Cavalry, 20th Lancers, and the Central India Horse. A substantial number of additional 
units designated as either "Cavalry" or "Armoured" Regiments have been raised since Independence. 



Indian army staff and equipment 
Strength 




The mounted President's Bodyguard during a 
state visit by a foreign dignitary. 



Indian Army 



19 



Indian Array statistics 



[3] 



Active Troops 1,129,900 

Reserve Troops 800,000* 



Indian Territorial Army 160,000** 



* includes 300,000 1st line troops and 500,000 2nd line troops 
** only 40,000 regular establishment 



Formations 

4 RAPIDs (Reorganised Army Plains Infantry Divisions) 
18 Infantry Divisions 
10 Mountain Divisions 
3 Armoured Divisions 
3 Artillery Divisions 

3 Air Defence Brigades and 2 Surface-to-Air Missile Groups 

5 Independent Armoured Brigades 
15 Independent Artillery Brigades 
7 Independent Infantry Brigades 
1 Airborne Brigade 

4 Engineer Brigades 
41 Army Aviation Helicopter Units 

Sub-units 

93 Tank Regiments (??) 

32 Mechanised Infantry Battalions 

50 Artillery Regiments 

3 Parachute Battalions 

7 Special Forces Battalions 

23 Combat Helicopter Units 

50 Air Defence Regiments 




Soldiers from the 4th Rajput Infantry Battalion of 

the Indian Army handling INSAS rifles during a 

training mission. 



Indian Army 



20 



Rank structure 

The various rank of the Indian Army are listed below in descending 
order: 

Commissioned Officers 

Field Marshal 

General (the rank held by Chief of Army Staff) 

Lieutenant-General 

Major-General 

Brigadier 

Colonel 

Lieutenant-Colonel 

Major 

Captain 

Lieutenant 

Junior Commissioned Officers (JCOs) (Active and honorary) 

3 

Subedar Major/Honorary Captain^ 

3 
Subedar/Honorary Lieutenant 

Subedar Major/Risaldar Major 

Subedar/Risaldar 

Naib Subedar/Naib Risaldar 




The 1st Battalion of 1 Gorkha Rifles of the Indian 

Army take position outside a simulated combat 

town during a training exercise. 




Non Commissioned Officers (NCOs) 

2 

• Regimental Havildar Major/Regimental Daffadar Major 

• Regimental Quartermaster HavildarRegimental Quartermaster 
Daffadar 

• Company Havildar Major/Squadron Daffadar Major 

• Company Quartermaster Havildar/Squadron Quartermaster 
Daffadar 

• Havildar/Daffadar 

Other Personnels 

• Naik/Lance Daffadar 

• Lance Naik/ Acting Lance Daffadar 

• Sepoy (infantry and other arms)/Sowar(Indian Army Armoured 
Corps) 

Notes: 

1 . Only two officers have been made Field Marshal so far: Field Marshal K M Cariappa — the first Indian Commander-in-Chief (a post since 
abolished) — and Field Marshal S H F J Manekshaw, the Chief of Army Staff during the Army in the 1971 war with Pakistan. 

2. This has now been discontinued. Non-Commissioned Officers in the rank of Havildar are elible for Honorary JCO ranks. 

3. Given to Outstanding JCO's Rank and pay of a Lieutenant, role continues to be of a JCO. 



Soldiers of the Indian Army's Assam Regiment 

stand guard near the India Gate war memorial in 

Delhi. 



Indian Army 



21 



Combat doctrine 

The current combat doctrine of the Indian Army is based on effectively utilizing holding formations and strike 
formations. In the case of an attack, the holding formations would contain the enemy and strike formations would 
counter-attack to neutralize enemy forces. In the case of an Indian attack, the holding formations would pin enemy 
forces down whilst the strike formations attack at a point of Indian choosing. The Indian Army is large enough to 
devote several corps to the strike role. Currently, the army is also looking at enhancing its special forces capabilities. 
With the role of India increasing and the requirement for protection of India's interest in far off shores become 
important, the Indian Army and Indian Navy are jointly planning to set up a marine brigade 



[53] 




Arjun MBT 



Equipment 

Most of the army equipment is imported, but efforts are being made to 
manufacture indigenous equipment. The Defence Research and 
Development Organisation has developed a range of weapons for the 
Indian Army ranging from small arms, artillery, radars and the Arjun 
tank. All Indian Military small-arms are manufactured under the 
umbrella administration of the Ordnance Factory Board, with principal 
Firearm manufacturing facilities in Ichhapore, Cossipore, Kanpur, 
Jabalpur and Tiruchirapalli. The Indian National Small Arms System 
(INSAS) rifle, which is successfully inducted by Indian Army since 
1997 is a product of the Ishapore Rifle Factory, while ammunition is 
manufactured at Khadki and possibly at Bolangir. 

Aircraft 

The Army Aviation Corps is the main body of the Indian Army for 
tactical air transport, reconnaissance, and medical evacuation, while 
Indian Air Force's helicopter assets are responsible for assisting the 
army troop transport and close air support. It operates around 150 
helicopters. 

The Indian army had projected a requirement for a helicopter that can 
carry loads of up to 75 kg heights of 23000 feet (unknown operator: 
u'strong' m) on the Siachen Glacier in Jammu and Kashmir. Flying at 
these heights poses unique challenges due to the rarefied atmosphere. 
The Indian Army chose the Eurocopter AS 550 for a $550 million 
contract for 197 light helicopters to replace its aging fleet of Chetaks 
and Cheetahs, some of which were inducted more than three decades 
ago. The deal has however been scrapped amidst allegations of 
corruption during the bidding process. 

Uniforms 

The Indian Army camouflage consists of shirts, trousers and cap of a synthetic material. Shirts are buttoned up with 
two chest pockets with buttoned up flaps. Trousers have two pockets, two thigh box pockets and a back pocket. The 
Indian Army Jungle camouflage dress features a jungle camouflage pattern and is designed for use in woodland 
environments. The Indian Army Desert camouflage, which features a desert camouflage pattern, is used by artillery 
and infantry posted in dusty, semi-desert and desert areas of Rajasthan and its vicinity. 











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Nag missile and NAMICA (Nag Missile Carrier). 




Indian Army 



22 



The forces of the East India Company in India were forced by casualties to dye their white summer tunics to neutral 
tones, initially a tan called khaki (from the Hindi-Urdu word for "dusty"). This was a temporary measure which 
became standard in Indian service in the 1880s. Only during the Second Boer War in 1902, did the entire British 
Army standardise on dun for Service Dress. Indian Army uniform standardizes on dun for khaki. 

The modern Indian Army wears distinctive parade uniforms characterised by variegated turbans and waist-sashes in 
regimental colours. The Gurkha and Garwhal Rifles and the Assam, Kumaon and the Naga Regiments wear broad 
brimmed hats of traditional style. Traditionally, all Rifle regiments and the Jammu and Kashmir Light Infantry 
(Jammu and Kashmir Rifles, Garhwal Rifles, Gurkha Rifles, and Rajputana Rifles) wear rank badges, buttons and 
blackened wire embroidered articles of uniform in black instead of the usual Brass (or gold) coloured as the original 
role of the rifle regiments was camouflage and concealment. 

Recipients of the Param Vir Chakra 

Listed below are the most notable people to have received the Param Vir Chakra, the highest military decoration of 
the Indian Army. 



Major Somnath Sharma 


4th Battalion, Kumaon Regiment 


3 November 
1947 


Battle of Badgam, Kashmir, India 


2 Lieutenant Rama Raghoba Rane 


Corps of Engineers 


8 April 1948 


Battle of Naushera, Kashmir, India 


Naik Jadu Nath Singh 


1st Battalion, Rajput Regiment 


February 1948 


Battle of Naushera, Kashmir, India 


Company Havildar Major Piru 


6th Battalion, Rajputana Rifles 


17/18 July 1948 


Tithwal, Kashmir, India 


Singh 








Lance Naik Karam Singh 


1st Battalion, Sikh Regiment 


13 October 
1948 


Tithwal, Kashmir, India 


Captain Gurbachan Singh Salaria 


3rd Battalion, 1st Gorkha Rifles (The 


5 December 


Elizabethville, Katanga, Congo 




Malaun Regiment) 


1961 




Major Dhan Singh Thapa 


1st Battalion, 8th Gorkha Rifles 


20 October 
1962 


Ladakh, India 


Subedar Joginder Singh 


1st Battalion, Sikh Regiment 


23 October 
1962 


Tongpen La, Northeast Frontier Agency, India 


Major Shaitan Singh 


13th Battalion, Kumaon Regiment 


18 November 
1962 


Rezang La 


Company Quarter Master Havildar 


4th Battalion, The Grenadiers 


10 September 


Chima, Khem Karan Sector 


Abdul Hamid 




1965 




Lt Col Ardeshir Burzorji Tarapore 


The Poona Horse 


15 October 
1965 


Phillora, Sialkot Sector, Pakistan 


Lance Naik Albert Ekka 


14th Battalion, Brigade of the Guards 


3 December 
1971 


Gangasagar 


2/Lieutenant Arun Khetarpal 


The Poona Horse 


16 December 
1971 


Jarpal, Shakargarh Sector 


Major Hoshiar Singh 


3rd Battalion, The Grenadiers 


17 December 
1971 


Basantar River, Shakargarh Sector 


Naib Subedar Bana Singh 


8th Battalion, Jammu and Kashmir 
Light Infantry 


23 June 1987 


Siachen Glacier, Jammu and Kashmir 


Major Ramaswamy Parmeshwaran 


8th Battalion, Mahar Regiment 


25 November 
1987 


Sri Lanka 


Captain Vikram Batra 


13th Battalion, Jammu and Kashmir 
Rifles 


6 July 1999 


Point 5140, Point 4875, Kargil Area 



Indian Army 



23 



Lieutenant Manoj Kumar Pandey 


1st Battalion, 1 1th Gorkha Rifles 


3 July 1999 


Khaluber/Juber Top, Batalik sector, Kargil area, 
Jammu and Kashmir 


Grenadier Yogendra Singh Yadav 


18th Battalion, The Grenadiers 


4 July 1999 


Tiger Hill, Kargil area 


Rifleman Sanjay Kumar 


13th Battalion, Jammu and Kashmir 
Rifles 


5 July 1999 


Area Flat Top, Kargil Area 



Future developments 

• Futuristic Infantry Soldier As a System (F-INSAS) is the Indian 
Army's principal modernization program from 2012 to 2020. In the 
first phase, to be completed by 2012, the infantry soldiers will be 
equipped with modular weapon systems that will have 
multi-functions. The Indian Army intends to modernize all of its 
465 infantry and paramilitary battalions by 2020 with this program. 

• India is currently re-organising its mechanised forces to achieve 
strategic mobility and high-volume firepower for rapid thrusts into 
enemy territory. India proposes to progressively induct as many as 
248 Arjun MBT and develop and induct the Arjun MKII variant, 
1,657 Russian-origin T-90S main-battle tanks (MBTs), apart from 
the ongoing upgrade of its T-72 fleet. The Army recently placed an 
order for 4,100 French-origin Milan-2T anti-tank guided missiles 
(ATGMs). Defence ministry sources said the Rs 592-crore 
(approximately US$120 million) order was cleared after the 2008 
Mumbai attacks, with the government finally fast-tracking several 




military procurement plans 



[56] 



• The Army gained the Cabinet Committee on Security's approval to raise two new infantry mountain divisions 

T571 
(with around 15,000 combat soldiers each), and an artillery brigade in 2008. These divisions were likely to be 

armed with ultralight howitzers. In July 2009, it was reported that the Army was advocating a new artillery 

r5Rl 

division, said defence ministry sources. The proposed artillery division, under the Kolkata-based Eastern 
Command, was to have three brigades — two of 155mm howitzers and one of the Russian "Smerch" and 
indigenous "Pinaka" multiple-launch rocket systems. 

• The Indian Army plans to develop and induct a 155mm indigenous artillery gun within the next three and a half 

[59] 
years. 

Tanks and armored vehicles 

T-90 bhishma - India plans to induct Total 1657 tanks by 2020. 807 already in service. 

Arjun MBT - 248 On order - 170 inducted. 

Arjun MBT mk 2 - Trials started 201 1. Production By 2014. 

FMBT - The FMBT will be a lighter tank of 50 tons. At conceptual stage. 

FICV - Future Infantry Combat Vehicle program of DRDO. It is supposed to replace Indian Army's current 

regiment of BMP-2 infantry combat vehicle. 

Missiles 

• Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles 

• Agni-V - 5,000 km-6,000 km, test by 2012. 

• Agni-VI 

• Cruise Missiles 



Indian Army 24 

• Nirbhay Missile 

• Brahmos and Brahmos Mk 2 missiles 

• Tactical Ballistic Missiles 

• Prahaar (missile) - With a range of 150 km. 

• Shaurya (missile) - It has a range of between 750 to 1900 km. 

• Anti-Tank Guided Missiles 

• Nag Anti-tank guided missile 

• Helinag - Air launched variant of nag Anti-tank missile 

• CLGM (missile) -ICannon lauch Anti-tank guided missile 

• Indian Ballistic Missile Defense Program - The Indian Ballistic Missile Defense Program is an initiative to 
develop and deploy a multi-layered ballistic missile defense system to protect India from ballistic missile attacks. 

Vehicles 

• Mahindra Axe - Light utility vehicle to be purchased. 

• Kroton - Possible sale of 80 mine laying vehicles from Poland. 

• Light Tank - 300 tanks (200 tracked 100 wheeled) to be deployed on china border. 

• AHS Krab - Possible sale of 1 10 from Poland, deal along with kroton. 

• PZA Loara - Possible sale of 100 from Poland, deal along with Kroton. 

Artillery 

• Under the Field Artillery Rationalization Plan, Indian Army plans to procure 3000 to 4000 

155 mm Towed, Wheeled and Tracked Artillery Systems. The requirement for artillery guns to be met with 
indigenous development and production. 

• Modern Sub Machine Carbine - The Modern Sub Machine Carbine (MSMC) is the latest combined venture of 
ARDE & OFB, developed for the Indian Army on a platform of experiences from the INSAS rifle. 

Army Aviation 

• Procurement process for 197 light utility helicopters (LUH) is ongoing of which 64 will be inducted in the Army 
Aviation to replace the Cheetak and Cheetah Helicopters. 

• HAL Light Observation Helicopter (LOH) or Light Utility helicopter (LUH) - Requirement for 384 helicopters 
including for army and air force. 

• HAL has obtained a firm order to deliver 1 14 HAL Light Combat Helicopters to the Indian Army. 

• Rustom-1 UAV [62] 

References 

[1] http://indianarmy.nic.in/ 

[2] "General V K Singh takes over as new Indian Army chief" (http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/ 

General- V-K-Singh-takes-over-as-new-Indian-Army-chief-/articleshow/5746561. cms). The Times of India. 31 March 2010. . Retrieved 31 

March 2010. 
[3] IISS 2010, pp. 360 
[4] Page, Jeremy. "Comic starts adventure to find war heroes" (http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/asia/article3338199.ece). The 

Times (9 February 2008). 
[5] Headquarters Army Training Command. "Indian Army Doctrine". October 2004. Archive link (http://web.archive.org/web/ 

20071201062843/http://indianarmy.nic.in/indianarmydoctrine_l.doc) via archive.org (original url: 

http://indianarmy.nic.in/indianarmydoctrine_l.doc). 
[6] "About The Ministry" (http://mod.nic.in/aboutus/welcome.html). Ministry of Defence, Government of India. . Retrieved 31 March 2011. 
[7] Harold E. Raugh, The Victorians at war, 1815-1914: an encyclopedia of British military history (2004) pp 173-79 
[8] Urlanis, Boris (1971). Wars and Population. Moscow, p. 85. 
[9] Khanduri, Chandra B. (2006). Thimayya: an amazing life (http://books.google.co. in/books ?id=ZWXfAAAAMAAJ). New Delhi: 

Knowledge World, p. 394. ISBN 978-81-87966-36-4. . Retrieved 30 July 2010. 



Indian Army 25 

[10] Kaushik Roy, "Expansion And Deployment of the Indian Army during World War II: 1939-45, "Journal of the Society for Army Historical 

Research, Autumn 2010, Vol. 88 Issue 355, pp 248-268 
[11] Peter Stanley, "Great in adversity": Indian prisoners of war in New Guinea," Journal of the Australian War Memorial (October 2002) #37 

online (https://www.awm.gov.au/journal/j37/indians.asp) 
[12] Peter W. Fay, The Forgotten Army, India's Armed Struggle for Independence 1942-1945 (1996) 
[13] http://www.freeindianlegion.info/pag_infanterie-regement-950.php 
[14] For the Punjab Boundary Force, see Daniel P. Marston, 'The Indian Army, Partition, and the Punjab Boundary Force, 1945-47,' War In 

History November 2009, vol. 16 no. 4 469-505 
[15] Indo-Pakistani War, 1947-1949 (http://www.acig.org/artman/publish/article_321.shtml). ACIG. 29 October 2003. . 
[16] http://www.kashmiri-cc.ca/un/index.htm 
[17] Bruce Bueno de Mesquita & David Lalman. War and Reason: Domestic and International Imperatives. Yale University Press (1994), p. 201 

(http://books. google. com/books?id=jhVyb7m_m8MC&pg=PA200&dq=india+china+war+maxwell&lr=&as_brr=3& 

ei=u2WJSb3POIH41QTkve2RAg&client=firefox-a#PPA201,Ml). ISBN 978-0-300-05922-9. 
[18] Alastair I. Johnston & Robert S. Ross. New Directions in the Study of China's Foreign Policy. Stanford University Press (2006), p. 99 (http:/ 

/books. google. com/books?id=DCihrQEdPzAC&pg=PA86&dq=india+china+war+maxwell&lr=&as_brr=3& 

ei=u2WJSb3POIH41QTkve2RAg&client=firefox-a#PPA99,Ml). ISBN 978-0-8047-5363-0. 
[19] Claude Arpi. India and her neighbourhood: a French observer's views. Har-Anand Publications (2005), p. 186 (http://books.google.com/ 

books?id=RtLS3TPoan4C&pg=PA186). ISBN 978-81-241-1097-3. 
[20] CenturyChina, www. centurychina.com/plaboard/uploads/1962war.htm 
[21] R.D. Pradhan & Yashwantrao Balwantrao Chavan (2007). 1965 War, the Inside Story: Defence Minister Y.B. Chavan's Diary of 

India-Pakistan War. (http://books. google. com/books?id=ymYCJQjEGBUC&pg=PA47). Atlantic Publishers & Distributors, pp. 47. 

ISBN 978-81-269-0762-5. . 
[22] Sumit Ganguly. "Pakistan". In India: A Country Study (http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/intoc.html) (James Heitzman and Robert L. 

Worden, editors). Library of Congress Federal Research Division (September 1995). 
[23] "Indo-Pakistan Wars" (http://uk.encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_781531 179/indo-pakistan_wars. html). Microsoft Encarta 2008. 

Archived (http://www.webcitation.org/5kwrG0An8) 2009-10-31. 
[24] Thomas M. Leonard. Encyclopedia of the developing world, Volume 2. Taylor & Francis, 2006. ISBN 0-415-97663-4, 9780415976633. 
[25] Spencer Tucker. Tanks: An Illustrated History of Their Impact. ABC-CLIO (2004), p. 172 (http://books.google.com/ 

books?id=N481TmqiSiUC&pg=PA172). ISBN 978-1-57607-995-9. 
[26] Sumit Ganguly. Conflict unending: India-Pakistan tensions since 1947. Columbia University Press (2002), p. 45 (http://books. google. 

com/books?id=xn_QVYLy6ocC&pg=PA45). ISBN 978-0-231-12369-3. 
[27] Owen Bennett Jones. Pakistan: Eye of the Storm. Yale University Press (2003), p. 177 (http://books.google.com/ 

books?id=ONZpltd6UZ8C&pg=RAl-PA177). ISBN 978-0-300-10147-8. 
[28] Eric H. Arnett. Military capacity and the risk of war: China, India, Pakistan, and Iran. Oxford University Press (1997), p. 134 (http:// 

books.google.com/books ?id=eOgj3HHDnJkC&pg=PA134). ISBN 978-0-19-829281-4. 
[29] S. Paul Kapur. Dangerous deterrent: nuclear weapons proliferation and conflict in South Asia. Stanford University Press (2007), p. 17 

(http://books.google.com/books?id=6Qbovlt-eZ4C&pg=PA17). ISBN 978-0-8047-5550-4. 
[30] Encyclopedia of the Developing World, p. 806 (http://books.google.com/books?id=3mE04D9PMpAC&pg=PA806). 
[31] Indian general praises Pakistani valour at Kargil (http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=story_5-5-2003_pg7_14) 5 May 2003 

Daily Times, Pakistan 
[32] Kashmir in the Shadow of War By Robert Wirsing Published by M.E. Sharpe, 2003 ISBN 0-7656-1090-6 pp36 
[33] Managing Armed Conflicts in the 21st Century By Adekeye Adebajo, Chandra Lekha Sriram Published by Routledge ppl92,193 
[34] The State at War in South Asia By Pradeep Barua Published by U of Nebraska Press Page 261 
[35] Bitter Chill of Winter (http://www.lrb.co.uk/v23/n08/ali_01_.html) - Tariq Ali, London Review of Books 
[36] Colonel Ravi Nanda (1999). Kargil : A Wake Up Call. Vedams Books. ISBN 81-7095-074-0. Online summary of the Book (https://www. 

vedamsbooks.com/nol4953.htm) 
[37] Alastair Lawson. "Pakistan and the Kashmir militants" (http://news.bbc.co.Uk/l/hi/world/south_asia/386537.stm). BBC News (5 July 

1999). 
[38] A.K. Chakraborty. "Kargil War brings into sharp focus India's commitment to peace" (http://pib.nic.in/feature/feyr2000/fjul2000/ 

f210720001.html). Government of India Press Information Bureau (July 2000). 
[39] Michael Edward Brown. Offense, defence, and war. MIT Press (2004), p. 393 (http://books. google. com/books?id=e7bx2eNsc7wC& 

pg=PA393). 
[40] "Past peacekeeping operations" (http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/dpko/pastops.shtml). United Nations Peacekeeping. . Retrieved 31 

March 2011. 
[41] John Pike. "Brass Tacks" (http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/brass-tacks.htm). Globalsecurity.org. . Retrieved 31 

March 2011. 
[42] John Cherian (8 June 2001). "An exercise in anticipation" (http://www.hinduonnet.com/fline/fll811/18110990.htm). Hinduonnet.com. . 

Retrieved 31 March 201 1. 
[43] Indian Army tests network centric warfare capability in Ashwamedha war games (http://www.india-defence.com/reports/31 15) 



Indian Army 26 

[44] 'Ashwamedha' reinforces importance of foot soldiers (http://www.dailyindia.com/show/138168.php/ 

Ashwamedha-reinforces-importance-of- foot-soldiers) 
[45] (http://www.defence.pk/forums/indian-defence/165331-indo-us-army-exercise-yudh-abhyas.html) 
[46] (http://www.facenfacts.com/NewsDetails/24655/indian-army-gears-up-for-war-game-in-rajasthan-desert.htm) 
[47] (http://ibnlive.in.com/generalnewsfeed/news/western-army-command-conducts-summer-training-exercises/997533.html) 
[48] John Pike. "Indian Army Divisions" (http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/divisions.htm). Globalsecurity.org. . 

Retrieved 31 March 201 1. 
[49] Army plans to raise Arunachal and Sikkim Scouts for China border (http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/ 

Army-plans-to-raise-Arunachal-and-Sikkim-Scouts-for-China-border/articleshow/5941569.cms) 
[50] http://www.e-pao.net/GP.asp?src=15.. 15101 l.octll 
[51] http://megassembly.gov.in/bulletin/2005/19-04-2005.htm 
[52] http://books.google.com/books?id=b3TwS0WRn5kC&pg=PA409&lpg=PA409&dq=manipur+regiment&source=bl& 

ots=l_fURCdnMG&sig=bduaVYIINMgq6nXsRx5692cCiVM&hl=en&ei=XLm9TsraOs3usgb23vmYAw&sa=X&oi=book_result& 

ct=result&resnum=5&sqi=2&ved=0CDQQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=manipur%20regiment&f=false 
[53] Army and navy plan to set up a marine brigade (http://indiatoday.intoday.in/site/Story/100770/India/ 

army-and-navy-plan-to-set-up-a-marine-brigade.html) 
[54] Eurocopter wins big Indian Army deal (http://www.kalingatimes.com/orissa_business/news/20070408_Eurocopter_wins_deal.htm) 
[55] http://www.khaleejtimes. com/Display ArticleNew.asp?xfile=data/subcontinent/2007/December/subcontinent_December215.xml& 

section=subcontinent&col= 
[56] "Indian Army to Purchase 4100 Milan 2T Anti Tank Guided Missiles in USD 120 million Deal" (http://www.india-defence.com/ 

reports-4183). India Defence, 26 January 2009. Accessed 4 January 2010. 
[57] Pandit, Rajat. "Army to raise 2 mountain units to counter Pak, China" (http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/ 

Two_mountain_units_to_counter_Pak_China/articleshow/2762650.cms). The Times of India, 1 February 2008. Accessed 4 January 2010. 
[58] Rajat Pandit, Eye on China, is India adding muscle on East? (http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/India/ 

Eye-on-China-more-muscle-for-East/articleshow/4725693.cms) 2 2009 July 0325hrs 
[59] 155-mm gun contract: DRDO enters the fray (http://www.business-standard.com/india/news/155-mm-gun-contract-drdo-entersfray/ 

402834/) 
[60] Prahaar Missile to be test-fired on Sunday (http://ibnlive.in.com/news/prahaar-missile-to-be-testfired-on-sunday/167739-60-117.html) 
[61] Shenoy, Ramnath. "India to test fly light combat helicopters shortly" (http://www.ptinews.com/news/ 

422197_India-to-test-fly-light-combat-helicopters-shortly). Press Trust of India, 14 December 2009. Accessed 4 January 2010. 
[62] Rustom-1 will hit production (http://idrw.org/?p=3101) 

Bibliography 

• International Institute for Strategic Studies; Hackett, James (ed.) (3 February 2010). The Military Balance 2010. 
London: Routledge. ISBN 1-85743-557-5. 

External links 

• Official website of the Indian Army (http://indianarmy.nic.in/) 

• Indian Army (http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/LAND-FORCES/Army/) at Bharat Rakshak 

• Indian army guide (http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/army.htm) at Global Security 

• Indian Army news (http://frontierindia.net/category/indian-army-news/) 

• Join Indian Army (http://joinindianarmy.nic.in/) 

• NDA/CDS Exam Preparation Books (http://www.bukwit.com/exam-books/nda-cds-exam/)- Bukwit.com 



27 



Regiments of the Indian Army 

List of regiments of the Indian Army 

Regiments of the Indian Army: 



Indian Army Regiments 



Indian Armed Forces 



order of precedence: 

• Brigade of the Guards 

• Gorkha Rifles 

• Bihar Regiment 

• Parachute Regiment 




Triservices Crest. 



Military Man Power 



Active troops 



Reserve forces 
Paramilitary forces 



1,325,000(3 ) 



1,155,000 (7 th ) 



1,293,300(4 ) 



Indian Army 
Indian Air Force 



Indian Navy 
Indian Coast Guard 




Paramilitary forces of India 
Strategic Nuclear Command 

Military history of India 



\M 



Air Force ranks and insignia 



= 



Army ranks and insignia 
Naval ranks and insignia 



List of regiments of the Indian Army 28 

Punjab Regiment 

Madras Regiment 

Grenadiers Regiment 

Maratha Light Infantry Regiment 

Rajputana Rifles 

Rajput Regiment 

Jat Regiment 

Sikh Regiment 

Sikh Light Infantry 

Dogra Regiment 

Garhwal Rifles 

Kumaon Regiment 

Jammu & Kashmir Rifles 

Jammu and Kashmir Light Infantry 

Assam Regiment 

Mahar Regiment 

Mechanised Infantry Regiment 

Naga Regiment 

Ladakh Scouts 

Assam Rifles 

Armoured Regiments (62) 

President's Bodyguard 

1 Horse or Skinner's Horse 

2 Lancers 
3rd Cavalry 

4 Horse or 'Hodson's Horse' 

5 Armoured Regiment 

6 Lancers 

7 Cavalry 

8 Cavalry 

9 Horse or 'The Deccan Horse' 

10 Armoured Regiment 

1 1 Armoured Regiment 

12 Armoured Regiment 

1 3 Armoured Regiment 

14 Horse or 'The Scinde Horse' 

15 Armoured Regiment 

16 Cavalry 

17 Horse (The Poona Horse) 

18 Cavalry 

19 Armoured Regiment 

20 Lancers 
Central India Horse (in 21st position) 

40 Armoured Regiment 

41 Armoured Regiment (India) 

42 Armoured Regiment 



List of regiments of the Indian Army 



29 



43 Armoured Regiment- The only regiment in the Armoured Corps to hold the MBT Arjun as part of its standard 
weapons platform. 

44 Armoured Regiment 

45 Cavalry 

46 Armoured Regiment 

47 Armoured Regiment 

48 Armoured Regiment 

49 Armoured Regiment 

50 Armoured Regiment 

5 1 Armoured Regiment 

52 Armoured Regiment 

53 Armoured Regiment 

61 Cavalry 

62 Cavalry 

63 Cavalry 

64 Cavalry 

65 Armoured Regiment 

66 Armoured Regiment 

67 Armoured Regiment 

68 Armoured Regiment 

69 Armoured Regiment 

70 Armoured Regiment 

7 1 Armoured Regiment 

72 Armoured Regiment 

73 Armoured Regiment 

74 Armoured Regiment 

75 Armoured Regiment - the only Indian armoured regiment to have been raised on foreign soil during the 1971 
Indo-Pak war at Gadra Road (now in Pakistan)on 12 March 1972. 

76 Armoured Regiment 

8 1 Armoured Regiment 

82 Armoured Regiment 

83 Armoured Regiment 

84 Armoured Regiment 

85 Armoured Regiment 

86 Armoured Regiment 

87 Armoured Regiment 

88 Armoured Regiment 

89 Armoured Regiment 

90 Armoured Regiment 



List of regiments of the Indian Army 30 

Units of the Regiment of Artillery 

A few of the units of artillery are listed below: 

9 Parachute Field Regiment 
1 1 Field Regiment 

15 Medium Regiment 

16 Field Regiment 

37 (Coorg) Anti-Tank Regiment RIA 

38 Medium Regiment 
40 Field Regiment (Asal Uttar) 

61 Medium Regiment (has served periods with 17th Mountain Division) 
63 Field Regiment 

70 Regiment (medium or field)(SAVIOURS) 
76 Field Regiment 
80 Field Regiment 
92 Medium Regiment 
99 Field Regiment (Sylhet) 
163 Medium Regiment 

168 Field Regiment 

169 Field Regiment (Longewala) 
175 Regiment (Field or Medium) 
195 Field Regiment (Banwat) 
200 Medium Regiment 
216 Medium Regiment 
223 Field Regiment 
228 Medium Regiment 
255 Field Regiment 
286 Medium Regiment 
299 Field Regiment 
307 Medium Regiment 
311 Field Regiment 
315 Field Regiment 
821 Light Regiment Bombers 
3342 msl regt 
110 Medium Regiment 
[279 SATA Bty] 
9 1 Field Regiment 
122 SATA Regiment 

125 SATA Regiment (Sawa Lakh) India's First Regiment to be equipped with the Heron UAVs 
161 field regiment 



List of regiments of the Indian Army 3 1 

Engineer Groups 

These were formed from the Sapper and Miner Groups of each of the erstwhile presidencies of British India. They 
are listed below in order of precedence: 

• Madras Sappers 

• Bengal Sappers 

• Bombay Sappers 

References 

[1] http://www.tribuneindia.eom/2000/20000126/nation.htm#2 



32 



Indian Army Regiments 



Arunachal Scouts 



Arunachal Scouts 



Active 



Country 
Branch 



Type 
Size 



2009 - Present 



India 



Army 



Infantry 
4 Battalions 



Arunachal Scouts is an infantry regiment of the Indian Army. It was raised to defend India's border with Tibet in 
Arunachal Pradesh. It specializes in mountain warfare. 



History 

The proposal to raise the Arunachal Scouts along the lines of the illustrious Ladakh Scouts for defending the border 
with China was proposed by former Indian Army chief and Governor of Arunachal Pradesh, General J. J. Singh, in 
2008. The proposal was approved by the Union Cabinet in 2009 



[l] 



The first battalion was raised in 2010 



[2] 



References 

[1] Army open to 'Arunachal Scouts' plan I StratPost (http://www.stratpost.com/army-open-to-arunachal-scouts-plan) 
[2] Eye on China, Army focuses on mountain warfare - The Times of India (http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/ 
Eye-on-China- Army-focuses-on-mountain-warfare-/articleshow/72887 17. cms) 



Brigade of the Guards 



33 



Brigade of the Guards 



Brigade of the Guards 



Regimental Insignia of the Brigade of the Guards 



Active 



1949 - Present 



Country 
Allegiance 



^_ India 
Indian Army 



Branch 
Type 



Army 
Foot Guards 



Role 
Size 



Mechanized Infantry 
19 Battalions 



Regimental 
Centre 

Motto 



Kamptee, Maharashtra. 



Pahla Hamesha Pahla (First Always First) 



War Cry Garud Ka Hun Bol Pyare (I am from the Guards, Say O my friend) 

Theatre Jammu & Kashmir - 1947-48, Rajasthan - 1965, Punjab - 1965, East Pakistan - 1971 and lammu & Kashmir ■ 

Honours 1971 



Decorations 2 Param Vir Chakras, 2 Ashoka Chakras, 1 Padma Bhushan, 8 Param Vishisht Seva Medals, 6 Maha Vir 

Chakras, 4 Kirti Chakras, 46 Vir Chakras, 18 Shaurya Chakras, 77 Sena Medals, 10 Ati Vishisht Seva Medals, 3 
Yudh Seva Medals, 16 Vishisht Seva Medals, 45 Mention-in-Despatches, 151 COAS's Commendation Cards 
and 79 GOC-in-C's Commendation Cards 

Battle honours Akhaura, Burki, Gadra Road, Hilli, Naushera, Gurais, Shingo River Valley, Sylhet and Ganga Sagar 



Insignia 



Regimental 
Insignia 



Garuda - A mythological eagle king. 



Hackle 



Red over Yellow 



Brigade of The Guards is a regiment of the Indian Army. It is the first "All India" mixed "All Class" Composition 
Infantry Regiment of the Army where troops from all parts of India serve together in various battalions of the 
Regiment. The Guards Brigade was raised to implement the Government's policy of encouraging Army recruitment 
from classes and regions which had been under-represented in the forces. In the new regiment, called The Guards 
Brigade, the old system of class composition was replaced with recruitment open to all regions, castes, creeds, and 
sections of society. Three of the Army's oldest and most distinguished battalions — 2nd Battalion of the 2nd Punjab 
Regiment, 1st Battalion of the Indian Grenadiers Regiment and 1st Battalion of the 6th Rajputana Rifles were 
converted as Guards battalions in 1949. Later, they were joined by the 1st Battalion of the 7th Rajput Regiment. It is 
the only regiment of Foot Guards in the Indian Army. Though the Brigade of The Guards is only 50 years old, its 
constituent battalions go back as far as 225 years and between them share 93 Battle Honours earned around the 
globe. The President of India is the Honorary Colonel-in-Chief and the Chief of Army Staff is the 
Colonel-in-Chief of The Guards. The Guards Regimental Centre is at Kamptee in Maharashtra. 



Brigade of the Guards 34 

History and Raising 

Prior to the raising of the Guards, Indian Army infantry regiments derived their name from region, religion or sub 
caste. Also there was a message with its formation that country comes ahead of everything else including religion 
and caste. The Regiment was formed in 1949 as the first mixed class Indian regiment by Field Marshal KM Cariappa 
OBE to be raised after independence of India. The first battalions of the Brigade of Guards were formed by taking 
the oldest battalions of some of the infantry regiments of the Indian Army. At the moment Brigade of the Guards 
consists of 19 battalions, the youngest being the 19th battalion. In the eighties, the Indian Army began to increase the 
number of mechanized infantry battalions on its order of battle. As part of this program, the battalions of the Brigade 
of Guards were eventually mechanized infantry. 

Operations 

1971 Liberation War 

In the 1971 war, the Brigade of the Guards participated in actions on both the Eastern and the Western fronts. The 
14th Guards earned their first PVC ( Param Veer Chakra) through L/Nk Albert Ekka of Bravo Company, for heroism 
in the Gangasagar theatre: he single-handedly turned the tide against Pakistani defenders, who were firing from 
LMG and MMG from the top of a building, putting the entire attacking party in risk. 

UN Operations and Counter-Insurgency Operations 

The Brigade of the Guards has also taken part in UN peace keeping operations in Gaza and Angola. The regiment 
has also been used in counter-insurgency operations in India. 

Current Strength 

The regiment currently consists of a total of 19 battalions. The majority of these operate as mechanised infantry, 
with four operating in the reconnaissance and support role, in support of the border force. Of these, one is equipped 
as an anti-tank missile battalion and three proudly remain as infantry. Today, the regiment is one of three in the 
Indian Army that is made up of men from the different castes and regions of India. The regiment also has two 
Territorial Army battalions attached to it. 

1st Battalion (Mechanized)(former 2 Punjab) 

2nd Battalion (Mechanized)(former 1 Grenadiers) 

3rd Battalion (Mechanized)(former 104th Wellesley's Rifles) 

4th Battalion (Mechanized)(former 1 Rajput) 

5th Battalion (Mechanized) 

6th Battalion (Mechanized) 

7th Battalion (Mechanized) 

8th Battalion (Mechanized) 

9th Battalion (Mechanized) 

10th Battalion (Mechanized) 

1 lth Battalion (Mechanized) 

12th Battalion (Mechanized)(Recce & Sup - Tracked) 

13th Battalion 

14th Battalion (Mechanised) 

15th Battalion (Recce & Sup) 

16th Battalion (Recce & Sup) 

17th Battalion (ATGM) 



Brigade of the Guards 35 

• 18th Battalion (Mechanised) 

• 19th Battalion (Recce & Sup) 

• 1 17th Battalion (Territorial Army) 

• 125th Battalion (Territorial Army) 

Gallantry Awards 

2 Param Vir Chakras, 2 Ashoka Chakras, 1 Padma Bhushan, 8 Param Vishisht Seva Medals, 6 Maha Vir Chakras, 4 
Kirti Chakras, 46 Vir Chakras, 18 Shaurya Chakras, 77 Sena Medals, 10 Ati Vishisht Seva Medals, 3 Yudh Seva 
Medals, 16 Vishisht Seva Medals, 45 Mention-in-Despatches, 151 COAS's Commendation Cards and 79 
GOC-in-C's Commendation Cards 

Battle honours 
Pre-Independence 

Delhi 1803; Egypt 1876-1917; British East Africa 1878; Afghanistan 1878-80; Kandahar 1880; Burma 1891 ; China 
1900; East Africa 1914-1916; Mesopotamia 1914- 1918, Egypt 1915, Gallipoli 1915, France and Flanders 1915, 
Kutal Amarah 1915; Palestine 1916-1918; Tigris 1916; Macedonia 1918; Afghanistan 1919; Donbaik 1943; Italy 
1943-1945; Burma 1945; J&.K 1947-1948; Selinghar; Carnatic; Mysore; Ava; Pegu; Suez Canal; Nels, Krithia; 
Laos; Aden; Point-551; Kanghaw; Naushera; Mangalore; Hyderabad; Gaza; Megiodo; Nablus; Curais; 
Seringapatnam; Beurabone; Punjab; Mooltan; Persia; Reshire; Khooshab; Central India; Basra; Shaiba; Ctesiphon; 

Defence of Kut-AI-Amarnath; Sidi Barrani; Keren; Cassino; Castele Hill; Leswarree; Deig; Bharatpore; Khelat; 

T31 
Mahrakpore; Chilianwallah; Goojerat and Punjab. 

Post-Independence 

T31 
Akhaura, Burki, Gadra Road, Hilli, Naushera, Gurais, Shingo Rivel Valley, Sylhet and Ganga Sagar. 

References 

[1] http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/rgt-guards.htm 

[2] Brigade of the Guards at Bharat Rakshak (http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/LAND-FORCES/Army/Regiments/Guards.html) 

[3] http://indianarmy.nic.in/infantry/inf_gds.html 

External links 

• BR Monitor Issue on the Brigade of the Guards (http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/MONITOR/ISSUE3-l/ 
jagan.html) 



Gurkha regiment 36 



Gurkha regiment 



Gurkha regiment may refer to: 

• Brigade of Gurkhas, Nepalese soldiers who serve Within the British Army 

• Gorkha regiments (India), various infantry regiments in the Indian Army, recruited primarily from Nepal 

• Gurkha 



Bihar Regiment 



37 



Bihar Regiment 



The Bihar Regiment 


Regimental Insignia of the Bihar Regiment 


Active 


1941 -Present 


Country 


India 


Branch 


Army 


Type 


Infantry 


Size 


19 Battalions 


Regimental 
Centre 


Danapur, Bihar 


Motto 


Karam Hi Dharam (Work is Worship) 


War Cry 


Jai Bajrangbali 


Mascot 


Sidhu-Kanhu 


Engagements 


Burma Campaign, World War II 
Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 
Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 
Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 
Kargil War 


Decorations 


3 Ashoka Chakras, 1 Maha Vir Chakra 


Battle honours 


Post Independence 

Haka , Gangaw and Batalik. Theatre honours=Akhaura 


Commanders 


Current 
commander 


Lieutenant General A.K. Bakhshi. 


Notable 
commanders 


Lieutenant General Sant Singh, Lt Gen K S Mann, Lt Gen ARK Reddy, Lt Gen S Lohchab, Lt Gen Balbir 
Singh, Brig SC Johar, Col Umesh Kumar Bojha. 


Insignia 


Regimental 
Insignia 


The Ashoka Lion 



The Bihar Regiment is an infantry regiment of the Indian Army. The regiment can trace its origins back to the 
British Indian Army. The Bihar Regiment was formed in 1941 by regularising the 11th (Territorial) Battalion, 19th 
Hyderabad Regiment, and raising new battalions. 



History 

The Bihar Regiment traces its origins to the sepoy battalions raised in 1757 by Lord Clive of the British East India 
Company at Patna. These were formed by the men from the Bhojpur region of Bihar. Their success in combat 
impressed Mir Kasim, who began raising units trained in western combat techniques. Bihari battalions raised by Mir 
Kasim defeated the British in some engagements. The Bihari, or poorbia/purviah soldier thereafter made up the 
backbone of the Bengal Infantry of the British Colonial Army. 

The Bihari was not only an excellent soldier, but he was also quick to learn and apply the tactical drills with 
initiative. He was disciplined when led by good officers, but capable of hostility when his beliefs and customs were 



Bihar Regiment 38 

disregarded. The Indian Rebellion of 1857 against the introduction of greased cartridges, was led by Bihari troops, 
who preferred being blown by the guns to losing their faith. Biharis thereafter were not encouraged to enter military 
service by the British until after the Great War (World War I). 

The Bihar Regiment was formed in 1941 during World War II by regularising the 11th (Territorial) Battalion, 19th 
Hyderabad Regiment as 1 Bihar. The 2nd Battalion was raised in 1942. 

The newly raised 1 Bihar saw action in the Burma Campaign, winning battle honours for gallant actions at Haka and 
Gangaw. 2 Bihar formed part of Operation Zipper for the reoccupation of British Malaya. 

Thereafter, both battalions participated in the undeclared war in the Kashmir Valley during 1948-49. 

During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, 7 Bihar captured Bedori, paving the way for the capture of Haji Pir Pass. 

By the start of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, the Regiment had expanded to 11 battalions. Sixth, Seventh, Eighth, 
Tenth and Eleventh Battalions participated in operations in the eastern sector. 10 Bihar was conferred the Theatre 
Honour East Pakistan" for the capture of Akhaura. On 15 December 1971, a seaborne expedition was launched at 
Cox's Bazar to prevent Pakistani troops from escaping into Burma. 11 Bihar formed part of this amphibious task 
force. In the Western theatre of the war, 3 Bihar captured Wanjal. 

In the Spring of 1999, Pakistani soldiers posing as Kashimiri militants crossed the L.O.C. in Kargil and entered 
Indian Territory. Operation Vijay was launched by Indian Army to flush out the intruders. More than 10,000 soldiers 
and officers of the Bihar Regiment were deployed to the war front. In a well planned operation in the Batalik Sector, 
soldiers of 1 Bihar, in a fierce fight with the Pakistan Army, captured Point 4268 and Jubar Ridge on night 06/7 July 
1999. 7 July 1999 is a red letter day in the history of the regiment, as the Jawans of the Bihar Regiment pushed back 
intruders from Jubar Hills and point 4268 in Kuker Thang area in Batalik sector. 

Units of the regiment have also served in UN Peacekeeping operations in Somalia (UNOSOM) and the Democratic 
Republic of Congo (MONUC). 

Composition and Recruitment 

About half of Bihar Regiment recruits are reported to consist of Adivasis. The word Adivasi' means 'original 
inhabitants' in Sanskrit, and therefore the term refers to the aboriginal people of India. 

Some 67.76 million or 8.08 per cent of the population of India have been designated as 'Scheduled Tribes' (STs) - 
generally referred to as Adivasis. The term 'STs' indicates those communities specified by the President of India 
under Article 342 of the Constitution of India. 'Geographical isolation, distinctive culture, primitivity [sic], shyness 
and economic backwardness [sic]' are some of the criteria considered. Adivasis in India share many of the 
characteristics of other indigenous peoples of the world. However, a vital distinction of the Adivasis of the Indian 
subcontinent is their opposition to the caste system. As punishment for Adivasi resistance to British rule, "The 
Criminal Tribes Act" was passed by the British Government in 1871 arbitrarily stigmatizing groups such as the 
Adivasis (who were perceived as most hostile to British interests) as congenital criminals. 



Bihar Regiment 39 

Engagements 

Deployments of units of the Bihar Regiment: 

Burma Campaign, World War II 
Operation Zipper, World War II 
Indo-Pakistan War of 1947 
Indo-Pakistan War of 1965 
Indo-Pakistan War of 1971 
UNOSOM 
Kargil War 
MONUC 

Units 

Regimental Battalions: 

1st Battalion 
2nd Battalion 
3rd Battalion 
4th Battalion 
5th Battalion 
6th Battalion 
7th Battalion 
8th Battalion 
9th Battalion 
10th Battalion 
11th Battalion 
12th Battalion 
14th Battalion 
15th Battalion 
16th Battalion 
17th Battalion 
18th Battalion 
19th Battalion 
20th Battalion 
21st Battalion 
4 RR Battalion 
24 RR Battalion 
47 RR Battalion 



Bihar Regiment 40 

Distinctions 
Battle Honours 

• Haka, Burma Campaign, World War II 

• Gangaw, Burma Campaign, World War II 

• Akhaura, East Pakistan, Indo-Pakistan War of 1971 

• Jubar Ridge, Kargil War 

Gallantry Awards 

Vir Chakra 

• Major Mariappan Saravanan (Posthumous), 1 Bihar, Kargil War 

*Capt K K Panicker,10 Bihar 

Ashoka Chakra 

mi 

• Lieutenant Colonel Harsh Uday Singh Gaur, 10 Bihar, Baramulla district, 1994 

• Lieutenant Colonel Shanti Swamp Rana (Posthumous), 3 Bihar, Kupwara district, 1997 

• Major Sandeep Unnikrishnan (Posthumous), 7 Bihar (on deputation to NSG), Operation Black Tornado 

References 

[1] http://indianarmy.nic.in/Site/FormTemplete/frmTemplP2C_l. aspx?MnId=jT2Y4PlXXeo=&ParentID=VE+Qz4Hs3Yo= 
[2] http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/rgt-bihar.htm 
[3] http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/rgt-bihar.htm 

[4] http://indianarmy.nic.in/Site/FormTemplete/frmTemplP2C. aspx?MnId=hbdlQR6d+ls=&ParentID=cLrJBFZSBSk= 
[5] "Lt Col Shanti Swamp Rana" (http://www.indianmartyr.com/201 1/1 1/lt-col-shanti-swarup-rana.html). Indian Martyr. . Retrieved 
2011-12-29. 



Parachute Regiment 4 1 



Parachute Regiment 



Parachute Regiment may refer to: 

Parachute Regiment (United Kingdom) 

Parachute Regiment (India) 

Paratroopers Brigade (IDF), Israel 

44 Parachute Regiment (South Africa) 

1st Airborne Brigade (Japan) 

Brigada de Fusileros Paracaidistas of the Mexican Air Force 

501st Infantry Regiment (United States) 

504th Infantry Regiment (United States) 

509th Infantry Regiment (United States) 

517th Parachute Regimental Combat Team (United States) 

1st Parachute Division (Germany) and 2nd Parachute Division (Germany) or the Fallschirmjager (Nazi Germany) 

parachute units 



Punjab Regiment 



Punjab Regiment may refer to the following existing units: 

• Punjab Regiment (India) 

• Punjab Regiment (Pakistan) 

From 1922 to 1947, the British Indian Army included 6 numbered Punjab Regiments: 

1st Punjab Regiment 
2nd Punjab Regiment 
8th Punjab Regiment 
14th Punjab Regiment 
15th Punjab Regiment 
16th Punjab Regiment 

From 1903 to 1922, the British Indian Army included 28 numbered Punjabi Regiments: 

19th Punjabis 

20th Duke of Cambridge's Own Punjabis - (20th Duke of Cambridge's Own Infantry (Brownlow's Punjabis) in 

1904) 

21st Punjabis 

22nd Punjabis 

24th Punjabis 

25th Punjabis 

26th Punjabis 

27th Punjabis 

28th Punjabis 

29th Punjabis 

30th Punjabis 

31st Punjabis 

33rd Punjabis 

46th Punjabis 

62nd Punjabis 



Punjab Regiment 42 

66th Punjabis 

67th Punjabis 

69th Punjabis 

72nd Punjabis 

74th Punjabis 

76th Punjabis 

82nd Punjabis 

84th Punjabis 

87th Punjabis 

89th Punjabis 

90th Punjabis 

91st Punjabis (Light Infantry) 

92nd Punjabis 



The Madias Regiment 



43 



The Madras Regiment 



The Madras Regiment 



Active 



Regimental Insignia of the Madras Regiment 



1758 -Present 



Country 
Branch 



^^ India 
Indian Army 



Type 
Size 



Line Infantry 
19 Battalions 



Regimental 
Centre 

Motto 



Wellington, Tamil Nadu 



Swadharme Nidhanam Shreyaha (It is a glory to die doing one 's duty) 



War Cry Veera Madrassi, Adi Kollu , Adi Kollu(Brave Madrassi, Hit and Kill, Hit and Kill!) 

Decorations 1 Ashoka Chakra, 5 Maha Vir Chakras, 36 Vir Chakras, 304 Sena Medals, 1 Nao Sena Medal, 15 Param Vishisht 

Seva Medals, 9 Kirti Chakras, 27 Shaurya Chakras, 1 Uttam Yudh Seva Medal, 2 Yudh Seva Medals, 23 Ati 
Vishisht Seva Medals, 47 Vishisht Seva Medals, 151 Mention-in-Despatches, 512 COAS's Commendation 
Cards, 27 1 GOC-in-C's Commendation Cards, 3 Jeevan Rakshak Padak and 7 CO AS Unit Citations, 7 GOC Unit 
Citation 



Battle honours Post Independence Tithwal, Punch, Kalidhar, Maharajke, Siramani and Basantar River. 

Insignia 



Regimental 
Insignia 



An Assaye Elephant posed upon a shield with two crossed swords 



The Madras Regiment is the oldest regiment in the Indian army formed in the 1750s. The regiment has been 
through many campaigns with both the British Indian Army and the Indian Army. 



The Madras Regiment 



44 



History 




The Madras Regiment was initially formed as the Madras European 
Regiment in the 1660s by the East India Company as the second 
company established in India. However, it was formed as a battalion in 
1748 under the command of Major Stringer Lawrence. The battalion 
was involved in all the battles against the French forces in India. 
Lawrence structured the regiment to include two battalions, one 
European and one Sepoy (Indian). Both battalions were similar in 
structure and included seven companies each, with each company 
including three officers in command and seventy privates. Also part of 
the companies were four sergeants and corporals and three 



drummers 



[3] 



The oldest Battalion in the Madras Regiment (and the Indian Army) 
was the 9th Battalion, formerly known as the Nair Brigade (Nayar 
Pattalam-"Nair Army"). This militia was raised in 1704 at 
Padmanabhapuram as body guards for the Maharajah of Travancore, 
and were active in the Battle of Colachel in defeating the Dutch forces. 
The army was made up of soldiers from Nair warrior clans, however 
after the 1940s, non-Nairs were permitted to join. The "Nayar Army" became incorporated into the Indian Army on 



Seapoys of the Bombay, Bengal, and Madras 
Armies 



April 1951 



[4] 



In 1748 Major Stringer Lawrence, a veteran of action in Spain, Flanders and the Highlands, was hired by the East 
India Company to take charge of the defense of Cuddalore. He laid the foundations of what was to become the 
Indian Army. Training the levies to become a militia, the Madras Levies were formed into "companies" and trained 
to become a disciplined and fine fighting force. In 1758 Lawrence raised the Madras Regiment, forming the several 
Companies of Madras Levies into two battalions. 2 Madras was raised in 1776 as 15 Carnatic Infantry at Thanjavur 
[and underwent many nomenclature changes thereafter]. The regiment has been through many campaigns with both 
the British Indian Army and the Indian Army. Many well-known British officers have commanded this regiment, 
Robert Clive is one among them. This regiment has fought the Carnatic wars, which were fought in South India. The 
elephant crest symbolizes its gallantry in the Battle of Assaye under Arthur Wellesley, later Duke of Wellington. 

There after the British annexed the Indian sub-continent, largely with the help of the Madras Regiment sepoys. The 
coming of the British rule and merging the Presidency armies into a British Indian Army led the erstwhile regiments 
to be reorganised. After conquest of India,main threat to British was from Russia . So recruitment was re-oriented 
towards north Indians of Punjab and Nepal. This resulted in the British reducing the strength of the madras regiment 
since the southern borders were relatively peaceful. 

After many years, this regiment was re-raised with fresh recruits and a draft of troops from the Madras Sappers 
during the World War II. The newly reborn Madras Regiment performed very creditably during the War in the 
Burma campaign. 



The Madias Regiment 



45 



Post Independence 



After independence, the infantry battalions of the Travancore "Nair 

Pattalam", Cochin and Mysore State forces were amalgamated into the 

Madras Regiment. Post-independence saw the consolidation of the 

Regiment and re-affirmation of the versatility and valour of the South 

Indian troops when the battalions of the Regiment fought fierce battles 

during the 1947—48 Jammu & Kashmir Operations, the 1962 

Sino-Indian Conflict and the Indo-Pak Wars of 1965 and 1971. The 

deployment of as many as seven battalions of the Regiment in Sri 

Lanka during Operation Pawan in 1987—89 was a testimony to the faith 

the Indian Army reposed in the loyalty, dedication and valour of the 

troops of the Madras Regiment. Two battalions (3 and 25 Madras) of 

the Regiment have been awarded unit citations by the CO AS in recognition of their splendid service in combating 

insurgency in Jammu & Kashmir and Punjab. Further two battalions served the nation, in the world's highest 

battlefield in the subzero temperatures of Siachen Glacier. The Madras Regiment has taken part in various 




The Madras Regiment marching during the 
Republic Day Parade 



humanitarian aid operations in India. It has also taken part in various UN Peacekeeping missions 



[6] 



Current Strength 

Currently the regiment has a strength of 20 battalions. The 1st 
Battalion was converted to the Mechanised Infantry Regiment. Current 
battalions of the Madras regiment are: 

2nd Battalion (old 75th Carnatic Infantry) 

3rd Battalion (old 79th Carnatic Infantry) 

4th Battalion (old 83rd Wallajahabad Light Infantry) 

5th Battalion 

6th Battalion 

7th Battalion (Shandaar Saat chamkte rahe ) 

8th Battalion 

9th Battalion Madras Regiment (former State Forces unit) 

10th Battalion 

1 1th Battalion (old Territorial Battalion)(Double First) 

12th Battalion (old Territorial Battalion) 

16th Battalion (former State Forces unit) 

17th Battalion (former State Forces unit) 

18th Battalion (former Mysore Infantry) 

19th Battalion 

20th Battalion 

25th Battalion (old garrison battalion) 

26th Battalion (old garrison battalion) 

27th Battalion (old garrison battalion) 

28th Battalion (old coastal defence battalion) 




Troops from the Madras Regiment taking part in 
UN peacekeeping operations in Congo 



The Madras Regiment 46 

Regimental Tribute 

Let those who come after, see to it that these names be not forgotten, 

For they who at the call of duty, left all that was dear to them, 

Endured hardships, faced dangers, and finally passed out of sight of men, 

In the path of duty and self-sacrifice, Giving their lives that we might live in freedom. 

References 

[1] C.K. Cooke, ed. (1901). Empire Review (http://books. google. com/books?id=hxIoAAAAYAAJ&dq="Madras Regiment"+"Stringer 

Lawrence"&lr=&as_brr=3&client=firefox-a&pg=PA621#v=onepage&q="Madras Regiment"+"Stringer Lawrence"&f=false). 2. 

Macmillan and co. limited., pp. 621. OCLC 50083309. . 
[2] Harrington, Peter (1994). Plassey 1757 : Clive of India's finest hour (http://books. google. com/books ?id=zPRxsYVnmfkC&lpg=PA40& 

dq="Madras Regiment"+"Stringer Lawrence"&lr=&as_brr=3&client=firefox-a&pg=PA40#v=onepage&q="Madras Regiment"+"Stringer 

Lawrence"&f=false). Osprey. pp. 40. ISBN 978-1-85532-352-0. OCLC 31969501. . 
[3] Addington, Larry H. (1990). The patterns of war through the eighteenth century (http://books. google. com/books?id=4CBEesvW2okC& 

lpg=PA132&dq="Madras Regiment"&lr=&as_brr=3&client=firefox-a&pg=PA132#v=onepage&q="Madras Regiment"&f=false). Indiana 

University Press, pp. 132. ISBN 978-0-253-20551-3. OCLC 19672195. . 
[4] http://books.google.co.in/books?id=xLrTzZdOj lkC&pg=PA59 
[5] http://books.google.co.in/books?id=xLrTzZdOj lkC&pg=PA47 
[6] http://madrasregiment.org/index.htm 

External links 

• Madras Regiment on Bharat-Rakshak (http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/LAND-FORCES/Units/Infantry/ 
101-Madras.html) 

• Army Official Website (http://indianarmy.nic.in/Site/FormTemplete/frmTempSimple. 
aspx?Mn!d=c7MBFUWHB9c=&ParentID=AldCRQ5Aep4=&flag=pIndian) 



The Grenadiers 



47 



The Grenadiers 



The Grenadiers 



Active 



The regimental insignia of The Grenadiers 



1778 — present 



Country 
Allegiance 



India 

y;^ Indian Army 



Branch 
Type 



Army 
Infantry 



Size 

Regimental 
Centre 



19 Battalions 

labalpur, Madhya Pradesh 



Motto Sarvada Shaktishali (Ever Powerful) 

War Cry Sarvada Shaktishali ! 



March 
Mascot 



The Indian Army Regular March 
The Lion 



Engagements Second Anglo- Afghan War 

Third Burmese War 
Third Anglo-Afghan War 
First World War 
Second World War 
1965 Indo-Pak War 
1971 Indo-Pak War 
1999 Kargil War 

Decorations 3 Param Vir Chakras, 2 Ashoka Chakras, 7 Maha Vir Chakras, 4 Kirti Chakras, 2 Param Vishisht Seva Medals, 

2 Ati Vishisht Seva Medals, 2 Uttam Yudh Seva Medals, 33 Vir Chakras, 16 Shaurya Chakras, 3 Yudh Seva 
Medals, 71 Sena Medals and 27 Vishisht Seva Medals 



Battle honours Post Independence Gurez, Assal Uttar, larpal and Chakra 

Commanders 



Colonel of 
the Regiment 



Major General Zameerud-din Shah 



Insignia 



Regimental 
Insignia 



A brass grenade bearing the White Horse of Hanover. The insignia is worn on the uniform with a white hackle. 



The Grenadiers are an infantry regiment of the Indian Army, formerly part of the Bombay Army and later the 
pre-independence Indian Army, when the regiment was known as the 4th Bombay Grenadiers. It has distinguished 
itself during the two world wars and also since the Independence of India. The regiment has won many battle 
honours and gallantry awards, with three Param Vir Chakra awardees in three different conflicts. 



The Grenadiers 48 

Early history 

The oldest grenadier regiment of the armies in the Commonwealth belongs to the Indian Army. The concept of 
'Grenadiers' evolved from the practice of selecting the bravest and strongest men for the most dangerous tasks in 
combat. The Grenadiers have the longest unbroken record of existence in the Indian Army. 

The history of the Indian Grenadiers is linked to the troops recruited for the Army of the Bombay Presidency. The 
very first mention of a grenadier company hails back to 1684, when a little army of English troops, which had taken 
possession of the island of Bombay and comprising three companies of Europeans and local Christians, had a 
grenadier company, but nothing was heard about this unit subsequently. In 1710, the Bombay Army consisted of five 
companies of "Europeans, topasses (Indian christians), and coffrees (Kaffirs or African slaves)" of which the first 
company was a European grenadier company. This company was merged into the Bombay European Regiment, 
which was later disbanded. In 1757, Robert Clive had raised the 1st Regiment of the Bengal Native Infantry of which 
two companies were grenadier companies, however, no regiments of grenadiers were formed from the Bengal Army 
until a battalion was formed in 1779. 

In 1759, as a response to French manoeuvring in South India, the strength of the Bombay Army was enhanced, and 
the first company of sepoy grenadiers was raised with the best of Bombay sepoys "paying a regard to those having 
families on the island". It had only native officers and all sepoys wore red coats faced with blue. Later on, an 
adjutant was appointed to the corps. 

Later the Bombay Army comprised a number of sepoy battalions, each having one or two grenadier companies. 
These were clubbed together as a composite battalion comprising the grenadier companies of the Bombay sepoy 
battalions, and they won the famous battle of Talegaon in 1778. So impressive was the performance of this 
composite battalion that the Bombay Presidency ordered the permanent raising of a grenadier battalion which duly 
took place on 12 March 1779, thirty-six years before the first time that a British battalion was given the honour of 
calling itself "grenadiers". The Governor General of Bombay made an Order dated 12 November 1779, according to 
which the grenadier companies of the following regiments combined to form the very first Grenadier Regiment in 
he world, namely "The Grenadier Battalion, First Regiment of Infantry" : 

1st Sepoy Battalion 

2nd Sepoy Battalion 

3rd Sepoy Battalion 

4th Sepoy Battalion 

5th Sepoy Battalion 

6th Sepoy Battalion 

Marine Battalion (two companies of grenadiers) 



The Grenadiers 



49 



Battle honours 

Battle Honour (Pre Independence) 

Prior to Indian independence, the Regiment had won many battle honours as part of the British Indian Army. These 
battle honours include: 



Pre- World War I 

Mangalore - 1784 

Mysore - 1786 

Srirangapatnam - 1799 

Egypt- 1802 

Koregaum - 1818 

BENI-BOO-ALI - 1821 

Kirkee - 1827 

Hyderabad- 1831-43 

Meeane - 1843 

Punjab - 1848 

Central India - 1858 

Abyssinia- 1868 

Afghanistan- 1878-1880 

Kandahar 1880 

Afghanistan 1878-80 

Burma 1885-87 

Somaliland (Dharatol) - 1901-04 

World War I 

East Africa 1914-16 
Egypt- 1916-17 
Baghdad - 1917 
KUT-AL-AMARA - 1917 
Gaza- 1918 

Sharquat 
Megiddo 
Nablus - 1918 
Palestine 1917-18 
Mesopotamia- 1915-18 
Aden- 1914-19 
Afghanistan 1919 
Tigris - 1919 




Bombay Grenadier in British service, 1910. 



The Grenadiers 50 

World War II 

Kohima - 1944 
Kalewa - 1944 
Naga Village - 1944 
Fort Dufferin - 1945 
Pwabwe - 1945 
Capture of Meiktila - 1945 
Defense of Meiktila - 1945 
Pegu - 1945 
Taungtha - 1945 

Battle Honour (Post Independence) 

Since 1947, the Regiment has won the following battle honours as part of the Indian Army: 

• Gurais - 1948 

• Asal Uttar - 1965 

• Jarpal - 1971 

• Chakra-1971 

• Tololing & Tiger Hill (Kargil War) - 1999 

This list is incomplete. 

Decorations 

The Grenadiers have the unique and distinct honour of having the most number of Param Vir Chakras, India's 
highest medal for gallantry, among all the Indian Army's Infantry Regiments.. Of note also, is the fact that prior to 
independence, British officers serving with The Grenadiers won four Victoria Crosses. Members of the Regiment 
have also received a number of other decorations prior to independence, including the Indian Order of Merit 

Victoria Cross 

• Captain George Murray Rolland, 22 April 1903, Daratoleh, Somaliland 

Indian Order of Merit 

T31 

• Subedar Rahim Khan, Palestine (against Turkey), April 1918. 

Param Vir Chakra Recipients 

• Company Quarter Master Havildar Abdul Hamid, 4th Grenadiers - 1965. 

• Major Hoshiar Singh, 3rd Grenadiers - 1971. 

• Grenadier Yogendra Singh Yadav, 18th Grenadiers - 1999. 

References & notes 

[1] Sharma, p. 75 
[2] Sharma, p. 69 
[3] Sharma, p. 73 



The Grenadiers 5 1 

Bibliography 

• Barthorp, Michael; Burn, Jeffrey (1979). Indian infantry regiments 1860-1914. Osprey Publishing. 
ISBN 0-85045-307-0. 

• Rinaldi, Richard A (2008). Order of Battle British Army 1914. Ravi Rikhye. ISBN 0-9776072-8-3. 

• Sharma, Gautam (1990). Valour and sacrifice: famous regiments of the Indian Army. Allied Publishers. 
ISBN 81 -7023- 140-X. 

• Sumner, Ian (2001). The Indian Army 1914-1947. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84176-196-6. 

• Moberly, F.J. (1923). Official History of the War: Mesopotamia Campaign, Imperial War Museum. ISBN 
1-870423-30-5 

External links 

• Official Website of Indian Army (http://www.indianarmy.gov.in) 

• bharat-rakshak.com - The Grenadiers (http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/LAND-FORCES/Units/Infantry/ 
1 02-Grenadiers . html) 

• Indian Grenadiers Regiment (http://www.grenadiers.info/indian/) 

• The Bombay Grenadiers (http://www.regiments.org/regiments/southasia/inf/1922-04.htm) 



Maratha Light Infantry 



52 



Maratha Light Infantry 



Maratha Light Infantry 




The Regimental Insignia of the Maratha Light Infantry 



Active 



1768-Present 



Country 
Branch 



^^ India 
Indian Army 



Type 
Role 



Line Infantry 
Light Infantry 



Nickname 
March 



Ganpats 
Singarh 



Decorations 2 Victoria Cross, 4 Ashok Chakra, 10 Param Vishisht Seva Medals, 4 Maha Vir Chakra, 4 Kirti Chakra, 1 ACCL 
H, 14 Ati Vishisht Seva Medals, 34 Vir Chakra, 18 Shaurya Chakra, 4 ACCL IU, 4 Yudh Seva Medals, 107 Sena 
Medals, 1 Shaurya Chakra & Bar, 23 Vishisht Seva Medals, 1 Padma Bushan, 1 Arjun Award and 3 Unit 
Citations. 

Battle honours Naushera, Ihangar, Burki, Hussainiwala, lamalpur, Burj and Suadih. 



Commanders 



Colonel of Lt General Narendra Singh 

the Regiment 



Insignia 

Identification A bugle and cords with a pair of crossed swords and a shield. 
symbol 



The Maratha Light Infantry (MLI; also the Ganpats) is a light infantry regiment of the Indian Army. It was 
formed as the 103rd Maharattas in 1768, making it the most senior light infantry regiment of the Army. 

The regiment recruits from the Indian states of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and others. Their regimental 
centre has been Belgaum, Karnataka, since 1922. The battle cry of Maratha Light Infantry is, Bol Shri Chattrapati 
Shivaji Maharaj ki Jail ("Cry Victory to Emperor Shivaji!") in tribute to the Maratha emperor Shivaji. 



History 
Pre-independence 

The Marathas were a potent force in 16th, 17th, and 18th century India. Their military qualities were brilliantly 
optimised in their historic campaigns against the Mughals and the English, under the leadership of the Emperor 
Shivaji and succeeding Maratha rulers. Maratha armies, comprising both infantry and light cavalry, with the Maratha 
naval power had dominated the military scene in India for three centuries. The 1st Battalion of the Regiment, known 
as Jangi Paltan ("the fighting unit"), was raised in August 1768 as the 2nd Battalion Bombay Sepoys, to protect the 
British East India Company's possessions on the islands of Bombay. 



Maratha Light Infantry 53 

The second battalion known as Kali Panchwin followed the next year as the 3rd Battalion Bombay Sepoys. These 
two battalions were at the forefront of virtually every major engagement fought on the west coast from Surat to 
Cannanore during the last quarter of the 18th century. Prominent amongst these were the historic battles of Seedaseer 
and Seringapatam where in the words of Lord Wellesley their conduct and success were seldom equaled and never 
surpassed. 

The turn of the 19th century was witness to the expansion of the Regimental group with the raising of 3rd Battalion 
as 2nd Battalion the 5th (Travancore) Regiment of the Bombay Native Infantry in 1797. The Maratha Light Infantry 
Regimental Centre was raised in March 1800 as the 2nd Battalion the 7th Regiment of Bombay Native Infantry; the 
4th Battalion in April 1800 as the 2nd Battalion the 8th Regiment Bombay Infantry and the 5th battalion from the 
Bombay Fencibles as the 1st Battalion the 9th Regiment of Bombay Native Infantry in December 1800. 

In the second half of the 19th century, the battalions fought in various campaigns from the Middle East to China. In 
recognition of the gallant conduct of its detachments at the siege of Kahun and the defence of Dadar, in Baluch 
territory during the First Anglo-Afghan War in 1841, the Kali Panchwin was created Light Infantry. Later, this 
honour was also bestowed on the 3rd and 10th Regiments of the Bombay Infantry (present 1st Maratha Light 
Infantry and 2nd Para respectively) for their gallantry in Sir Robert Napier's Abyssinian Campaign of 1867-1868. 
The Regiment assumed the title 5th Mahratta Light Infantry in 1922. 

Three Marhatta battalions the 103rd, 114th and 117th distinguished themselves during the First World War 
(1914—1918) in the long drawn-out Mesopotamia campaign. The 117th Marhattas (present 5 Maratha LI) was made 
into a Royal battalion for its conspicuously distinctive service during its campaign in Mesopotamia and particularly 
in the events leading to the capitulation after the bitter 146 day siege at Kut-el-Amara. The 1 14th Marhattas (present 
Regimental Centre) was awarded 28 gallantry awards for their performance in the battle of Sharquat, the highest 
earned by any unit in a single action. The other Maratha battalions the 105th Mahratta Light Infantry , 1 10th Maratha 
Light Infantry, 116th Mahrattas (present 2 Maratha LI, 2 PARA and 4 Maratha LI) also acquitted themselves in 
Palestine and Mesopotamia. After their return to India, these six battalions of the Bombay Army were merged to 
form a single group and designated as the 5th Mahratta Light Infantry in 1922. The redesignation also saw 1 14th 
Mahratta become the training battalion for the group and subsequently the Regimental Centre. 

The Second World War saw the Marathas in the forefront in almost every theatre of operations from the jungles of 
South East Asia, to the deserts of North Africa, and the mountains and rivers of Italy. The war also saw the 
expansion of the regiment when thirteen new war service battalions were raised. Most of these were later 
demobilised after the war, whilst two were converted into artillery regiments. During the war Naik Yeshwant 
Ghadge and Sepoy Namdeo Jadhav were decorated with the Victoria Cross in the Italian campaign, while 130 
other decorations were awarded to the MLI. 

Apart from being the first light Infantry of the Indian Army, Kali Panchwin was the first Indian Battalion to 
participate in World War II, first to have lost its Commanding Officer in action (Colonel Chitty at the Battle of Jebel 
Hamrin, 1917), the first Maratha Battalion to participate in a Unite Nations mission. Later, it earned the Indian 
Army's first Ashoka Chakra in the North-East. 



Maratha Light Infantry 54 

Post-independence 

Indian independence saw the Regiment reverting back to the original 
five battalions, with the 3rd Maratha Light Infantry converting to the 
airborne role and becoming 2nd Bn, the Parachute Regiment in April 
1952. With the integration of the erstwhile princely states, the 19th, 
20th, 22nd battalions were amalgamated, from the state forces of 
Kolhapur, Baroda, and Hyderabad, with the Regiment. The expansion 
of the Indian Army to meet the omnipresent threat to its borders has 
seen the Regiment grow to its present total of 18 battalions and two TA 
battalions whilst the period also saw the conversion of 21st Bn into 21 
Para (Special Forces) and the 115 Infantry battalion (TA) being 
grouped under the Mahar Regiment. 




14 MARATHA LI organizing firing for NCC 
Cadets of Gwalior Division 



Since Independence, battalions of the Maratha LI have taken part in every armed conflict — Jammu and Kashmir 
operations in 1947-1948, entry into Junagarh, Hyderabad Campaign (1948), Invasion of Goa, Daman and Diu, the 
Sino-Indian War, conflicts with Pakistan in 1965 and 1971 against the Chinese on the Sikkim watershed in 1956, the 
operations in Sri Lanka, the ongoing operations in the Siachen glacier and in counter insurgency operations. 

The Ashoka Chakra awarded to Captain Eric Tucker (2 Maratha LI) and Colonel N. J. Nair (16 Maratha LI), Col 
Vasanth Venugopal (9 Maratha LI), Lt Navdeep Singh(15 Maratha LI), the five Mahavir Chakras and the numerous 
other war and peace time gallantry awards bear testimony to the front-line leadership and courage of the Regiment's 
Officers, JCOs and NCOs. 

Gen J.J. Singh (9th and 5th) became the first Chief Of Army Staff from the Maratha Light Infantry in Feb 2005. Lt 
Col KS Gill, SM** from the 1st Battalion, Maratha Light Infantry (the Jangi Paltan) is holding the coveted 
appointment of Adjutant, National Defence Academy. Brigadier C K Ramesh is the Commandant and Col Tushar S 
Bhakay is the Deputy Commandant of the Regimental Centre located at Belgaum and Lt General Narendra Singh, 
currently Deputy Chief of Army Staff is the Colonel of the Regiment. 

Battalions 

1st Battalion (Jangi Paltan) (ex 103rd Mahratta LI) 

2nd Battalion (Kali Panchwin) (ex 105th Mahratta LI)(Ashoka Chakra battalion) 

3rd Battalion (ex 8th Maratha LI) 

4th Battalion (ex 1 16th Mahrattas) 

5th Battalion (ex 117th Mahrattas)(Royals) 

6th Battalion 

7th Battalion 

8th Battalion 

9th Battalion (Nashak Nauvi) 

1 1th Battalion (Akramak Akra) (ex Territorial battalion) 

12th Battalion (ex Territorial battalion) 

14th Battalion 

15th Battalion 

16th Battalion (Ashoka Chakra Battalion) 

17th Battalion 

18th Battalion 

19th Battalion (ex State Forces unit) 

21st Battalion 



Maratha Light Infantry 55 

22nd Battalion (HYDERABADIS) (ex State Forces unit) 

23rd Battalion 

24th Battalion (Raised at Kohlapur, it is the youngest battalion) 

26th Battalion 

42nd Battalion [3] 

101 Infantry Battalion (TA) 

109 Infantry Battalion (TA) 

17 RR Maratha LI (Stormy Seventeen) 

27 RR Maratha LI 

41 RR Maratha LI 

56 RR Maratha LI 

Affiliations 

Two special forces battalions of the Parachute Regiment (2 PARA (SF) & 21 PARA (SF), one mechanized battalion 
(10 Bn, Mechanised Infantry Regt), two Arty regiments (34 Medium Regiment & 36 Medium Regiment) one guided 
missile destroyer (INS Mumbai) and a fighter squadron (20 Sqn Air force) are also affiliated to the regiment. 

Bastille day celebrations in Paris 

On the occasion of 221st Storming of the Bastille day celebrations, the Maratha Light Infantry lead the parade at the 

Parisian boulevard of Champs Elysses on 14 July 2009. The military parade which was opened with a detachment of 

400 soldiers from the three defence services of India, who were attired in ceremonial uniforms. The Indian Prime 

mi 
Minister Manmohan Singh was the guest of honour of the ceremony, an invitee of the French President 

Notes 

[1] http://books.google.com/books?id=n40BAAAAMAAJ&q=%22+maratha+light+infantry%22+Belgaum+1922+centre&dq=%22+ 
maratha+light+infantry%22+Belgaum+1922+centre&hl=en&sa=X&ei=EwB6T4iHNabi0QHauaHCDQ&ved=0CDQQ6AEwAA 

[2] Kay, Robin (1967). Italy Volume II : From Cassino to Trieste. New Zealand: War History Branch, Department Of Internal Affairs, 
Wellington, New Zealand. 

[3] http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/rgt-maratha.htm 

[4] . "L'Inde a defile sur les Champs-Elysees" (http://www.leparisien.fr/politique/l-inde-a-defile-sur-les-champs-elysees-14-07-2009-579912. 
php) (in French). Le Parisien. 2009, 14 July. . Retrieved 2009, 16 July. 

References 

• A brief history of the Mahratta Light Infantry (1945) by J. S. Barr 

External links 

• Maratha Light Infantry - Defencelndia.com (http://www.defenceindia.com/defenceind/maratha_lig_infantry. 
html) 



Rajputana Rifles 



56 



Rajputana Rifles 



The Rajputana Rifles 


The Rajputana Rifles Insignia 


Active 


10 January 1775 - Present 


Country 


^_ India (1947-present) 


Branch 


Indian Army 


Type 


Infantry Regiment 


Role 


Regiment 


Size 


19 battalions 


Motto 


Veer Bhogya Vasundhara 

"The Brave Shall Inherit the Earth" 


Battle honours 


Poonch, Charwa, Basantar, and Myanamati 



The Rajputana Rifles is the most senior rifle regiment of the Indian Army. It was originally raised in 1921 as part of 
the British Indian Army, when six previously existing regiments were amalgamated together to form six battalions of 
the 6th Rajputana Rifles. In 1945 the numeral designation was dropped from the title and in 1947 the regiment was 
transferred to the newly independent Indian Army. Since independence, the regiment has been involved in a number 
of conflicts against Pakistan, as well as contributing to the Custodian Force (India) in Korea under the aegis of the 
United Nations in 1953-54 and to the UN Mission to the Congo in 1962. 



The Name 

The name Rajputana Rifles is derived from the Rajput a Hindu clan and Hindi word Rajputana which was the old 
name of Rajasthan. It is based on the Sanskrit word Rajaputra meaning son of a king. Rajputana (raj'puta'ne), 
historic region, NW India; roughly coextensive with the modern Indian state of Rajasthan. The name means "land of 
the Rajputs." Rajput tribal power rose here between the 7th and 13th cent., and the princes resisted the early Muslim 
incursions, which began in the 1 1th cent. Rajput power reached its peak in the early 16th cent., but the area fell to the 
Mughals when Akbar captured the fort of Chi tor in 1568. From their seat at Ajmer the Mughals ruled Rajputana until 
the early 18th cent. The Marathas held feudatories in the region from c.1750 to 1818, when it passed to Great 
Britain. Under the British, Rajputana included more than 20 princely states, notably Bikaner, Jaipur, Jodhpur, 
Udaipur, and Ajmer. The internal autonomy of many of the states was guaranteed. Most of these states were 
incorporated into Rajasthan after India gained independence in 1947. 

Region of northwestern India that now comprises Rajasthan state and small sections of Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat. 
The Aravalli Range crosses the southern part of the region from northeast to southwest. The northwestern part is 
largely the Thar desert, but to the southeast the land is extremely fertile. The Rajput princely states came under 
British protection by treaties in the early 19th century; most of the area was formed into Rajasthan state in 1948. 



Rajputana Rifles 



57 



Lineage 

The regiment's origins lie in the 18th century when the East India Company (HEIC) recruited Rajputs to protect its 
operations. The impressive performance of French local units which were composed of local recruits mixed with 
French officers, helped the HEIC to decide that it needed to do something similar. In January 1775, it raised its first 
local infantry units which included the 5th Battalion, Bombay Sepoys, which is considered to be the oldest rifle 
regiment of the Indian Army. The 5th Battalion was successively redesignated as 9th Battalion Bombay Sepoys in 
1778; 2nd Battalion, 2nd Regiment of Bombay Native Infantry in 1796; 4th Regiment of Bombay Native Infantry in 
1824, and then 4th Regiment Native Infantry (Rifle Corps) in 1881. It thus became the first Rifle Regiment of the 
British Indian Army. In 1899 the Battalion was once more renamed as 4th Regiment (1st Battalion Rifle Corps) 
Bombay Infantry and again in 1901 as 4th Bombay Rifles. 

In Kitchener's 1903 reorganisation of the Indian Army, 4th Bombay Rifles became 104th Wellesley's Rifles, to 
commemorate the fact that the regiment had been commanded in 1800 by Arthur Wellesley (later the Duke of 
Wellington). In the further re-organisation in 1921, six regiments were brought together to form six battalions of 
the 6th Rajputana Rifles Regiment: 

• 1st Battalion - 104th Wellesley's Rifles 

• 2nd Battalion - 120th Rajputana Infantry 

• 3rd Battalion - 122nd Rajputana Infantry (God's Own) 

• 4th Battalion - 123rd Outram's Rifles 

• 5th Battalion - 125th Napier's Rifles 

• 10th (Training) Battalion - 13th Rajputs (The Shekhawati 

141 
Regiment). 

In 1945 the regiments of the British Indian Army dropped the numeral 
in their titles and so the Rajputanas assumed their current name. In 
1947 the regiment was allocated to India and the newly formed Indian 
Army when the sub-continent became independent from the British 
Empire. In 1949, the 1st Battalion was elevated to the status of guards, 
becoming 3rd Battalion, Brigade of the Guards. 




A painting depicting members of the Rajputanta 
Rifles, of all ranks and uniforms, circa. 191 1 



History 

In 1817 the 4th Battalion met the Marathas at the Battle of Khadki. The defence earned the regiment the battle honor 
of "Khadki". In 1856—57 the 1st, 2nd and 4th Battalions were together in the Persian theatre of operations. In 1856 
Captain J. A. Wood of the 2nd Battalion (then the 20th Bombay Native Infantry) was awarded the Victoria Cross for 
storming Reshire Fort. This was the first Victoria Cross to be won in an Indian unit. In the same battle Subedar 
Major Mohammed Sharief and Subedar Peer Bhatt were recommended for the Victoria Cross but were turned down 

T7irRl 

as at that time the medal category was not open to Indians. 

In 1878—1880, during the Second Afghan War, the 1st Battalion marched 145 miles in 5 days from Quetta to 
Kandahar and laid siege to the city. In 1900—1902, the 3rd Battalion was part of a force used to contain the Boxer 
rebellion in China. 

The First World War saw the regiment fight in battlefields from France to Palestine. The 5th Battalion was in all 
theatres of the war and participated in General Allenby's march to recapture Jerusalem. In this march the units got 
the better of their German and Turkish opponents. 

During World War II the regiment was expanded to thirteen battalions and served in the Middle East, Burma and 
Malaya. The 4th Battalion had the distinction of earning two Victoria Crosses during this conflict. 

Over the course of its existence, members of the regiment have received 6 Victoria Crosses, 1 Ashok Chakra, 1 
Padma Bushan, 11 Param Vishisht Seva Medals, 10 Maha Vir Chakras, 8 Kirti Chakras, 11 Ati Vishisht Seva 



Rajputana Rifles 58 

Medals, 1 Uttam Yudh Seva Medal, 41 Vir Chakras, 25 Shaurya Chakras, 112 Sena Medals (including Bar), 36 
Vishisht Seva Medals, 2 Yudh Seva Medals, 85 Mention-in-Despatches and 55 Arjun Awards. 

Units 

2nd Battalion (formerly 120th Rajputana Infantry) 

3rd Battalion (formerly 122nd Rajputana Infantry ) 

4th Battalion (formerly 123rd Outram's Rifles) 

5th Battalion (formerly 125th Napier's Rifles) 

6th Battalion 

7th Battalion 

8th Battalion 

9th Battalion 

11th Battalion 

12th Battalion (formerly 31st Rajputana Rifles) 

13th Battalion 

14th Battalion 

15th Battalion 

16th Battalion 

17th Battalion (former State Forces unit or Imperial Service Troops) 

19th Battalion 

20th Battalion 

21st Battalion 

28th Battalion [12] 

Alliances 

• sjs United Kingdom - The 22nd (Cheshire) Regiment; 5th Bn 

The Rajputana Rifles Regimental Museum 

The Rajputana Museum is located in the heart of the city in Delhi in the Rajputana Rifles Center. The museum 
covers the rich history of the oldest regiment in the most modern fashion. The museum is around 7000 Sq ft in size 
and covers the history of the regiment from its inception. The museum is designed to narrate the story of the 
regiment from its beginning till now. The museum by far is the best army museum in India. The museum exhibits 
weapons uniforms and narrates the history through large format images and audio visual film. The museum is 

ri3i 

designed and conceived by Delhi based design studio Holistic design which specializes in designing museums 
and exhibitions. 



Rajputana Rifles 59 

References 

[I] Sharma 1990, p. 97. and http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/LAND-FORCES/Units/Infantry/104-Raj-Rif.html 

[2] Britishempire.co.uk - 104th Wellesley's Rifles (http://www.britishempire.co.uk/forces/armyunits/indianinfantry/104thwellesleys.htm) 

[3] Mackenzie 1951, p. 25. 

[4] Sharma 1990, pp. 104-105. 

[5] Sharma 1990, pp. 97-98. 

[6] Mackenzie 1951, p. 131. 

[7] Sharma 1990, p. 98. 

[8] Until 1911, the Indian Order of Merit was the highest gallantry award that Indian soldiers were eligible for. After 1911, the Victoria Cross 

was extended to all soldiers of the British Empire. 
[9] Sharma 1990, pp. 106-109. 
[10] Sharma 1990, p. 106. 

[II] http://122nd_Rajputana_Infantry_(God%27s_Own) 

[12] http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world7india/rgt-rajputana.htm 

[13] http://www.holisticdesign.in/2010/07/rajputana-rifles-regimental-museum-design/ 

External links 

• Rajputana Rifles on globalsecurity.org (http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/rgt-rajputana. 
htm) 

• Rajputana Rifles - L. N. Subramaniam (http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/MONITOR/ISSUE5-l/subra.html) 

• (http://www.holisticdesign.in/2010/07/rajputana-rifles-regimental-museum-design/) 



Rajput Regiment 



60 



Rajput Regiment 



The Rajput Regiment 


The Rajput Regiment Insignia 


Active 


1778 - Present 


Country 


^_ India 


Branch 


Indian Army 


Type 


Line Infantry 


Size 


20 Battalions 


Regimental 
Centre 


Fategarh, Uttar Pradesh 


Motto 


Sarvatra Vijay (Victory Everywhere) 


War Cry 


Bol Bajrang Bali Ki Jai (Victory to Lord Hanuman) 


Decorations 


1 Param Vir Chakra, 1 Ashoka Chakra, 5 Param Vishisht Seva Medals, 7 Maha Vir Chakras, 12 Kirti Chakras, 5 
Ati Vishisht Seva Medals, 58 Vir Chakras, 20 Shaurya Chakras 4 Yudh Seva Medals, 67 Sena Medals, 19 
Vishisht Seva Medals, 1 Bar to Vishisht Seva Medal, 1 Padma Shri 


Battle honours 


Post Independence Naushera, Zoji La, Khinsar, Madhumati River, Belonia, Khansama and Akhaura 


Insignia 


Regimental 
Insignia 


A pair of crossed Katara's (3TJTC) flanked by 3 Ashoka leaves on either side 


Tartan 


Rajput [1] 



The Rajput Regiment is a regiment in the Indian Army that is composed primarily of the Rajput clans from India. 
The British designated the Rajputs as a martial race and subsequently employed large numbers of these warriors in 
the British Indian Army. 



History 

The association of the Rajputs with the British Indian Army started in 1778, when the 3rd Battalion was raised as the 
31st Regiment Bengal Native Infantry. Two other battalions the 1st and 2nd were raised in 1798. The 3rd Battalion 
fought against Hyder Ali and captured Cuddalore. It was after this battle that the crossed daggers (also known as 
katars) as a badge was granted in recognition of gallantry, this since has been adopted as the badge by the Rajput 
Regiment. The 1st Battalion fought at the battle of Delhi (1803), which broke the power of the Marathas at the 
Imperial court. This battalion was in action again at the siege of Bharatpur (1805), of the 400 men who went into the 
assault at least 50 percent became casualties. 

The 1st and 4th Battalions participated in the British campaign against the Gurkhas. All the Rajput Battalions (1st, 
2nd, 3rd, 4th and the 5th) fought against the Sikhs in the Sikh Wars. The 5th Battalion captured three Sikh standards 
at the battle of Gujarat. The 1857 mutiny was mostly confined to the Bengal infantry regiments, during which the 
2nd, 3rd and 4th Rajputs were temporarily disarmed. The 1st Battalion was at Saugor and stood firm while guarding 
the treasury and the arsenal. For its role it was awarded the title of Light Infantry. The Regiment of Lucknow, which 
later became the 16th Battalion, then the 10th Battalion contributed to the successful defence of the Lucknow 
Residency. It won two Victoria Crosses and every Sepoy in the regiment was also awarded a medal. The 1st 
Battalion in 1876 achieved a rare honour by becoming the Queen's Own as well as the Royal regiment. 



Rajput Regiment 61 

The Two World Wars 

Most of the Rajput battalions saw action during World War 1. The 1st Battalion fought at the Battle of Dujailah in 
Mesopatamia, where it was nearly annihilated. The 3rd Battalion fought the Battles of Qurna and Kut-al-Amara 
against the Turks. In one of the battles the Turks had invaded both the flanks of the 3rd Rajput, during which 
Jemadar Sital Baksh was severely wounded. Sepoy Jhandu Singh rushed to his rescue, the Jemadar ordered him to 
leave him behind but the sepoy lifted him on his back and started moving through the marshlands. Soon both the 
rescuer and the rescued became targets of the Turks and were riddled with bullets. Sepoy Jhandu Singh was awarded 
a posthumous IOM and Medaille militaire. A large number of other awards and battle honours were won by the 
Rajputs and at the end of WW1, a total of 37 battle honours were on the colours of the Rajputs, which exceeded that 
of any other regiment of the Indian Army. 

In 1922 the infantry regiments of the British Indian Army were reorganised and all the Rajput regiments (with the 
exception of 13th (Shekhawati) Rajput Infantry, which became the 10th battalion of the 6th Rajputana Rifles) were 
amalgamated to become battalions of the new 7th Rajput Regiment (which in 1947 was renamed the Rajput 
Regiment) as follows: 

• 1st Battalion: 

predecessor units: 

2nd Battalion, 15th Bengal Native Infantry (1798 - 1857) 

31st Bengal Native Infantry (1857 - 1861) 

2nd Bengal Native Light Infantry (1861 - 1876) 

2nd (The Queen's Own) Bengal Native Light Infantry (1876 - 1897) 

2nd (The Queen's Own) Rajput Bengal Light Native Infantry (1897 - 1901) 

2nd (The Queen's Own) Rajput Light Infantry (1901 - 191 1) 

2nd Queen Victoria's Own Rajput Light Infantry (1911 - 1922) 

• 2nd Battalion: 

predecessor units: 

2nd Battalion, 16th Bengal Native Infantry (1798 - 1824) 

33rd Bengal Native Infantry (1824 - 1861) 

4th Bengal Regiment of Bengal Native Infantry (1861 - 1890) 

4th (Prince Albert Victor's) Bengal Infantry (1890 - 1897) 

4th (Prince Albert Victor's) Rajput Regiment, Bengal Infantry (1897 - 1901) 

4th Prince Albert Victor's Rajputs (1901 - 1922) 

• 3rd Battalion: 

predecessor units: 

1st Battalion, 24th Bengal Native Infantry (1798 - 1824) 

69th Bengal Native Infantry (1824 - 1828) 

47th Bengal Native Infantry (1828 - 1861) 

7th Bengal Native Infantry (1861 - 1883) 

7th (Duke of Connaught's Own) Bengal Native Infantry (1883 - 1893) 

7th (Duke of Connaught's Own) Rajput Regiment of Bengal Native Infantry (1893 - 1903) 

7th (Duke of Connaught's Own) Rajput Infantry (1903 - 1922) 

• 4th Battalion: 



Rajput Regiment 62 

predecessor units: 

1st Battalion, 30th Bengal Native Infantry (1798 - 1824) 

59th Bengal Native Infantry (1824 - 1861) 

8th Bengal Native Infantry (1861 - 1897) 

8th (Rajput) Bengal Infantry (1897 - 1901) 

8th Rajput Infantry (1901 - 1922) 

• 5th Battalion: 

predecessor units: 

2nd Extra Battalion, Bengal Native Infantry (1825 - 1828) 

70th Bengal Native Infantry (1828 - 1861) 

1 1th Bengal Native Infantry (1861 - 1885) 

11th Bengal Infantry (1885 - 1897) 

11th (Rajput) Bengal Infantry (1897 - 1901) 

11th Rajput Infantry (1901 - 1922) 

• 10th (Training) Battalion: 

predecessor units: 

Regiment of Lucknow from loyal elements of the 13th, 48th and 71st Bengal Native Infantry (1857 - 

1861) 

16th Bengal Native Infantry (1861 - 1864) 

16th (The Lucknow) Bengal Native Infantry (1864 - 1885) 

16th (The Lucknow) Bengal Infantry (1885 - 1897) 

16th (The Lucknow) Rajput Bengal Infantry (1897 - 1901) 

16th Rajput Infantry (The Lucknow Regiment) (1901 - 1922) 

Also the one class character of most of the infantry regiments were changed and the Rajputs introduced a company 
each of Punjabi Musalmans and Hindustani Musalmans in each of their battalions. 

Between the world wars, the battalions had many postings. In the late 1930s, the 3rd Battalion, styled 3/7 Rajput, 
was posted to Waziristan in what is now the tribal areas of Pakistan. During that time, they were employed against 
Afghan insurgents and criminal gangs raiding across the border. 

A number of Rajput regiments participated in World War 2: 

The 1st Battalion was in the Arakan during the Burma campaign and then took over the defence of Andaman & 

Nicobar Islands. 

The 2nd Battalion was also in the Arakan area and a number of actions were fought by it. The capture of Point 551, 

also called Rajput Hill was the most important. The Japanese holding this feature had turned back repeated attacks 

by other battalions but the Rajputs carried the day winning an IOM, five MC's and two MM's for this action. 

The 3rd Battalion shipped by convoy to Egypt in August and September 1940. Their convoy was attacked several 

times by Italian bombers operating out of Ethiopia. The Battalion Bren guns were deployed for air defense and on 

one occasion are believed to have brought down an Italian aircraft. The Battalion was at Suez and Egypt and was 

sent to defend Cyprus after the German attack on Crete as part of Indian 5th Infantry Division's 161 Indian Infantry 

Brigade. Here, they were mainly used in an anti-parachute role, supported by elements of Australian armour. Later, 

they returned to Egypt and participated in fierce fighting around Deir el Shein and Ruweisat Ridge including a 

particularly difficult offensive on 21/22 July 1942 where they lost many casualties including the CO. Later in the 

year they participated in the Second Battle of El Alamein. 



Rajput Regiment 63 

The 4th was also in the Western Desert Campaign at Sidi Barrani and El Alamein and on its return to India was 
posted to the Kohima front. 

The 5th Battalion was in the Battle of Hong Kong. The action against the invading Japanese was short and swift with 
heavy casualties to the regiment. The regiment along with the British garrison was forced to surrender and the men 
became POWs and had to undergo great hardships. 130 men of the 5th Rajput were either beaten or starved to death 
or just died because lack of medical care. The Japanese wanted Captain M. A. Ansari of 5th Rajput to renounce his 
allegiance to the British, but he refused. For five months he was subjected to brutal beatings and treatment, as a 
result of which he could not walk. He was then sent to live with the other ranks instead of the officers. Captain 
Ansari remained true to the regiment and organised a system for helping escapees. He was again put in jail and 
tortured but refused to be broken. In the end the Japanese executed him. Captain M.A. Ansari was awarded the 
George Cross for his heroism. 

1947-48 Jammu & Kashmir Operations 

At the time of partition in 1947 Punjabi Musalmans who formed up to 50% of the strength in most battalions were 
transferred to the Pakistan Army. The gaps created by their departure were filled in by Gujars, who came over from 
the Punjab Regiments which were allotted to Pakistan. 

Four Rajput Regiments (1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th) participated in the 1947-48 operations in J&K. The 3 Rajput was the 
first to be inducted. Its original task was for protection of Ramban and Jammu, but it quickly came under 50 Para 
Brigade for its relief of Jhangar and Kotli. The advance from Jhangar to Kotli took five days, as the column had to 
clear 47 road blocks. After the relief of Kotli the column returned to Naushera. 1 Rajput was inducted next and it 
also formed a part of 50 Para Brigade at Naushera. It had its share of fighting in clearing the raiders from some hill 
features around Naushera. The raiders meanwhile kept heavy pressure on the Naushera Jhangar road and both 1 and 
3 Rajputs fought a number of engagements to keep the road open. In December 1947, 4 Rajput were inducted and 
deployed in the Chammb- Akhnoor area. 2 Rajput came in next and were employed for L of C duties around Jammu. 

Aggressive patrolling was done by 1 and 3 Rajputs around Naushera and Kot. On 6 February 1948 a strong patrol 
was send out in the area east of Naushera. The patrol was surrounded by an enemy force of approximately 1000 men. 
Soon a fierce fight started which continued for seven hours. During this time Subedar Gopal Singh's platoon came 
under heavy pressure. Gopal Singh wounded thrice kept reorganizing his men time and again. At one time Gopal 
Singh got separated from his platoon and had only three men at his side, one of them was Sepoy Sikdar Singh. When 
things got tough Subedar Gopal Singh lead a bayonet charge during which he was seriously wounded. Sikdar Singh 
picked him up and carried him back to the main patrol area. Havildar Mahadeo Singh was another hero. He kept on 
supplying ammunition to the bren gunners of the platoon, couple of times he walked through heavy enemy fire to get 
the ammunition through. In one of his attempts he was wounded and fell down, when he scrambled to his feet he was 
riddled with bullets. In this action the 3 Rajput won 3 VrCs - one each to Subedar Gopal Singh and Sepoy Sikdar 
Singh and a posthumous one to Havildar Mahadeo Singh. 

After the fall of Jhangar, Naushera became the enemy's next objective. Brigadier Mohammad Usman, 50 Para 
Brigade commander closely watched the situation and drew up defensive plans in which the Rajputs were holding 
tactical grounds around Naushera. C Company, 1 Rajput was holding the vital Taindhar position, which was vital for 
the defence of Naushera. Brig. Usman had directed C company to hold this position at any cost in case of an attack. 
On the early morning hours of 6 February 1948 the enemy attacked the Taindhar position. The enemy was about 
1500 strong and consisted mostly of Pathans with some Pakistani servicemen. The enemy attacked in waves of lines 
of 200-300 men. Six such attacks were launched and there was heavy hand to hand fighting in some posts. Havildar 
Daya Ram who was then manning the 3-inch mortar detachment realised that the enemy had gotten very close to the 
defensive positions. He took the secondary charge out of the mortar bombs, elevated the mortars to their maximum 
limit and fired the bombs. These bombs landed within 30-50 yards of the Rajput defensive positions and caused 
havoc among the enemy. Some of the enemy switched and attacked Daya Ram's section, but the position held, Daya 



Rajput Regiment 64 

Ram was wounded and his bren gunner killed. He picked up the bren gun and started firing at the enemy, for his 
courage and actions Daya Ram was awarded the Maha Vir Chakra. 

The left flank of C Company gave an easy approach to the enemy. This sector was defended by Naik Jadu Nath 
Singh and his section. The enemy after failing in the frontal attacks switched the main effort on this sector. Naik 
Jadu Nath Singh effectively directed the fire of his bren gun, rifles and grenades. The enemy, however still continued 
to advance, Jadunath rushed out of his defensive position throwing hand grenades and firing his sten gun, this took 
the enemy by surprise and he withdrew to regroup. The enemy regrouped and charged again, Naik Jadu Nath Singh 
again stood firm and charged out. He was wounded this time but the attack failed again. By this time his section had 
suffered heavy casualties. The enemy attacked again and Jadunath Singh charged out the third time firing his sten 
gun and hurling grenades. He was hit by two bullets, one in the head and another in the chest and at last fell making 
the supreme sacrifice. The enemy had lost heart after this and withdrew, leaving behind a large number of dead and 
wounded. Naik Jadu Nath Singh for his gallantry was awarded the Param Vir Chakra. 

The 1950s 

In 1950 there was another change among the infantry regiments. On raising of the Brigade of Guards, the 1st Rajput 
was transferred to them and became 4th Battalion Brigade of Guards. Also at this time Bengalis and Muslims started 
coming into the regiment. When the princely states were amalgamated with the Indian Union, the Bikaner Sadul 
Light Infantry and the Jodhpur Sardar Infantry joined the Rajput Regiment and became 19th and 20th Rajput 
respectively. The Bikaner Sadul Light Infantry traces its origin back to 1464. They fought under the legendary Rana 
Sanga at the Battle of Kanwa (1527) against Babur. During World War 1, this unit was organized as Camel Corps, 
called Ganga Risala. It won many gallantry awards including 1 DSO, 1 IOM, 11 IDSMs, 9 MMs and 16 
Mentioned-in-Despatches. Jodhpur Sardar Infantry was raised in 1922. During World War 2 it was in Eritrea and 
then it was part of the American 5th Army when it landed at Salerno in Sept. 1943. Afterwards as part of the 10th 
Indian Division it operated along the Adriatic coast. During these operations it won 1 DSO, 1 MC, 3 MMs and 17 
Mentioned-in-Despatches. 17 Rajputs was in Nagaland during the insurgency operations of 1955 and 1956. It carried 
forward the high traditions and won seven Kirti Chakras and two Shaurya Chakras. 

1962 Indo-China War 

Two Rajput battalions witnessed some heavy fighting in NEFA in 1962. The 2nd Rajput under the command of Lt. 
Col. M.S. Rikh were at Walong in early 1962 and were moved to the banks of the Namka Chu river by October 10 as 
a part of 7 Infantry Brigade. The brigade was stretched on a twelve mile front along the Namka Chu, with the 
marching time from one end to the other being five days. The site chosen for their defences was forced upon them by 
the corps commander, who was working directly with the political authorities instead of the military chain of 
command. The battalion took up hastily erected defensive positions along the Namka Chu. The battalion was 
deployed in a trackless wilderness, where no mules could go and no civilian population lived which could help 
logistically. Lack of winter clothing added to the hardships of the men on these snowy heights. By the time the 
fighting commenced, the Chinese had occupied all the dominating heights in the area. A massive assault came on the 
Rajput front and in the fierce fighting that ensured, the battalion repulsed a number of determined attacks. The 
positions were soon enveloped from both sides and the battalion was cut off. In spite of heavy odds against them the 
Rajputs did not give in and fought until the end. 

The story of gallantry beyond the call of duty was re-enacted in many platoons and companies. At the temporary 
bridge, Naik Roshan Singh's section clung doggedly to its position till every man was killed. Subedar Dasrath 
Singh's platoon was reduced to seven men and had exhausted its ammunition in repulsing three Chinese attacks. 
When the fourth Chinese attack came the Rajputs fixed bayonets and charged. In the ensuing hand to hand fighting 
four men were killed and the three survivors all seriously wounded were captured. Jemadar Bose's platoon was left 
with only 10 men after halting three Chinese attacks. He too fixed bayonets and charged. He along with most of his 



Rajput Regiment 65 

platoon were killed. For those interested in more details there is an excellent article in the 'Battles' section of Bharat 
Rakshak on this battle. 

Not a single man from B, C or D Companies was awarded any gallantry medal as there was no one left to write the 
citations because there was no officer or JCO who was not killed or seriously wounded and taken POW. When the 
CO, Lt. Col. M.S. Rikh was released from the POW camp, he wrote up the citations but Gol and MoD made lame 
excuses and did not pay any attention to them. There is a memorial erected to those who fought at Namka Chu, 
which is a ricktey tin shed with names still missing from it and names of persons who were not there have been put 
up. Major B.K. Pant's company of 112 men had 82 killed and wounded. 2 Rajput, out of 513 all ranks in battle, 282 
were killed, 81 were wounded and captured. 90 others were taken prisoners when they tried to break out. Only 60 
other ranks, mostly from the administrative elements got back. 

4 Rajput under Lt. Col. B. Avasthi was in the Sela-Bomdila area and it too had to face heavy odds. There was 
conflicting views among the senior commanders. The brigade commander wanted to hold Sela, but the divisional 
commander wanted to fall back. The divisional commander and the corps commander both agreed to withdraw. This 
led to total chaos during the retreat as the Chinese had bypassed many positions and ambushed parties of the soldiers 
withdrawing in a number of places. The battalion broke up into a number of parties, one led by Lt. Col. Avasti was 
ambushed and he was killed along with 300 men. 

1965 Indo-Pak War 

After the Rann of Kutch affair, Pakistan switched its attempts towards Kargil and in May 1965 it attacked one of the 
Indian posts there. 4 Rajput as a part of 121 Infantry Brigade were ordered to capture Point 13620 and Black Rock 
(15000) also known as Kargil heights to remove any threat to the Srinagar-Leh highway. Both posts consisted of 
three parts and each of these features was held by a platoon plus of the enemy in addition to a section of 3" mortars 
and MMGs on Point 13620. On 17 May 1965, B Company under Major Baljit Singh Randhawa, infiltrated deep 
behind the enemy held posts and attacked them. A grim battles was the fought and the Rajputs were successful in 
evicting the enemy. The Rajputs were awarded a MVC to Maj. B.S. Randhawa (posthumous) and 3 VrCs, one each 
to Captain Ranbir Singh, Sepoy Budh Singh and a posthumous one to Havildar Girghari Lai. Black Rocks was 
captured by A Company in the second phase of the attack. As an act of goodwill by GOI these posts were handed 
back to the Pakistanis some weeks later. These were again recaptured by another battalion in August 1965. 

In August, 4 Rajput were moved to the Hajipir area and Bisali feature was captured by them on the night of 4/5 
September. This assault was carried out in face of heavy MMG, mortar and artillery fire. The Pakistanis launched 
five counterattacks and all these were beaten back. By this time the Rajputs had nearly exhausted all of their 
ammunition and with no hope of reinforcements, they had to withdraw to other defensive positions. 

6 Rajput were in and around Srinagar dealing with the Pakistani infiltrators. A number of raids and ambushes were 
systematically carried out by them. After the infiltrator menace had died down, 6 Rajput moved to Ahknur area and 
came under 191 Infantry Brigade, which in turn was directly under HQ 15 corps. The battalion was supplied with 
RCL guns but without sights. When asking for the sights they were told to "see through the barrels and engage the 
Pakistani armour.'" The battalion held on to a number of forward posts in the area in face of repeated counterattacks 
and heavy shelling. Some time after the cease fire a Brigadier came around to see the 6 Rajput defences. He asked 
Naik Nanak Singh, who was in charge of an LMG position as to where his range card was, and how could he fire 
properly without knowing the primary and secondary arcs. The Naik replied that he would fire from where ever the 
enemy came. This annoyed the Brigadier and he said that the Naik was not a good NCO. Nanak Singh faced the 
Brigadier and said, "Sahib, jab golian chal rahi theen to dikhai nahin diye. Ab range card poochh rahe ho." (Sir, 
when the bullets were flying you were not to be seen and now you are asking for the range card!). That ended the 
matter. 

14 and 20 Rajput were at the Phillora-Chawinda front and after the capture of Charwa on the border, 20 Rajput led 
the advance for the next 10 days. 17 Rajput were in the southern Lahore sector in the Bedian area. 



Rajput Regiment 



66 



1971 Indo-Pak War 

Rajput battalions played an active part in liberation of Bangladesh. Starting in West Bengal, near Calcutta and going 
about in a clockwise direction around Bangladesh the battalions were deployed as follows. 

22 Rajput captured Akandabaria and cleared the way to capture Darsana. The Rajputs then led the brigade attack on 
Kushtia. The Pakistanis had built up the area around Kushtia and they let the Rajputs and the supporting tanks come 
forward into the area. They then opened up with heavy fire, the leading company of the Rajputs suffered heavy 
casualties. 

16 Rajput participated in the Battle of Hilli and then led the brigade advance to Ghoraghat and on to Rangpur. 21 
Rajput (Also Known as Veer Ekkis Rajput) spearheaded the move to Saidpur and fought in the battle of Pachagarh 
and Khansama during which there was fierce hand to hand fighting. 4 Rajput were in the area 
Kurigram-Kaligunj-Jaipurhat. 6 Rajput fought in the Sylhet area and led the advance towards Fenchunganj and Kola 
Bils. Heavy fighting took place at Kola Bils and the battalion suffered 100 casualties, but it obtained the surrender of 
22nd Baluch Regiment. The battalion was awarded 1 VrC (posthumous) and 2 SMs for the action at Kola Bils. 

18 Rajput were on the Akhaura-Ashuganj axis. Akhaura proved a tough nut to crack, fighting for it took nearly three 
days. After this the Rajputs rushed forward and captured the Titas bridge intact. They then attacked Ashuganj, which 
was cleared after a tough fight and moved on to Narsingdi and entered Dacca on the 16th December. 20 Rajput 
operated in the Belonia bulge and captured Chaudagram and later moved to Chittagong. 

On the western front, 20 Rajput (Jodhpur Sardar) were in their elements in the sands of Rajasthan. Covering a 
distance of 70 km in the first five days of the war the Rajputs reached Chachro. 15 Rajput was in the Fazilka area. It 
was involved in heavy fighting for the capture of Beriwala bridge and Ghazi post. It suffered heavy casualties during 
the attacks. Lance Naik Drigpal Singh received a posthumous MVC for his gallant actions. 14 Rajput saw action in 
the Khalra sector and 5 and 9 Rajputs were in the Chammb area. 9 Rajput operated in the Ratnu Chak area and 
carried out a number of raids, they also captured a couple of enemy posts. 



1980 - Present 

Since the 1980s a number of Rajput battalions have 
been involved involved in CI operations in the North 
East, Punjab and Jammu and Kashmir. 4, 5 and 25 
Rajputs formed a part of IPKF in Sri Lanka. In 1980, 
18 Rajput transferred to the newly raised Mechanised 
Infantry Regiment as its 13th battalion. More recently, 
27 Rajput were involved in the fighting in the Kargil 
sector in 1999. 

The Rajput Regimental center is in Fatehgarh, Uttar 

Pradesh. The regiment nowadays recruits Rajputs, 

Gujjars, Hindu Bengalis, Ahirs, Muslims, Jats, 

Mazhabi & Ramdasia Sikhs and Dogras. A war memorial was erected at Fetehgarh in 1932. It is in a form of a 

chattri, with its dome resting on six pillars, each representing a battalion at that time and bearing its crest. The 

regimental motto is Sarvatra Vijaya, which means Victory Everywhere and the war cry is Bajrang Bali Ki Jai. 




Rajput Regiment 67 

Portraits of Heroism 

The honours and awards tally for the Rajputs is as follows (from Infantry in India): 

• Pre-Independence: 1 VC, 1 GC, 10 DSO, 33 MC, 10 IOM, 27 MM and 46 IDSM. 

• Post-Independence: 1 PVC, 1 AC, 7 MVC, 12 KC, 58 VrC, 20 SC, 67 SM, 4 YSM. 

Naik Jadunath Singh 

Param Vir Chakra was awarded to Naik Jadunath Singh, the acting C Company commander. During the thick of 
the battle he continuously visited the company positions and encouraged the men to fight in the Rajput tradition. The 
battle of Taindhar was vital for holding Naushera. After this battle, the Indian army consolidated its position and in 
March 1948 undertook the operation to recapture Jhangar. Both 1 and 3 Rajputs were in the column which captured 
Jhangar. In September 1948, 4 Rajput were moved to Zoji La as part of the 77 Para Brigade. The Rajputs along with 
tanks of 7th Cavalry cleared the way through the pass, they then went ahead and retook Dras. 

Major B.K. Pant 

Major B. K. Pant, commander 2nd Rajputs, was a fine example in courage displayed by the Indian soldier in the war 
with China in 1962. His company held fast against three waves of Chinese assaults and had suffered heavy 
casualties. Pant himself was wounded in the stomach and legs. Yet he continued to lead and inspire his men, 
exhorting them to fight till the end to the last man. The Chinese sensing that their obstacle in taking 2nd Rajputs lay 
with Major Pant, brought a volley of machine gun fire on his position killing him instantly. His last words were 
"Men of the Rajput Regiment, you were born to die for your country. God has selected this small river for which you 
must die. Stand up and fight like true Rajputs." He died proudly shouting the Rajput battle-cry: "Bajrang Bali ki Jai." 
The Chinese completely wiped out the two regiments of the Rajputs and the Gorkhas. 2nd Rajputs alone had 282 
killed, 81 wounded and captured and 90 unwounded and captured out of their total strength of 513. 

Affiliation 

The affiliation between Navy ships and Army regiments was instituted in 1990 when the guided missile destroyer, 
"INS Rajput", was affiliated to the Rajput Regiment. 

References 

• Bharat-Rakshak Monitor issue on the Rajput Regiment 

• Luscombe, Stephen. "The British Empire: Regiments of the British Indian Army" . Retrieved 2007-07-28. 

External links 

Global Security: Rajput Regiment 

BharatRakshak.com - Informative site on the Indian Military 
Indian Armed Forces - Indian military's official website 
Indian Air Force - Official website 

ro] 

Indian Military Build-up TIME.com 



Rajput Regiment 



68 



References 



[1] http: 

[2] http: 

[3] http 

[4] http: 

[5] http: 

[6] http 

[7] http: 

[8] http: 



//i211. photobucket.com/albums/bb309/hammersfan_01/Tartans/Rajput.jpg 

//www. bharat-rakshak.com/MONITOR/ISSUE3-3/sandhu.html 

//www. britishempire.co.uk/forces/armyunits/indianinfantry/indiani nfantryl903.htm 

//www. globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/rgt-rajput. htm 

//www. bharat-rakshak.com/ 

//www.armedforces.nic.in/ 

//indianairforce. nic. in/ 

//www. time.com/time/2002/kashmir/militarystats. html 



Jat Regiment 



69 



Jat Regiment 



The Jat Regiment 



Active 




The Jat Regiment 



1795 - Present 



[1] 



Country 
Branch 



j^ India 
Army 



Type 
Size 



Line Infantry 
18 Battalions 



Regimental 
Centre 

Motto 



Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh 



Sangathan Va Veerta (Unity And Valour) 



War Cry Jat Balwan, Jai Bhagwan (The Jat is powerful, Victory to god!) 

Anniversaries and East Pakistan - 1971 



Insignia 

Regimental The Roman numeral nine representing its ninth position in the regimental hierarchy of the Indian Army of the 

Insignia 1920s. The insignia also has a bugle indicating the Light Infantry antecedents of two of its battalions. 



The Jat Regiment is an infantry regiment of the Indian Army and is one of the longest serving and most decorated 
regiments of the Indian Army. The regiment has won 19 battle honours between 1839 to 1947 and post 
independence 5 battle honours, Two Ashok Chakras, eight Mahavir Chakras, eight Kirti Chakras, 32 Shaurya 



Chakras, 39 Vir Chakras and 170 Sena Medals 



[2] 



During its service of over 200 years, the regiment has participated in various actions and operations both in the pre 
and post-independence India and abroad, including the First and the Second World Wars. Numerous battalions of the 



Jat regiment fought in the First World War including the 14th Murray's Jat Lancers 



[4] 



Jat Regiment 



70 



History 
The Jat people 



Jat people have historically been a part of nearly all successful armies 
of the Indian feudal states. They put up a vigorous resistance before the 
Arab invaders. In 836 they were overthrown by Amran and used their 
arms to vanquish the Meds on the Indus River. In the reign of Abbasid 
Caliph Mansur (813—33) they broke a rebellion which the Caliph and 
his successor Mutasim (833—42), the best part of 20 years to quell. 

Ibn Khurdabah mentions 'Zutts' as guarding the route between Kirman 
and Mansura while Ibn Hawqal writes: "Between Mansura and Makran 
the waters from the Mehran form lakes and the inhabitants of the 
country are the south Asian races called 'Zutt'. The Chinese traveller 
Yuan Chwang who visited this region in the 7th century, also 
mentioned Jats. The Persian Command Hurmuz used Jat soldiers 
against Khalid Bin Walid in the battle of 'salasal' of 634 (12 AH). This 
was the first time that Jats were captured by the Arabs. The Persian 
King Yazdjard had also sought the help of the Sind ruler who sent Jat 
soldiers and elephants which were used against the Arabs in the battle 
of Qadisia. 

According to Tibri, Hazrat Ali had employed Jats to guard Basra treasury during the battle of Jamal. "Jats were the 
guards of the Baitul Maal at al-Basra during the time of Hazrat Osman and Hazrat Ali." Amir Muawiya had settled 
them on the Syrian border to fight against the Romans. Harun-ur-Rashid had recruited Jats to reinforce Cilician 
fortress against Romans. 




The Jat Regiment Insignia during British India 
(Pre-1947). 



[5] 



British Indian Army History 1795 to 1947 

The Regiment claims its origins from the Calcutta Native Militia raised in 1795, LJJ which later became an infantry 
battalion of the Bengal Army. The 14th Murray's Jat Lancers were formed in 1857. After 1860, there was a 
substantial increase in the recruitment of Jats in the British Indian Army, however the Class Regiment, The Jats, was 
initially created as infantry units in 1897 from old battalions of the Bengal Army. In January 1922, at the time of the 
grouping of the Class Regiments of the Indian Army, the 9th Jat Regiment was formed by bringing under a single 
regiment, four active and one training battalion. 

The Jat people are the descendants of Indo-Scythian Central Asian tribes and Indo- Aryans. In Mughal times, they 
preserved their independence and power in Delhi. 

Hindu Jat society is a republican form of society, epitomized by the Sarv Khap, a body, a council, based at Shoron, 
district Muzaffarnagar, U.P, India, that united the Jats from Haryana, Punjab to Central India and organized the 
resistance to the feudal forces and the invaders. 

They founded the principalities of Bharatpur, Dholpur, Rajasthan, Gohad(Bhind), Patiala, Nabha, Jind, Haryana and 
Punjab, Kuchesar(UP) and Bahadurgarh. 

Conservative by nature, the Jats rarely marry outside of their ethnic group, and place great pride in their ancestry. 
Traditionally, it is held that Jats belonging to a particular village are the descendants of the family that founded the 
village. 

The British in their quest for power and domination in India came into conflict with the Hindu Jat people and 
recorded that they caused them the maximum trouble along with the Jat Sikhs. So impressed were they by the martial 
qualities of the Jats that they soon started recruiting them in ever-increasing numbers into all branches of the Bengal 



Jat Regiment 



71 



Army. The 1st Battalion was raised as the 22nd Bengal Native Infantry in 1803. 

The 2nd and 3rd Battalions were raised in 1817 and 1823 respectively. All three battalions had distinguished records 
of service including the winning of many honours during World War I. The 1st Battalion in particular served with 
great distinction in France and Iraq (then Mesopotamia) and was conferred the signal honour of being declared 
'Royal' in addition to being made Light Infantry. 

War Services of the 9th Jat Regiment by Lieutenant Colonel W.L. 
Hailes, is a historically famous publication detailing the military 
history of the Jat Regiment and of the Jat people. The publication 
details the military history & fighting prowess of the Jat Regiment & 
Jat people from 1893 to 1937. 

In the 1922 re-organization these Battalions along with the 18th 
Musalman Rajput Infantry were grouped together to form the 9th Jat 
Regiment with its class composition being fixed as 50% Jats from 
Punjab and Haryana, 25% Punjabi from cis-Satluj States, Gujarat 
District and Ponchh District of J&K and Musalman Rajputs 
(Ranghars). World War 2 saw a large expansion in the ranks of the 
Regiment with a number of new battalions being raised. Owing to the 
large demands of manpower the Rajputs were supplemented by the 
addition of Hindustani Hindu Jats from Haryana, UP, MP, Bihar, 
Rajasthan and the Deccan). 



/ M£ 


5rS 

P£SHK 




1 1 


w 


m 




^A 




^L S 1 




5^y 



A World War I (1914-1918) Jat Army Officer's 

Brass Button - from the famous 9th JAT 

Regiment an elite-fighting Unit of the Jat 

Regiment 



The Regiment saw a great deal of fighting in North Africa, Ethiopia, Burma, Malaya, Singapore, and Java-Sumatra. 
A large number of gallantry awards were won including a Victoria Cross and two George Crosses. At the end of the 
war the Regiment, in company with other regiments of the Indian Infantry, dropped the numeral 9 from its title and 
became simply the Jat Regiment. 



Post Independence 

In free India the Jats maintained the high reputation they had created 
for themselves on the battle-fields of France and Flanders, Libya, 
Malaya and Burma to name a few. In Jammu and Kashmir 1947—48, 
the China War 1962, the conflicts with Pakistan in 1965 and 1971, and 
in Sri Lanka and Siachen, they have added to the laurels of the 
Regiment and the Army. But the actions of 3 Jat under Lt Col (now 
Brig Retd) Desmond Hayde initially on 1 September and then again on 
21—22 September of crossing the Ichhogil Canal and capturing Dograi 
right up to Batapore-Attocke Awan and knocking on the very doors of 
Lahore speaks for itself about the battalion's leadership and the bravery 
of the troops. Recently in the 1999 Kargil conflict five of the 
Regiment's battalions took part and once again displayed the soldierly 
qualities that have made the Jats so well known amongst the 
community of fighting men. The performance of the Regiment's 
battalions during the UN missions in Korea and Congo has been in 
keeping with its high standards. Again, it performed very well in the 
counter-insurgency operations that have kept the Indian Army busy 
ever since independence. Nowadays, it fights the foreign mercenaries 
in Kashmir with its traditional martial spirit. 




14th Murray's Jat Lancers (Risaldar Major) by 
AC Lovett (1862-1919) 



Jat Regiment 



72 



Battle Cry 

The battle cry, adopted in 1955 is, "Hindi: ~*nz sra^fi W{ wmi IAST :Jat Balwan Jai Bhagwan" meaning "The Jat is 
Powerful, Victory Be to God! " 



Current Strength 



Currently the regiment has a strength of 34 
battalions. 

2nd Battalion (former 15th Jat) 

3rd Battalion (old 10th Jats) 

4th Battalion 

5th Battalion (PHILLORA Captors) 

6th Battalion 

7th Battalion (former 1 1th Jat) 

8th Battalion 

9th Battalion 

11th Battalion 

12th Battalion (former 31st Jat) 

14th Battalion 

15th Battalion 

16th Battalion 

17th Battalion 

18th Battalion 

19th Battalion 

20th Battalion 

21st Battalion 

1 14 Infantry Battalion (TA) Jat 

151 Infantry Battalion (TA) Jat 




Commemorative stamp on envelope celebrating the Jat Regiment in army uniforms 
of the regiment, past and present. 



Jat Regiment 



73 



Gallantry Awards 



Battle Honours 



Pre-1947 

Nagpur, Afghanistan (1839) Ghuznee, Ali Masjid, Kandahar (1842) Cabool 
(1842) Maharajpore, Sobraon, Mooltan, Goojrat, Punjab, China (1858-59) 
Kandahar (1880) Burma (1885-87), Afghanistan (1879-80) China (1900) La 
Basee (1914) Festubert (1914-15) Shaiba, Ctesiphon, Khan Baghdadi, Kut al 
Amara (1915) Neuve Chappelle, France and Flanders (1914—15) Defence of 
Kut al Amara, Tigris (1916) Mesopotamia (1914-18) North West Frontier 
(India) (1914-15) (1917) Afghanistan (1919) Razabil, Kampar, Burma 
(1942-45) Jitra, Kanglatongbi, Malaya (1941-42) Ninshigum, The Muars, 
North Africa (1940-43) 

Post-Independence 

Rajauri Zoji La Dograi (1965) Phillora (1965) Unit Citations 

Citations are given instead of Battle/Theatre Honours when a unit is decorated 
for Counter Insurgency Operations. 

4th Battalion Nagaland 1995 

7th Battalion J&K 1997 

1 1th Battalion Operation Rakshak 201 1 

34th Battalion Rashtriya Rifles J&K 1997 

17th Battalion Operation Vijay 1999 

16th Battalion Operation Rakshak 2005/201 1 

21st Battalion Operation Rhino 2009 




The prestigious Victoria Cross, awarded 

for exceptional valour "in the face of the 

enemy". 



Victoria Cross Winners 

• Jemadar Abdul Hafiz V.C. 9th Jat Regiment, awarded 6 April 1944, Burma 



[6] 



Risaldar Badlu Singh V.C. 14th Murray's Jat Lancers attached 29th Lancers (Deccan Horse). Awarded 23 
September 1918, Palestine (Posthumous). [6][7] 



Maha Vir Chakra 

• Capt. Anuj Nayyar was awarded the Maha Vir Chakra during the Kargil Conflict. He was an officer from the 17th 
battalion JAT Regt. 

Major Asha ram tyagi [3rd BN., JAT REGT.], was awarded the Maha Vir Chakra posthumously in 1965 
India-Pakistan war, born in Fatehpur, a nearby countryside. He was born in the Zamindar Family of Ch. Sagwa 
Singh Tyagi and mother Basanti Devi 



Jat Regiment 74 

Vir Chakra 

• Havaldar Shish Ram Gill was awarded the Vir Chakra during the Kargil Conflict. He was from 8th Bn The Jat 
Regiment. 

• Brig Umesh Singh Bawa and Havildar Kumar Singh Sogarwal were awarded the Vir Chakra during the Kargil 
Conflict. They are from the 17 Jat Regiment. 

References 

[1] Army's Jat Regiment Best Marching Contingent in Republic Day 2007 Parade I India Defence (http://www.india-defence.com/reports/ 

2849) 
[2] Army's Jat Regiment Best Marching Contingent in Republic Day 2007 Parade I India Defence (http://www.india-defence.com/reports/ 

2849.) 
[3] http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/MONITOR/ISSUE3-4/bajwa.html . 
[4] The Times History of the War: The Battlefield of Europe. Woodward & Van Slyke 
[5] The valiant Jat soldier - The Tribute (http://www.tribuneindia.com/1998/98aug22/saturday/head4.htm) 
[6] We Were There - Medals and Awards - Victoria Cross Winners (http://www.wewerethere.defencedynamics.mod.uk/wewerethere_old/ 

vcwin.html) 
[7] Risaldar Badlu Singh, VC (http://faculty.winthrop.edu/haynese/india/medals/VC/lBSingh.html) 

External links 

• 6th Jat Light Infantry (http://www.regiments.org/regiments/southasia/inf/1903-006.htm) 

• Stamp on Jat Regiment (http://indiapicks.com/stamps/Forces/1645_Jat_Regt.htm) 

• The Jat Regiment (http://indiapicks.com/stamps/Forces/1077_Jat_Regt.htm) 

• Jat Regiment on Bharat-Rakshak (http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/MONITOR/ISSUE3-4/bajwa.html) 



Sikh Regiment 



75 



Sikh Regiment 



The Sikh Regiment 



The Regimental Insignia of the Sikh Regiment 



Active 



1 August 1846— present 



Country 
Branch 



^_ India 
Indian Army 



Type 
Role 



Line Infantry 
Infantry 



Size 19 battalions 

Motto Nischay KarApni Jeet Karon (With determination, I will be triumphant). 



War Cry Jo Bole So Nihal, Sat Sri Akal (Victory belong to those; Who recite the name of God with a true Heart) 

Anniversaries September 12, 1897 (the day of the Battle of Saragarhi) is celebrated as the Regimental Battle Honour Day. 



Decorations 21 Indian Order of Merits ,14 Victoria Crosses, 2 Param Vir Chakras, 2 Ashoka Chakras, 14 Maha Vir Chakras, 

14 Kirti Chakras, 64 Vir Chakras, 15 Shaurya Chakras, 75 Sena Medals and 25 Vishisht Seva Medals and "Unit 
Citation" to 8th Battalion for their meritorious and gallant performance during the isolation of Tiger Hill in the 
Kargil Skirmish 

Insignia 



Regimental Sharp-edged Quoit, or Chakra, which the Khalsa Armies had used in combat. The Chakra rings a lion, symbolic 

Insignia of the name (Singh) every Sikh carries 

The Sikh Regiment is a 19 battalion strong, infantry regiment of the Indian Army, drawing a bulk of its recruits 
from the Sikh community. The regiment was officially raised just before the annexation of the Sikh Empire on 
August 1, 1846, by the British Empire. It is currently one of the highest decorated regiments in the Indian Army and 
was at one stage one of the highest decorated regiments in the British Empire. The Sikh Regimental Centre is located 
in Ramgarh Cantonment, 30 km (unknown operator: u'strong 1 mi) from Ranchi, which is the capital of the state of 
Jharkhand in India. The Centre was earlier located in Meerut in the state of Uttar Pradesh. 

Over its life of more than 100 years in the British Empire, the regiment distinguished itself with loyalty to the crown 
in various actions and operations both in India and abroad, including frontier operations, internal mutinies, the First 
and the Second World War. The competence in operations earned the Sikh Regiment and in turn its intended 
recruitment pool 'the Sikh people' as a martial race and as a result disproportionate vacancies were reserved for Sikhs 
in military positions. At the height of these recruitment policies Sikhs made up one third of the British Indian Army, 
despite Sikhs making only less than 2% of India's entire population. 

The modern Sikh Regiment traces its roots directly from the 11th Sikh Regiment of the British Indian Army. When 
transferred to the Indian Army like its sister regiments, the numeral prefix (in the case of the Sikh Regiment, 11) was 
removed and extra battalions were raised, transferred or disbanded to meet army needs. With a humble beginning of 
two battalions, today the fraternity has grown to a regiment of 19 regular infantry and two reserve battalions strong. 
Enlisted soldiers are strictly recruited from the Sikh community and trained internally by the regiment, in which they 
tend to spend most of their careers. While officers are trained externally from either IMA, or NDA and tend to leave 
the regiment subject to promotion, officers assigned to the Sikh Regiment are drawn from all regions and areas of 
India. The war cry of regiment, taken from Sikh scriptures is: Jo Bole So Nihal, Sat Sri Akal' (Victory belongs to 
those; Who recite the name of God with a true heart) 



Sikh Regiment 



76 



Regimental history 



Pre-Independence 

The history of the Sikh Regiment ties closely with the Sikh people of 

the Punjab. Sikhism was created in the state of Punjab and throughout 

the creation of the religion Punjab was seen as a junction of cultural 

and religious influence from the Arabic West and the Mathra east, 

hence the lands of Punjab were wrestled by both spheres of influence 

either by sublime cultural influence or by force of arms. By the fifth 

Sikh Guru Arjan Dev, Punjabi culture was recognised as a third 

juncture and independent Punjabi culture flourished with the new 

religion, as such Punjabis following Sikhism were targeted as a 

potential rival of Islamic influence. As followers of Sikhism were 

targeted for religious beliefs, Sikhs were encouraged to maintain a 

degree of martial tenants. As Islamic persecution of Sikhs, Hinduism 

increased, Sikhism became more militant coining the theory 

"saint-soldier" in which Sikhism maintained its martial tenants. With 

the dissolution of Sikh Gurus, the Sikhs leaderless were broken into 

smaller confederacies which were more akin to fighting amongst 

themselves and only uniting under Dal Khalsa to fight external threats. Maharaja Ranjit Singh, a Sikh, unified the 

confederacies and formed "Khalsa Army". Numerous heroic and valiant battles were fought by the Khalsa Army, 

including wars with Mughals, Afghan-Sikh wars and Anglo-Sikh wars. The Maharaja's Sikh Empire was annexed by 

the Second Anglo-Sikh war. 





British India Sikh Soldier 



The Sikh Regiment came into existence on August 1, 1846, with the 
raising of Regiment of Ferozepore Sikhs and Regiment of Ludhiana 
Sikhs by Captain G. Tebbs and Lieutenant Colonel P. Gordon 
respectively and were used in great effect in the 1857 Indian Rebellion. 
The outcomes were extremely beneficial for the Sikhs, as their loyalty 
and fighting tenacity made them the backbone of recruitment for the 
British Indian Army, which were previously recruited from South 
Indian regions. In this campaign the Sikhs were awarded their first two 
battle honours for operations conducted at the siege of Lucknow and 
the defence of Arrah. In addition the Sikh Regiment were awarded a 
one rank seniority over other Indian Sepoys and awarded the 
authorisation to wear the converted red turban (which is still worn by 
the regiment today) opposed to the standard blue head dress worn by 
British Indian Army Units at the time. 



Battle of Saragarhi Piquet 

In September 1897, 4 Sikh was deployed in Khanki valley on Samana ridge in North-West Frontier Province 
(NWFP) in Pakistan. At that time, 4 Sikh was known as XXXVI Sikh of the British Indian Army. The battalion, 
deployed in two groups, occupied Fort Lockhart with picquets at Dar, Sartope, Sangar, Carg and Saragarhi. Among 
all the piquets, Saragarhi was the most important, due to its position on the highest point between Fort Lockhart and 
Gulistan. Twenty one soldiers, under the command of Hav Ishar Singh, held the Saragarhi piquet. 



Sikh Regiment 



77 



To separate Fort Gulistan and Lockhart, 10000 Orakzai and Afridi Lashkars attacked Saragarhi on September 12, 
1897 at daybreak. The attack was initially repelled with the enemy sustaining a loss of over 60 men. Lt. Col J 
Haughton, the then Commanding Officer, made all efforts to hold Saragarhi. However, the battalion was forced to 
retreat initially as the enemy repeatedly attacked Saragarhi. The Sikhs did not move back from the fort. One Sepoy 
took control of the guardroom and shot not less than 20 enemies, before tribesmen set the guardroom on fire and 
burnt him to death. By about 3 p.m., men and ammunition ran short and the assailants destroyed the battalion post by 
setting it on fire. The Sikhs killed 450 tribesmen before making the supreme sacrifice. 

On receiving the news, the British Parliament interrupted its proceedings and gave standing ovation to the men of 
Saragarhi. Each hero was awarded an Indian Order of Merit (IOM), the highest award given to an Indian soldier in 
British Indian Army for valour and sacrifice. Altogether, a record 21 IOMs were awarded that day. The battle of 
Saragarhi gave the concept of "last man, last round". Now, September 12 is celebrated as "Saragarhi Day" by all the 
battalions of the elite Sikh Regiment. UNESCO recognises this battle as one among eight battles of the world known 



for collective bravery 



[l] 



World Wars 



The Sikh Regiment was further used as 
a unit for the British Empire being 
used to garrison India internally, 
protect Indian frontiers (such as the 
North-West Frontier Province) and to 
serve in overseas deployments such as 
operations in Hong Kong. By 1914 
Sikh Regiments were deployed as part 
of the British Indian Army for 
operations in World War I. The 
Regiment served in all theatres of 
operations and earned 28 battle 
honours. 

In both the World Wars 83,005 
turban-wearing Sikh soldiers were 
killed and 109,045 were wounded 
while fighting across 3 continents. 

In the years to 1945, 14 Victoria Crosses were awarded to the Sikhs, a per capita record given the size of the Sikh 
Regiments. In 2002, the names of all Sikh VC and George Cross winners were inscribed on the pavilion 
monument of the Memorial Gates on Constitution Hill next to Buckingham Palace, London. 

A total of 40 Victoria Crosses were awarded to the Indian soldiers including those who hailed from the present day 




Sikh soldiers operating heavy artillery. Second World War. Painting by J.S. Khurmi 



Pakistan 



[4] 



Sikh Regiment 



78 



Post-Independence 

Sikhs make up 5% of all ranks in the Indian Army and 10% of its 
officers, whilst Sikhs only forming 1.87% of the Indian population, 
which makes them over 10 times more likely to be a soldier and officer 
in the Indian Army than the average Indian. The Sikh Regiment is one 
of the highest decorated regiment of the Indian Army, with 73 Battle 
Honours, 14 Victoria Crosses, 21 first class Indian Order of Merit 
(equivalent to the Victoria Cross), 15 Theatre Honours and 5 CO AS 
Unit Citations besides 2 Param Vir Chakras, 14 Maha Vir Chakras, 5 
Kirti Chakras, 67 Vir Chakras and 1596 other gallantry awards. 

• The highest-ranking General in the history of the Indian Air Force is 
a Punjabi Sikh Marshal of the Air Force Arjan Singh 

• The only IAF Param vir chakra awardee is Nirmal Jit Singh Sekhon 




Soldiers of the Sikh Regiment arriving at the 

Indira Gandhi International Airport dressed in the 

blue turbans used during UN peacekeeping 

operations 



• Subedar Nand Singh was a VC and MVC recipient. 

General Joginder Jaswant Singh (born 17 September 1945) was the first Sikh chief of army staff of India. He served 
as chief of army staff from January 31, 2005, to September 30, 2007. He was named 22nd chief of army staff on 
November 27, 2004, and took over the role when his predecessor, General N C Vij, retired on 31 January 2005. He 
was succeeded by General Deepak Kapoor. He is the first Sikh to have led the Indian Army and the 11th chief of 
army staff from the Western Command based at Chandigarh. His selection was not a surprise, as at the time of his 
appointment he was the most senior officer in the army after General Vij. He is an alumnus of the National Defence 
Academy and was commissioned into the 9 Maratha Light Infantry on 2 August 1964. Following his retirement, he 
became governor of the state of Arunachal Pradesh in January 2008. 

Fallen and injured under the British 

In the last two World Wars 83,005 Sikh soldiers were killed and 109,045 were wounded while fighting across 3 
continents. 

In the years to 1945, 14 Victoria Crosses were awarded to the Sikhs, a per capita record given the size of the Sikh 
Regiments. In 2002, the names of all Sikh VC and George Cross winners were inscribed on the pavilion 
monument of the Memorial Gates on Constitution Hill next to Buckingham Palace, London. 



Units 

2nd Battalion 
3rd Battalion 
4th Battalion 
5th Battalion 
6th Battalion 
7th Battalion 
8th Battalion 
10th Battalion 
11th Battalion 
12th Battalion 
13th Battalion 
14th Battalion 
16th Battalion 



Sikh Regiment 79 

17th Battalion 

18th Battalion 

19th Battalion 

20th Battalion 

21st Battalion 

22nd Battalion 

124 Infantry Bn Territorial Army (Sikh) 

152 Infantry Bn Territorial Army (Sikh) 

157 Infantry Bn Territorial Army (Sikh) (Home and Hearth) 

Others 

• 1st Battalion is now 4th Mechanised Infantry. 

• 9th Battalion was disbanded in 1984 

Operation Blue Star 

Following Operation Blue Star, some of the recruits at Ramgarh, Bihar mutinied. They shot and killed the 
Commandant of the Sikh Regimental Center, Brigadier S.C. Puri and wounded some other officers. They then got 
hold of a number of trucks and started to proceed towards Punjab, but were stopped by army men in Bihar and Uttar 
Pradesh. A part of 9 Sikh which was in the Ganganagar area of Rajasthan also mutinied. This battalion was 
disbanded on April 1, 1985. Following Operation Blue Star, the then COAS, General Arun S. Vaidya wanted to have 
more mixed battalions. So he passed an order that single class battalions should begin recruiting other classes as well 
as their parent class. These mixed battalions came to be known as Vaidya's Battalions. The 13 Sikh was raised as 
Vaidya's battalion with class composition; a company each of Sikhs, Dogras, Garhwalis and South Indians. However 
these units were reverted to their original class composition later. General Vaidya was later assassinated by Harjinder 
Singh Jinda and Sukhdev Singh Sukha for the perception of his involvement in Operation Blue Star and failing to 
rehabilitate mutinied Sikh soldiers. 

Awards and citations 

The Museum of the Regimental Centre displays a record of the Sikh Regiment in four halls viz., 

• The Religious/motivational Hall, 

• The Hall of Heritage, 

• The Regimental Glory Hall 

• The Peripheral Gallery. 

The Chief of Army Staff (COAS) made a special instant award of "Unit Citation" to 8th Battalion, The Sikh 
Regiment for their meritorious and gallant performance in isolation of Tiger Hill, which facilitated the capture of 
Tiger Hill top and Helmet and India Gate, features to the West of Tiger Hill top, on night 07/8 July 1999, in Dras. 

During Operation Vijay 1999 during Indo-Pak Kargil War, the units of the regiment displayed sterling performance 
marked with exceptional valour and grit in the face of the enemy. 

In all, the Regiment has to its credit 1652 gallantry awards and honours including 

• 2 Param Vir Chakras 

• Lance Naik Karam Singh in 1948 during Indo-Pakistani War of 1947. 

• Subedar Joginder Singh during the Sino-Indian War of 1962. 

• 14 Maha Vir Chakras (MVC) 

• 68 Vir Chakras. 

• 2 Ashoka Chakras. 

• 14 Victoria Crosses 



Sikh Regiment 



80 



• 21 Indian Order of Merits: from Battle of Saragarhi 
In addition it has also earned: 

• 73 battle honours 

• 38 theatre honours besides five COAS Unit Citation, including 

• the one bestowed upon 8 Sikh during the 1999 Kargil episode 

• and two "Bravest of the Brave" citations. 

Battle honours and theatre honours 



Battle honours 

Pie-Independence 

Lucknow 1857-58 1 SIKH 

Defence of Arrah 1857 3 SIKH 

Bihar 1857 3 SIKH 

China 1860-62 2 SIKH 

AliMasjid 1878 1, 3 SIKH 

Ahmed Khel 1880 2 SIKH 

Afghanistan 1878-79 1 SIKH 

Afghanistan 1878-80 2, 3 SIKH 

Kandhar 1880 2 SIKH 

Saukin Wind 1885 2 SIKH 

Battle of Tofrek 1885 2 SIKH 

Manipur 1891 4 SIKH 

Defence of Chitral 1895 1 SIKH 

Chitral 1895 2 SIKH 

Samanal897 4SIKH 

Saragarhi/Gulistan 1897 4 SIKH 

Punjab Frontier 1897 2, 3, 4 & 35 SIKH (SRC) 

Malakand 1897 3 & 35 SIKH (SRC) 

Tirah 1897-98 2 &4 SIKH 

China 1900 1 SIKH 

North- West Frontier 1908 3 SIKH 

World War I 




Sikh helmet 



Sikh Regiment 



81 



LaBassee 19142 & 5 SIKH 

St-Julien 19142 & 5 SIKH 

Armentieres 1914-15 5 SIKH 

Auber 19142 & 5 SIKH 

Givens 1914 4 SIKH 

Siege of Tsingtao (China) 1914 4, 5 SIKH 

Neuve Chapelle 1914-15 2, 3 & 5 SIKH 

France and Flanders 1914-15 2 & 5 SIKH 

Suez Canal 1914-15 1 SIKH 

Festubert 1915 2 SIKH 

Tigris 1916 3 & 5 SIKH 

Pyres 1915 2 & 4 SIKH 

Sari Bair 1915 1 SIKH 

Hells 1915 1 SIKH 

Krishna 1915 1 SIKH 

Suva 1915 1 SIKH 

Gallipoli 1915 1 SIKH 

Egypt 1915 1 SIKH 

Mesopotamia 1916-18 1,3 & 4 SIKH 

Sharon 1918 5 SIKH 

Palestine 1918 5 SIKH 

Baghdad 1916-18 5 SIKH 

Siege of Kut 1917 1,3 & 5 SIKH 

Hai 1917 3 &4 SIKH 

Megiddo 1918 5 SIKH 

Persia 1918 4 SIKH 

Egypt 1918 2 & 3 SIKH 

Sharot 1918 2 SIKH 

Inter-War years 

• North West Frontier(now Khyber Pukhtunkhwa) 1918-19 35 (SRC) & 5 SIKH 

• Afghanistan 1919 2 & 35 SIKH (SRC) 

• Palestine 1921 35 (SRC) & 5 SIKH 

Second World War 

Agordat 1940-41 4 SIKH 

Keren 1941 4 SIKH 

First Battle of El Alamein 1940-43 4 SIKH 

Omars 1941 4 SIKH 

Kuantan 1941-42 5 SIKH 

Niyor Kluang 1941-42 5 SIKH 

Mersa Matruh 1941-42 2 SIKH 

Kota Bharu 1942 5 SIKH 

North Arakan 1942-45 1 SIKH 

Buthidaung 1942-45 1 SIKH 

Coriano 1943-45 2 SIKH 

San Mariano 1943-45 2 SIKH 

Poggio San Giovanni, Italy 1943-45 2 SIKH 








French postcard depicting the arrival of 15th Sikh Regiment in 

France during World War I. The postcard reads, "Gentlemen of India 

marching to chasten the German hooligans". 




Operation Crusader 



Sikh Regiment 



82 



Monte Calvo (Picentini) 1943-45 4 SIKH 
Battle of Imphal,Kangla Tongbi 1944 1 SIKH 
Gothic Line 1943-45 4 SIKH 
Nyaungu Bridgehead 1945 1 SIKH 
Irrawaddy River 1945 1 SIKH 
Shandatgyi 1945 1 SIKH 
Kama 1945 1 SIKH 
Sittang 1945 1 SIKH 

Post-Independence 

Srinagar 1947 1 SIKH 
Tithwal 1948 1 SIKH 

Raja Picquet 1965 2 SIKH 
Burki 1965 4 SIKH 
Op Hill 1965 7 SIKH 
Siramani 1971 4 SIKH 
Defence of Poonch 1971 6 SIKH 
PurbatAli 1971 10 SIKH 
Tiger Hill 1999 8 SIKH 




A Sikh soldier with the flag of Nazi Germany 
after German surrender during World War II 



Theatre honours 

Pre-Independence 

North Africa 1940-43 2 & 4 SIKH 
Abyssinia 1940-41 4 SIKH 
Iraq 1941 3 SIKH 
North Africa 1941-42 3 SIKH 
Malaya 1941-42 5 SIKH 
Burma 1942-45 1 SIKH 
Italy 1943-45 2 & 4 SIKH 
Greece 1944-45 2 SIKH 

Post-Independence 

Jammu & Kashmir 1947-48 1,5,7 & 16 SIKH 

Jammu & Kashmir 1965 2,3 & 7 SIKH 

Punjab 1965 4 SIKH 

Sindhl971 10 SIKH 

Punjab 1971 2 SIKH 

East Pakistan 1971 4 SIKH 

Jammu & Kashmir 1971 5 & 6 SIKH 

Kargil 1999 8 SIKH 

Others 

• The 1st Sikh battalion, in 1979 was the British Commonwealth's most decorated battalion (245 

pre-independence and 82 post-independence gallantry awards), when it was transformed into the 4th mechanized 



infantry 



[7] 



The Sikh regiment is the highest decorated regiment of the Indian army as per Defence review annual as on 
1995-1996 



[8] [9] 



Sikh Regiment 83 

Plans to raise a UK Sikh regiment 

Advanced plans by the British Army to raise a UK Sikh infantry regiment were scrapped due to accusations by the 
Commission for Racial Equality (CRE) that such a creation could be viewed as racist or sectarian. The Sikh regiment 
had many supporters including Prince Charles. 

Alliances 

• s§||| United Kingdom - The Duke of Lancaster's Regiment (King's Lancashire and Border) 

References 

[1] http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/rgt-sikh.htm 

[2] Quote from General Sir Frank Messervy K.C.S.I, K.B.E., C.B., D.S.O. from The Sikh Regiment in the Second World War by Colonel F T 

Bfrdwood OBE. Pub. in Great Britain by Jarrold and Sons Ltd., Norwich (1953). Pp. 1-6. ASIN: B0007K5HJM 
[3] [Sikh Victoria cross winners http://www. expressindia.com/news/fullstory. php?newsid=37260] 
[4] Victoria Cross (http://www.tribuneindia.com/2005/20051218/spectrum/mainl.htm) 
[5] Quote from General Sir Frank Messervy K.C.S.I, K.B.E., C.B., D.S.O. from "The Sikh Regiment in the Second World War" by Colonel F T 

Birdwood OBE. Pub. in Great Britain by Jarrold and Sons Ltd., Norwich (1953). Pp. 1-6. ASIN: B0007K5HJM 
[6] [Sikh Victoria cross winners http://www. expressindia.com/news/fullstory. php?newsid=37260] 
[7] [ Global security lhttp://www. globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/army-equipment-mech.htm ] 
[8] [ Defence reviewlhttp://mod.nic.in/samachar/18/html/ch8.htm ] 
[9] [Sikh reviewlhttp://www. sikhreview.org/pdf/octoberl996/pdf-files/gallantry.pdf ] 
[10] UK Sikh regiment (http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml7xmt/news/2007/06/24/nsikhl24.xml) 

Bibliography 

• 1st King George V's own battalion,: The Sikh Regiment (http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B0006C6T48) 

• A Legacy of Valour - An Illustrated History of the The Sikh Regiment (1846-2010). Ramgarh: The Sikh 
Regiment Officers' Association, 2011 (http://www.harisinghnalwa.com/Legacy_of_Valour), ISBN 
978-81-905619-7-6. 

External links 

• globalsecurity.org: The Sikh Regiment (http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/rgt-sikh.htm) 

• Bharat-Rakshak.com: The Sikh Regiment (http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/LAND-FORCES/Units/Infantry/ 
107-Sikh-Regt.html) 

• Sikh Light Infantry (http://sikhli.info/index.php/history) 



Sikh Light Infantry 



84 



Sikh Light Infantry 



Sikh Light Infantry 


Sikh Light Infantry Regimental Insignia 


Active 


23 lune 1944-Present (Sikh Light Infantry) 


Country 


IE British India 1850- 1947^India 1947 - Present 


Branch 


Army 


Type 


Elite [1] (Line Infantry) 


Role 


Infantry Airborne 
Amphibious Warfare 
Special Forces 


Size 


18 battalions 


Nickname 


Sikh LI or SLI 


Motto 


Deg Teg Fateh (Prosperity in Peace and Victory in War). 


Decorations 


Post Independence 1947 1 Ashok Chakra, 5 Maha Vir Chakra, 6 Kirti 
Chakra, 23 Vir Chakra, 13 Shaurya Chakra, 82 Sena Medal, 4 Param 
Vishisht Seva Medal, 8 Ati Vishisht Seva Medal, 3 Yudh Seva Medal, 17 
Vishisht Seva Medal,49 Mention in Despatches and 122 COAS's 
Commendation Cards. 


Battle honours 


Post Independence 1947 OP Hill, Kalidhar, Fatehpur and Parbat Ah. 


Insignia 


War Cry Regimental song Gagan damama bajiyo 
paryo nishane ghao khet jo mandyo surma ab 
jujhan ko dhao,sura so pehchainye jo lare din ke 
het purja purja kat mare kabhun na chadde khet. 


Jo Bole So Nihal, Sat Sri Akal (Blessed is the one who proclaims the Truth 
of God) 



The Sikh Light Infantry previously known as The Mazabhi and Ramdasia Sikh Regiment is an elite Regiment 
of the Indian Army. Its name was changed to the Sikh Light Infantry in 1944. The Sikh Light Infantry is the 
successor unit to the Mazhabi Sikh Pioneers 23rd, 32nd and 34th Sikh Pioneers. The Sikh Light Infantry inherited 
the battle honours, colours and traditions of the Mazhabi Sikh Pioneers on its merging with a few Ramdasia 
companies in 1941. 

The Sikh Light Infantry is famous for recruiting Mazhabi Sikh Soldiers; who are famous for their extraordinary 
courage and tenacity on the battlefield. In its life of nearly one century under the British Raj, the Sikh Light infantry 
and its predecessors the 23rd, 32nd and 34th Royal Sikh Pioneers distinguished themselves with loyalty to the 
British Crown and her Empire in numerous conflicts in and around the Indian Subcontinent including both the First 
World War and the Second World War. Since India's Independence from Britain in 1947, the regiment has gone 
from strength to strength and has continued to set exceptional standards. Today, the Sikh Light Infantry has 
expanded beyond its primary Infantry role and holds an elite regimental status. Since Independence the Sikh Light 
Infantry has also established a very versatile reputation, with its soldiers expanding into Airborne, Marine 
commando Forces and Special Forces roles respectively. The 9th battalion of the Sikh Light Infantry conducts 
special Amphibious assaults similar in nature to the Royal Marines of the United Kingdom. The 1 1th battalion of the 
Sikh Light Infantry has earned the nickname "Steel Fist" . The exploits of the regiment know no bounds and its 
soldiers are able to engage all varieties of enemy combatants in virtually all environments. The versatility of the Sikh 
Light Infantry has seen the regiment conduct operations from the Siachen Glacier, the highest battlefield in the 



Sikh Light Infantry 



85 



world, to Counter-terrorism. The Sikh Light infantry conducts operations as part of the United Nations Emergency 
Force. The Regimental motto is Deg Tegh Fateh, meaning prosperity in peace and victory in war. The motto has 
great significance with the tenth and most martial Sikh guru; Guru Gobind Singh as the Mazhabis are very closely 
associated with him. The Sikh Light Infantry insignia is a Chakram or Quoit, with a mounted Kirpan. The insignia 
was designed to honour the Mazhabi Sikh community's Akali Nihang ancestry. 



History 

The Sikh Light Infantry comprises the Mazhabi and Ramdasia Sikh soldiers; well known for their dauntless daring, 

131 
courage, loyalty and tenacity, is one of the oldest Regiments of the Army. It traces its origin to the middle of the 

nineteenth century when the first Mazhabi soldiers were recruited into the British Indian Army. The first Corps of 

Mazhabi Sikh Pioneers, the fore bearer of the Sikh Light Infantry, was formed in 1850. The British had recognised 

the great fighting qualities and prowess of these soldiers in the Anglo-Sikh Wars. The stubborn and sustained 

resistance offered by them and their ability to maintain themselves frugally amazed them. The British had admiration 

for the Mazhabi as they made capital soldiers. Maharaja Ranjit Singh also had a great admiration for their 

bravery and enlisted the Mazhabis freely into the khalsa army; Which he nurtured into an excellent instrument of 

war. Being afraid, however, to form the Mazhabis into a separate corps, he attached a Mazhabi company to 

existing battalions. 

Soldiering has been a way of life for 
the Sikhs of Punjab for centuries. After 
the Indian rebellion of 1857 the Bengal 
army regiments were replaced by the 
Punjabis as the major source of 
manpower for the British Army in 
India, but their loyalty had to be 
carefully nurtured. The British made 
many mistakes, at first failing even to 

recognize the religious significance of 

171 
the Sikhs' beards and long hair. 

Performing well in World War I, the 

23rd Sikh Pioneers, 32nd Sikh 

Pioneers and 34th Sikh Pioneers were 

then disbanded in 1933, a traumatic 

171 
experience for the community. However, the Sikh Pioneers were re-raised for the Second World War, becoming 

the Mazhabi and Ramdasia Sikh Regiment before being re-named the Sikh Light Infantry in 1944. The reconquest of 

Burma was essentially an Indian Army campaign. It was here that the Sikh Light Infantry was deployed. The 



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Members of the regiment during the Republic Day parade in Delhi, India 



fledgling regiment tasted blood and earned its first battle honours 
of Mazhabi, and some Ramdasia Sikhs. 



[7] 



Most of the Sikhs in the Light Infantry consist 



The two homogeneous Sikh regiments are the Sikh Light Infantry and the Sikh Regiment, the former with 18 regular 

171 
battalions and together totalling 36 battalions that account for a significant proportion of Indian Army's infantry. 



Sikh Light Infantry 



86 



The raising 

In June 1857 a Regiment of Sikh Pioneers from the Mazhabi Sikh 
soldiers drawn mainly from the Punjab and the adjacent areas was 
raised by Lt DC Home, VC. The regular Regiment 15th (Pioneer), was 
raised at Lahore on September 15, 1857 by Lt RH Shebbeare, VC. 
After a number of changes this 15th (Pioneer) Regiment came to be 
known as the 23rd Sikh Pioneers in 1908. (The 32nd Sikh Pioneers 
followed this). The 23rd and 32nd Regiments gave such an excellent 
account of themselves, establishing outstanding standards, that it was 
decided to raise another Regiment of Sikh Pioneers from the 34th 
Fatehgarh Levy, which had been raised from Mazbhi sikh Pioneers on 
March 28, 1887. Thus, the well-known trio of Sikh Pioneers that won 
fame through their deeds of glory was complete. Lt Gen Sir George 
Mac Munn, Commended the Regt for their memorable service, he 
wrote "The sikh Pioneers were, for three quarters of a century, in the 
forefront of almost every campaign from the China Wall to the 




Indian soldier 



Flanders Rats. 



.[8] 



World War I 

During the First World War, the 23rd, 32nd and 34th Sikh Pioneers, which were originally one battalion regiments 
were developed into three battalions each. Soon these battalions were tramping over the battlefields of Egypt, 
Europe, Palestine and Mesopotamia leaving indelible imprints wherever they went. Once again a number of Battle 
Honours -"Egypt 1916-17"; "Gaza"; "Megiddo"; "Sharon"; "Nablus"; "Palestine 1917-18"; and "Aden" emblazoned 
the glorious record of the Sikh Pioneers. There were ten battalions of Sikh Pioneers (including the Training 
Battalion) when the armistice was declared in 1919. 

The l/34th Sikh Pioneers won the title of "Royal" during the Great War. They made a bronze screen from the driving 
bands of enemy shells. The unit armourer and blacksmith made this highly burnished screen, proudly displaying the 
magnificent achievements of the Sikh Pioneers as epitomized in their Battle Honors. The 34th Royal Sikh Pioneers 
presented this screen to King George V in 1933. It was through the personal intervention of Brig. F.R.L. Goadby 
(32nd Sikh Pioneers) and Lt Gen. Sir RA Savory, the first Colonel of the Regiment, that Queen Elizabeth II 
presented the historic screen back to the Regiment on October 4, 1975. The screen was unveiled by Brig AK 
Chatterjee, VSM, Colonel of the Regiment, at a special Durbar on April 9, 1977. Another remarkable victory was 
registered on December 21, 1919, when two companies of the 3/34th Sikh Pioneers, alone on a hill top (Black Hill) 
with no more than a knee-high wall and a few strands of barbed wire in front, gallantly faced and repelled waves of 
attacks on them by hordes of Mahsuds. There was grim hand-to-hand fighting with Capt. B. L. Gupta (he was 
awarded the Military Cross), the Indian Medical Officer with the Battalion, tending the wounded under constant 
enemy fire. The Battalion was awarded one DSO, two Military Crosses and a Bar to Military Cross. Twelve Indian 
Viceroy's Commissioned Officers and Other Ranks received well-merited decorations. 

That night General Skeen published a complimentary Column Order announcing that in honor of the gallant action 
of the 3/34th Sikh Pioneers, a stone from the unfinished Black Hill Picquet be brought to the camp and formed as the 
base for the pioneer picuet memorial silverMess trophy. This trophy was presented by the 3/34th on their 
disbandment in June 1921, to the 1st Battalion of the 34th Royal Sikh Pioneers. When the Sikh Pioneers were 
disbanded in 1933, the curator of the British War Museum took this famous trophy. It was later given on a 
permanent loan to the SIKH LI and is housed in the Regimental Museum. As a result of the post-war reorganization 
of 1923, the battalions of the Sikh Pioneers were in 1929, reduced to a Corps HQ with one battalion from each of the 
three regiments. 



Sikh Light Infantry 



87 



Disbandment 

Four years later, February 10, 1933, was a sad day for the Regiment as the Sikh Pioneers were disbanded after 75 
years of glorious service. This was essentially a measure of economy especially as the Sappers and Miners were to 
be augmented with an increased number of Mazhabi Companies. A farewell parade was held at Sialkot on December 
8, 1932, when the Sikh Pioneers paraded for the last time. Drawn up in line 1,600 strong were the 1st and 2nd 
Battalions, once the 23rd, 32nd and 34th, with the Corps Headquarters and the massed bands. At the saluting point 
was a crowd of spectators including many old bemedalled pensioners of the Sikh Pioneer regiments. 

Re-raising for World War II 

After suspended animation of a little over eight years, the Sikh Pioneers were re-raised to meet the urgent and 
mounting demands of World War II. The 1st Battalion was raised at Jullundur on October 1, 1941. The 2nd and 3rd 

Battalions were raised at Peshawar and Sialkot on July 1, 1942 and August 15, 1942 respectively. Recruitment had 

191 
been opened up to the Ramdasia Sikhs. The re-raised Regiment was known as the "Mazhbi and Ramdasia Sikhs' a 

nomenclature, which was found uninspiring. The Commander-in-Chief, General Sir Claude Auchinleck, wanted this 

changed and the Director General of Infantry, Maj Gen (later Lt Gen) Reginald Arthur Savory was tasked to find a 

suitable name for the Regiment. A committee was constituted at Army HQ, after some alternatives like the Sikh 

Fusiliers, the Sikh Rifles and the Sikh Grenadiers had been considered and examined, the Sikh Light Infantry was 

chosen. This became prevalent from June 23, 1944. The newly raised 1st Battalion joined the battlefronts of the 14th 

Army just a little after three years of being raised. The Battalion was flown to Meiktila (Burma) in February 1945 

and became part of the 17th Division(B/ac& Cat). The soldiers of the Battalion gave ample proof of, their valour, 

fighting in the jungles of Burma for eight months, they won the Battle Honours. "Defence of Meiktila": " Burma 

1942-45; "Rangoon Road"; "Pyabwe" and "Sittang 1945". Hav Chamkaur singh 14 sikh li 



Regimental battalions 



1st Battalion 

2nd Battalion 

3rd Battalion 

4th Battalion 

5th Battalion 

6th Battalion 

7th Battalion 

8th Battalion 

9th Battalion (Marine Commando Force) 

10th Battalion 

1 1th Battalion {Steel Fist) [1] 

12th Battalion 

13th Battalion 

14th Battalion 

15th Battalion 

16th Battalion 

103 Inf Bn (Territorial Army) Sikh LI 

158 Inf Bn (Territorial Army) (H&H) Sikh LI 

163 Inf Bn (Territorial Army) (H&H) Sikh LI 




Indian Soldiers assigned to the 9th Battalion of 

the Sikh Light Infantry (Special Forces) arrive 

aboard USS Boxer (LHD 4) to participate in 

Malabar 2006. Malabar 2006 is a multinational 

exercise between the U.S., Indian and Canadian 

armed forces to increase interoperability between 

the three nations and support international 

security cooperation missions 



Sikh Light Infantry 




Indian Soldiers assigned to the 9th Battalion of 

the Sikh Light Infantry (Special Forces) arrive 

aboard USS Boxer (LHD 4) to participate in 

Malabar 2006. Malabar 2006 is a multinational 

exercise between the U.S., Indian and Canadian 

armed forces to increase interoperability between 

the three nations and support international 

security cooperation missions 



Post-Independence Operational History 




Soldiers of the 13th Battalion Sikh Light Infantry 

arriving at the Indira Gandhi International Airport 

wearing United Nations blue turbans used during 

UN peacekeeping operations 



Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 and Post- War operations 

On night 5/6 Sep 1965, 1 Sikh L I led the Divisional attack onto 
Kundanpur through a bulge and surprised the enemy along the 
Jammu-Sialkot Axis. by first light the battalion in a daring attack had 
captured Kundanpur, Unche Wains and cosolidated the area to open 
Suchetgarh Sialkot axis. The Battalion was led by Col E W 
Carvelho.With its young Company Commanders (CaptV K Talwar 
Capt Rajinder Singh Capt Tirath Singh )the Battalion rushed the 
well-entrenched enemy positions which were supported by recce and 
support elements .Managed to capture number of Jeep mounted R C L 
GUNS and M M G s.Capt V P Singh was awarded VrC .The C O, the 
R M O were also awarded and the unit earned 3 Sena Medals and 
7Mention in Dspatches The battalion was awarded Theatre Honour 
KUNDANPUR for this heroic attack. 

On 28 September 1965, 6 Sikh LI was ordered to take two important hill features as a preliminary to clearing a 
feature on Kalidhar in Jammu and Kashmir which Pakistani forces had, notwithstanding the cease-fire, encroached 
upon. With utter disregard for personal safety, the Battalion assaulted and captured both the preliminary objectives. 
The enemy brought down heavy artillery fire and counter-attacks three times. Two of the counter-attacks were 
beaten off with heavy casualties to the enemy. Due to heavy casualties and pressure of the enemy, our troops had to 
fall back from one of the two hill features. At this stage the Battalion halted the enemy's advance and stabilized the 
situation. 

In 1965, 5 Sikh Light Infantry was holding picket in Jammu and Kashmir. Pakistani troops had occupied a complex 
of hills called "OP Hill" in Mendar Sector. The complex dominated Road Mender Balnoi, thus isolating one infantry 
battalion and its administrative base at Balnoi. Earlier attempts to dislodge the enemy having failed, 5 Sikh L.I. was 
selected and moved to Mendar Sector to take part in a bridge attack on OP Hill. The battalion was new and its 
officers were very young, only one company commander had more than three years' service. The Commanding 
Officer decided to personally lead the assault. The approaches to the feature were heavily mined and, anticipating an 



Sikh Light Infantry 

attack, the enemy had ensured heavy concentration of artillery fire. The attack was launched before midnight on 2 
November 1965. The morale of troops was very high and the Battalion captured its objective in a lightning move 
from a totally unexpected direction. Having surprised the enemy, the Commanding Officer, Lt. Col. Sant Singh (now 
Brig. Sant Singh, MVC, (Bar) (Retd.)) decided to exploit the advantage and ordered the capture of three more 
objectives which were assigned to another Battalion. The highest feature and the ground of tactical importance for 
the enemy was captured by midnight. The hills reverberated with the sound of the success signal- "Reveille on the 
bugle". Subsequently, two more objectives were captured, thus completing four attacks in one night. The highlights 
of the attacks were the enthusiasm displayed by men and launching of additional attacks without waiting for orders 
from the Brigade Commander. Throughout, the enemy put up a very tough fight and each bunker had to be cleared 
after hand-to-hand fighting. For taking most spectacular initiative in launching three additional attacks and for 
displaying conspicuous gallantry and inspiring leadership, the Commanding Officer (Lt Col. Sant Singh) was 
awarded Maha Vir Chakra. One more Maha Vir Chakra was awarded to Naik Darshan Singh (Posthumous). Besides 
these; one Vir Chakra (Posthumous), four Sena Medals (2 Posthumous) and five Commendation Cards were 
awarded. The Regiment was bestowed Battle Honour "Chuh-i-Nar 1965". In North East sector 5 Sikh L.I. was given 
a task of making new posts following Sino-India pact in 90s. Showing the valour, courage and great enthusiasm task 
was completed in most difficult terrain without the help of any engineering regiments. Four Commendation Cards 
were awarded and front post was named after Sohan Singh (Hony. Capt. Sohan Singh retd.) 

6 Sikh L.I. operated in Chamb Sector against Pakistani infiltrators and regular forces. The Battalion resisted every 
attempt by the enemy to infiltrate/raid/lay ambushes in the Battalion Sector. The Battalion withstood worst ever 
shelling 15 August 1965 and stood out valiantly in their posts on the cease-fire line to the admiration of all troops 
despite intensive enemy shelling, disruption of communications and increased casualties. The stand of the battalion 
enabled 191 Brigade Group to reorganize, regroup and take offensive action to reoccupy posts vacated on 15—17 
August 1965. 6 Sikh L.I. were ordered to retake lost posts of Maira and Nathan, with one company 3 Mahar and one 
troop 'C squadron 20 Lancers under command, reoccupied both posts on 17 August 1965. Vigorious offensive action 
by all ranks kept the enemy at bay and delayed his offensive till 1 September 1965, by the time he was able to 
concentrate his armour, infantry, artillery, RCL, and MMG mounted on jeeps and infantry in greater strength to 
pierce through wide gaps between posts, outnumbered, outshelled, outgunned and threatened own posts on cease-fire 
line with encirclement and annihilation in details. 

On 1 September 1965, the battalions artillery and air support failed, any communication or reinforcement ultimately 
disintegrated and it was no longer possible to hold out. Devastated but undeterred by Pakistan air force and artillery, 
Battalion Headquarters with remnants of one company and 'C squadron 20 Lancers underwent continuous shelling, 
withdrew before midnight on 1 September 1965 on orders from Headquarters 191 Infantry Brigade Group. The 
battalion fought with its back against the wall against innumerable odds and stood up well. It was indeed a great 
satisfaction that the battalion carried out the duty to its best ability. It was this feeling in fact that made the Battalion 
to quickly absorb reinforcement, re-equip and be operational to take on any task assigned to it culminating in the 
capture of Trig point 3776 (Kalidhar) on 4 October 1965. In this battle all ranks showed tenacity of purpose, 
determination, courage, devotion to duty and a spirit of self-sacrifice. 

On the night of 3 October 1965 the Battalion was given the task of clearing the same objective with the help of a 
Mahar battalion. In the morning on 4 October 1965, 6 Sikh L.I. secured it objectives in spite of treacherous cliffish 
terrain, heavy enemy opposition and shelling, the battalion continued to advance up a very steep slope in the face of 
intensive enemy artillery fire and opposition by Infantry. Despite casualties and strong opposition, our troops 
continued to press forward and successfully secured three other important features by evening of the same day. The 
enemy staged three counter-attacks in heavy strength supported by artillery fire but they were all repulsed with heavy 
casualties. 

The Battalion re-organized itself for the next assault on Kalidhar Trig Point 3776 despite heavy casualties and 
fatigue. The feature was finally cleared of the Pakistani intruders by mid-day on 5 October 1965. In this action the 



Sikh Light Infantry 90 

Battalion displayed remarkable courage, determination and self sacrifice for which one Maha Vir Chakra (Lt Col. 
PK Nandagopal), two Vir Chakras, four Sena Medals (two posthumous); five Mention in Despatches (three 
Posthumous) and one COAS's Commendation Card were awarded. The Regiment was also awarded the Battle 
Honour "Kalidhar 1965" 

Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 

11 December 1971 is a red letter day in the history of 8 Sikh L.I. Pak Fatehpur post, fortified on all four sides with 
high bunds, was a virtual fortress with innumerable automatic and anti-tank weapons deployed for its defence. Its 
diamond-like shape made it equally difficult to tackle from all side, on the night of 1 1 December the brave men of 8 
Sikh Light Infantry discounted all difficulties and rushed forward on to this coveted objective, in the face of deadly 
small arms fire and devastating artillery shelling. Many a gallant soldier fell but others moved on undaunted. Not 
before long the enemy was either destroyed or in desperate flight, leaving behind large quantity of arms and 
ammunition. Apparently, the enemy had not accepted final defeat yet, he continued to plaster this position with 
accurate artillery and mortar fire from several directions. Two counter-attacks attempted by the previously fleeing 
soldiers were disorganized and defeated by the 8 Sikh L.I. 

In this battle, three officers, one JCO and 32 Ors sacrificed their life and approximately 100 others were wounded. A 
young battalion, within five years of its raising, had fought its maiden battle in masterly style and had come of age. 
The number of officers killed, wounded is tribute to the quality of glowing leadership provided by them. 

8 Sikh L.I was awarded the Battle Honour "Fathepur" for this heroic action. Medals awarded for the battle include, 
one Mahavir Chakra, five Vir Chakras (2 posthumous), four Sena Medals (2 posthumous) and two Mention-in 
Despatches (Posthumous). 

10 Sikh L.I. spearheaded the advance of 85 Infantry Brigade Northward through the Sind Desert along the railway 
line Munabao-Naya Chor completing all the operational tasks given to it with distinction, right up to the day of cease 
fire, during the Indo-Pak operations in 1971. Kajlor the first objective, was overrun on 4 December 1971 and the 
second phase of the attack became redundant as the enemy flew helter-skelter without any loss to our troops. Next 
day advance was resumed and Khokh-Ropar Railway station saw the enemies blood turn to water with the battle cry 
of 'Bole so Nihal' the advance coming to a temporary halt at Bhitala as the administrative echelons had failed to 
negotiate the treacherous sand of the Sind desert. 

The advance was maintained along Vasarbha railway station through December 5—7, 1971. By 1700 hrs on 
December 7, 10 Sikh L.I. reached Parche Jiveri station (now called Bahadur Nagar). The enemy strafed the battalion, 
wherein Sep. Kulwant Singh was killed while bringing down an enemy Sabre by his LMG fire and was awarded the 
Sena Medal for this brave deed. The Battalion firmed in on 8 December on approaching Nay a Chor enemy defence. 
The key to the enemy defences was a dominating feature, Parbat Ali. The enemy brought down heavy artillery fire 
and country attacked twice but were beaten back and decided wisely to withdraw. The battalion firmed in and 
remained there till last light on 12 December. 

10 Sikh L.I. was ordered to capture Village Parche Jiveri (Bahadur Nagar) and on the night of 14 December the 
battalion launched its attack. The assaulting companies ran into a mine-field and Maj Arora was severally wounded. 
Seeing the situation Commanding Officer Lt Col. Basant Singh left his post and himself moved up along with his 
Intelligence Officer, late Capt Bahadur Singh, Vir Chakra. While the Commanding Officer, was inspiring his troops, 
Capt Bahadur Singh, went up to the Artillery officer's post and continued to direct artillery fire until hit by an enemy 
bullet in the head, and died on the spot. The attack went in through the minefields and heavy enemy fire. The enemy 
fled leaving behind 20 dead, two recoilless guns and a Jeep, besides vast quantities of ammunition. The battalion 
acquitted itself in an exemplary manner throughout this brief war and was awarded Battle Honour "Parbat Ali" and 
theater honour "Sind 1971". Besides gallantry awards; five Vir Chakra, seven Sena Medals and three 
Mention-in-Despatches were awarded. 



Sikh Light Infantry 91 

IPKF and Sri Lanka 

13 Sikh Light Infantry battle at Kokkuvil, Sri Lanka, and the saga of the heroic fight put in by twenty -nine men have 
embedded themselves into the realms of history without an iota of doubt. The Battalion (less two companies) at 
Palali air fields in Sri Lanka, was tasked to capture LTTE military headquarters at Jaffna University. At midnight the 
first Mi-8 helicopter of the 10th Battalion Parachute Regiment, Delta Company, took off for the landing zone, soon 
followed by the second Mi-8 helicopter. The platoon for Delta company led by late Maj. Birendra Singh, had to face 
tough resistance landing amidst heavy and accurate enemy machine gun fire. The LTTE had intercepted radio 
communications allowing them advanced knowledge of the planned raid. The follow-up helicopters which were 
airborne were ordered to return to Palali, as three of the five helicopters having been hit resulted in no further landing 
behind the enemy lines in the LTTE strongest foothold. Amidst the confusing situation the remaining members of 
the Battalion was ordered to advance on vehicles to establish link with the beleaguered platoon of Delta Company. 
All communication had snapped, the last transmission from late Maj Birendra Singh of 13th Battalion, The Sikh 
Light Infantry Regiment, stating; "Not to worry, We'll hold on...." 

References 

[1] http://mod.nic.in/samachar/laug2000/html/ch5.htm 

[2] http://google.com/search?q=cache:fDdOAux2_IwJ: www. archive.org/stream/sikhsofpunjab00parruoft/sikhsofpunjab00parruoft_djvu. 

txt+mazbhi+sikh+pioneers&cd=9&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=uk 
[3] http://sikhli.info/index.php/history 

[4] http://www.sikh-heritage.co.uk/movements/Various%20sects/VASects.htm 
[5] Glossary of the tribes and castes of the Punjab and NWFP, HA Rose 
[6] *Glossary of the tribes and castes of the Punjab and NWFP, HA Rose 
[7] http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/rgt-sikh-li.htm 
[8] History of the sikh pioneers - Lt-Gen Sir George Mac Munn 
[9] http://indianarmy.nic.in/infantry/inf_sikhli.html 
[10] http://sikhli.inf o/index.php/history?start=2 

• (http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/LAND-FORCES/Units/Infantry/108-Sikh-LI.html) 

• (http://ww w . stuff, co. nz/dominion-post/news/features/obituaries/2325200/ 
John-Maling-The-spy-who-came-in-from-the-hot) 

• (http://indianarmy . nic. in/infantry /inf_sikhli. html) 

• (http://google. com/search ?q=cache:fDdOAux2_IwJ:www. archive.org/stream/sikhsofpunjabOOparruoft/ 
sikhsofpunjab00parruoft_djvu.txt+mazbhi+sikh+pioneers&cd=9&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=uk) 

• (http://sikhli.info/index.php/history) 

• (http://www.sikh-heritage.co.uk/movements/Various sects/V ASects.htm) 

• (http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/rgt-sikh-li.htm) 

• (http://mod.nic.in/samachar/laug2000/html/ch5.htm) 

External links 

Sikh Light Infantry (http://www.defenceindia.com/defenceind/sikh_li_infantry.html) Defenselndia.com 

Sikhs in British Armed Forces: Gateway to Sikhism (http://allaboutsikhs.com/warriors/sikhlightinfantry.htm) 

AUAboutSikhs.com 

The Sikh Light Infantry (http://www.regiments.org/regiments/southasia/inf/sikhli.htm) Regiments.org 

The Sikh Light Infantry (http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/LAND-FORCES/Army/Regiments/Sikh-LI.html) 

B harat-Rakshak. com 

Glossary of the tribes and castes of the Punjab and NWFP, HA Rose 

History of the sikh pioneers - Lt-Gen Sir George Mac Munn 

(http://sikhli. info/index. php/history?start=2) 



Dogra Regiment 



92 



Dogra Regiment 



The Dogra Regiment 


Regimental Insignia of the Dogra Regiment 


Active 


1877 -Present 


Country 


^_ India 


Branch 


Indian Army 


Type 


Line Infantry 


Regimental 
Centre 


Faizabad, Uttar Pradesh 


Motto 


Kartavyam Anvatma (Duty Before Death) 


War Cry 


Jawala Mata Ki Jai (Victory to Goddess Jawala) 


Decorations 


1 Ashoka Chakra, 9 Maha Vir Chakras, 4 Kirti Chakras, 4 Yudh Seva Medals, 36 Vir Chakras, 1 Vir Chakra & 
Bar, 1 Padma Bhushan, 11 Uttam Yudh Seva Medals, 5 Param Vishisht Seva Medals, 13 Ati Vishisht Seva 
Medals, 17 Shaurya Chakras, 1 19 Sena Medals, 21 Vishisht Seva Medals, 188 Mention-in-Despatches and 263 
COAS's Commendation Cards. 


Battle honours 


Jhangar, Rajauri, Uri, Asal Uttar, Haji Pir, Raja Picquet, OP Hill, Siramani, Suadih, Dera Baba Nanak and 

Chandgram Theatre Honours 

lammu & Kashmir - 1948, Punjab - 1965 and Punjab - 1971 


Commanders 


Notable 
commanders 


General Nirmal Chander Vij 


Insignia 


Regimental 
Insignia 


Tiger revered as the mount of Goddess Durga, who is a widely worshipped deity in the Dogra Hills. 



The Dogra Regiment is an infantry regiment of the Indian Army, formerly the 17th Dogra Regiment when part of 
the British Indian Army. 

History 



Formation 

The regiment has the Dogra people from the Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and the hill regions of Punjab. 
The current regiment was formed in 1922 through the amalgamation of three separate regiments of Dogras as the 
17th Dogra Regiment. They were: 

• 1st Battalion - Formerly the 37th (Prince of Wales's Own) Dogras 

• 2nd Battalion - Formerly the 38th Dogras 

• 3rd Battalion - Formerly the 1st Battalion, 41st Dogras 

• 10th (Training) Battalion - Formerly the 2nd Battalion, 41st Dogras 

The 41st Dogras were an infantry regiment of the British Indian Army. They could trace their origins to 1900, when 
they were raised as the 41st (Dogra) Bengal Infantry. After World War I the Indian government reformed the army 
moving from single battalion regiments to multi battalion regiments. It dropped 17th from its title in 1945 and was 
allocated to India upon its independence in 1947. 



Dogra Regiment 93 

Enlisting in the army is seen as an honourable pursuit for Dogras, with the earnings of the soldiers of the regiment 
forming a sizeable part of the local economy. The regiment currently has 18 battalions. The 1st Battalion was reroled 
in 1981 to become the 7th Battalion, Mechanised Infantry Regiment. 

Soldiering has not only become a substantial part of the economic structure of the Dogra Hills, but created social and 
cultural traditions built on the people's association with the army. The regiment has produced one Army Chief, 
General Nirmal Chander Vij. The General also served as the 10th Colonel-in-Chief of the Dogra Regiment and the 
Dogra Scouts. 

In the pre-Independence era, the Dogras had to their credit three Victoria Crosses and 44 Military Cross awards 
besides 312 other awards. Two battalions of the 17th Dogra Regiment (2nd and 3rd Battalions) also fought in the 
Malayan Campaign and, after the Fall of Singapore, a large number of the captured troops later went on to join the 
Indian National Army. 

Units 

*2nd Battalion 

3rd Battalion 
4th Battalion 
5th Battalion 
6th Battalion 
7th Battalion 
8th Battalion 
9th Battalion 
10th Battalion 
11th Battalion 
12th Battalion 
13th Battalion 
14th Battalion 
15th Battalion 
16th Battalion 
17th Battalion 
18th Battalion 
19th Battalion [3] 

Battle honours 

Pre-Independence combined battle honours of 37th (Prince of Wales's Own) Dogras, 38th Dogras, 41st Dogras 

• The Great War: La Bassee 1914, Festubert 1914 '15, Givenchy 1914, Neuve Chapelle, Aubers, France and 
Flanders 1914-15, Egypt 1915, Megiddo, Nablus, Palestine 1918, Tigris 1916, Kut al Amara 1917, Baghdad, 
Mesopotamia 1915-18, Aden, NW Frontier India 1915 '17 

• Afghanistan 1919 

• The Second World War: Kota Bahru, Malaya 1941-42, Donbaik, Nunshigum, Magwe, Kennedy Peak, Burma 
1942-45 

Post Independence 

• Jhangar, Rajauri, Jammu and Kashmir 1947-48, Hajipir, Raja Picquet-Chand Tekri, OP Hill (NL 1053), Jammu 
and Kashmir 1965, Asal Uttar, Dograi, Punjab 1965, Suadhi, Siramani, Chauddagram, East Pakistan 1971, Dera 
Baba Nanak, Punjab 1971 where Lt col Narinder Singh Sandhu displayed Valour and Courage and in the true 
traditions of the Indian Army won The Maha Vir Chakra. 




Soldiers of the Dogra Regiment departing from 

the Indira Gandhi International Airport on UN 

Peacekeeping Mission 



Dogra Regiment 94 

• The Highest Gallantry Award with Dogra Regiment in post-independence era is Ashok Chakra that was conferred 
posthumously to Maj. Sandeep Shankla in 1992 by then President of India Shri. R. Venkataraman. Maj. Sandeep 
Shankla belonged to the 18th Regiment of the Dogras. 

"The total collapse of the Pakistan Army's resistance is one of the most intriguing puzzles of the war in the East" 
wrote the Sunday Times on December 7, 1971 as Pakistan surrendered. The credit for the fall of Suadih, a small 
village but a strong bastion of Pak army's most fortified position in Bangladesh, went to 9 Dogra. This led to the 
ultimate liberation of East Pakistan and the proud triumph of the Indian Army. For this herculean task, the battalion 
was awarded the battle honour of Suadih. 

References 

[1] Sumner, Ian (2001). The Indian Army 1914-1947. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84176-196-6. 

[2] Fay 1993, p. 137 

[3] http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/rgt-dogra.htm 

External links 

• History of the Dogra Regiment (http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/rgt-dogra.htm) 

• The Dogra Regiment - Bharat Rakshak (http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/LAND-FORCES/Units/Infantry/ 
109-Dogras.html) 

• Commonwealth Regiments Site (http://www.regiments.org/regiments/southasia/inf/1922-17.htm) 



The Garhwal Rifles 



95 



The Garhwal Rifles 



The Garhwal Rifles 


Regimental Insignia of the Garhwal Rifles 


Active 


May 5, 1887-Present 


Country 


^_ India 


Branch 


Army 


Type 


Infantry 


Role 


Line Infantry 


Size 


Nineteen battalions 


Garrison/HQ 


Lansdowne, India 


Motto 


Yudhaya Krit Nischya 


War Cry 


Badri Vishal Lai Ki Jai (Victory to the Great Lord Badri Nath) 


Anniversaries 


October 1 


Engagements 


North- West Frontier, First World War, Third Anglo-Afghan War, Waziristan Campaign, Second World War, First 
Kashmir War 1947, Sino-Indian War, Second Kashmir War of 1965, Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, Kargil War of 
1999 


Insignia 


Identification 
symbol 


A Maltese Cross with Ashoka Emblem 



The Garhwal Rifles is a light infantry or 'rifle' regiment of the Indian Army. It was originally raised as the 39th 
Garhwal Rifles of the Bengal Army, became part of the old Indian Army, and received its present name on Indian 
independence. It served during the Frontier campaigns of the late 19th and early 20th Centuries, as well in both the 
World Wars and the wars fought after Independence. Mainly made up of Garhwali soldiers, this regiment has a 
distinguished record and a unique identity. Today it is made up of more than 25,000 soldiers, organised into nineteen 
regular battalions (i.e. 2nd to 19th) and the Garhwal Scouts, who are stationed permanently at Joshimath. The 1st 
Battalion has been converted to a mechanised infantry unit as part of the Mechanised Infantry Regiment as its 6th 
batallion. 

The regimental insignia is based on the defunct Royal Green Jackets as they are a designated rifle regiment. 



The Garhwal Rifles 



Recruitment 

Soldiers recruited into the Garhwal Rifles 
are from the Garhwal Hills. Garhwal 
consists almost entirely of rugged mountain 
ranges running in all directions, and 
separated by narrow valleys which in some 
cases become deep gorges or ravines. 

Millions of boys have left their mountain 
villages of Uttarakhand in search of good 
jobs or a better life than in the hills. For 
Uttarakhandi soldiers to enlist, it has been 
common practice to leave the villages in the 
hills in search of adventure and fortune, 
indeed it has become a tradition in 
Uttarakhand, which still continues unabated. 
Paharis (the people "of the mountains") 
have always played a role in defending the frontiers of the Republic of India 

"Garhwal" is the land of many 'Garhs' meaning forts. This region was made up of many small forts which were 
ruled by chieftains. Garhwal originally consisted of 52 petty chieftainships, each chief with his own independent 
fortress (garh). The rulers of Garhwal remained independent and repeatedly expelled the attacks of the Mughal rulers 
of Delhi. During the 19th century, the Gurkhas attacked Garhwal and drove the rulers of Garhwal down to the plains. 
Thereafter the rulers of Garhwal, with the help of the British forces in India, regained their kingdom. 

The Regimental Training Centre and Headquarters is located at Lansdowne. Named after Lord Lansdowne who 
founded the place in 1887, Lansdowne, is one of the, albeit small, beautiful hill stations in the north Indian state of 
Uttarakhand. It is situated 45 km from Kotdwara en route Kotdwar-Pauri road in the Pauri Garhwal district. The 
training centre was built on the site of the old Kaludanda Fort. In 2003, the Garhwal Rifles Regimental Centre, 
Lansdowne was awarded the Indira Gandhi Paryavaran Puraskar (Indira Gandhi Environment Award), by the 




[l] 



Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India 



[4] 



Early history 

Prior to 1887, there was no separate battalion of the Garhwali soldiers. They used to be recruited in the Gorkha 
regiments, Bengal Infantry and Punjab Frontier Force. Impressed by their simplicity, honesty, courage and 
dedication, the British government decided to form a separate battalion for the Garhwali soldiers. The Garhwal 
Rifles was raised in 1887 to give the Garhwali hillmen their own regiment. This was propagated by Field Marshal 
Sir Frederick Sleigh Roberts, VC, who realized that many Garhwalis had served in Gurkha regiments, and majority 
of the early awards to Gurkha regiments were actually won by Garhwalis soldiers. 

On May 5, 1887, the first battalion was constituted under the command of Lieutenant Colonel E. P. Mainwaring at 
Almora. It was designated the 2nd Battalion, 3rd (Kumaon) Gurkha Regiment, and it comprised six companies of 
Garhwalis and two of Gurkhas. On November 4 of the same year, this battalion reached Kalundanda in Garhwal. 
In 1890, Kalundanda was renamed as Lansdowne after the then Viceroy of India. In 1891, the two Gurkha 
companies were dropped and the battalion was redesignated the 39th (The Garhwal Rifles) Regiment of Bengal 
Infantry. This was the first all Garhwali battalion. 

Following this, the Garhwalis served along the Tibet border, in the Chin Hills and on the North-East and North-West 
Frontiers of India, where they earned the battle honour 'Punjab Frontier'. In 1901, another battalion was raised as part 
of the Bengal Infantry. This was designated the 49th (The Garhwal Rifles) Regiment of Bengal Infantry. Later that 



The Garhwal Rifles 97 

same year, this battalion and the 39th were regimented together to form the 1st and 2nd Battalions, 39th Garhwal 
Rifles. [6] 

The First World War (1914-18) 

In the First World War, the Garhwal Rifles were involved in the war's first trench raid on 9/10 November 1914. The 
1st and 2nd Battalions saw action in the trenches in France, where Naik Darwan Singh Negi and Rifleman Gabar 
Singh Negi were both awarded the Victoria Cross, the highest military bravery award of the British Empire. 
Members of the regiment also earned many other bravery awards including: 6 Distinguished Service Orders, 25 
Military Crosses, 14 Indian Orders of Merit and 21 Indian Distinguished Service Medals. There were also a number 

ro] 

of foreign awards, including French, Russian and Romanian awards. 

The 3rd Battalion was raised in 1916 and the 4th Battalion in 1917, this battalion became the 1st Kumaon Rifles in 
1918, but the 4th Battalion was raised again in October 1918. These two battalions were raised in order to maintain 
security in India whilst the Indian Army fought overseas. The Garhwal Rifles received the rare honour of being 
conferred with the 'Royal' title, which was made official on 2 February 1921. 

The Kotkai War (1919-1920) 

During the Waziristan Campaign of 1919—1920, sometimes referred to as the Kotkai War, Lieutenant William David 
Kenny of the 4th/39th Garhwal Regiment won the Regiment's third Victoria Cross when he led a small force of men 
in a desperate counter-attack against a superior force of Mahsud tribesmen in order to allow the rest of his company 
to withdraw to safety. Kenny, along with the rest of his assault party, was killed in the action, and the gallantry 
award was made posthumously on 9 September 1920. 

Link to the Indian Nationalist Movement 

ro] 

Against the backdrop of growing civil unrest and Indian nationalism in the 1930s, some historians have asserted 
that the Regiment fell into disfavour with the British following an incident at Peshawar on 23 April 1930, when a 
detachment of the 2/18 Garhwal Rifles apparently refused to obey an order to open fire on an unruly crowd that was 
causing a disturbance. Following the controversial arrest of Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, the Khudai Khidmatgar 
(nationalist satyagrahis) gathered to protest, and the troops were called out in response to the demonstration. What 
followed next is disputed — some historians have claimed that the crowd was peaceful and unarmed, and that the 
members of the Regiment were ordered to open fire by their British officers but, under the leadership of Veer 
Chandra Singh Garhwali refused to do so against unarmed civilians. It has been asserted that the whole incident 
galvanised the entire freedom movement. Other accounts, however, have painted a different picture. At the time, 
it was felt that the Garhwalis had failed in their duty, however, the official report following the incident cited 
evidence that the crowd had turned violent and that the regiment did in fact open fire, as per their orders, and that the 
crowd then dispersed. 

The aftermath, however, seems clearer. Following the incident at Peshawar the Regiment received a black mark 
against its name, and the loyalty of its members was called into question. Matters were made worse when, the 
following day, two platoons refused to fall in, and several men declared that they wished to be discharged. Because 
of this, higher command believed that the battalion was disaffected and, as a result, the disaffected men were ordered 
to return their weapons and dismiss. Later the entire battalion was disarmed. A Court of Inquiry afterwards found 
that the men of the Regiment had acted properly according to the confused orders that they had received on the day 
of the incident in Peshawar, but on the subject of the incident the following day it was quite swift in handing out the 
punishments. The riflemen of the two platoons that had refused to fall in were all dismissed from the service, whilst 
of the seventeen non-commissioned officers, one received transportation for life, another was sentenced to fourteen 
years imprisonment and the other fifteen also received various smaller terms of imprisonment. 



The Garhwal Rifles 

These punishments seem quite harsh in the circumstances, but probably serve to highlight the concern that the 
British had surrounding the incident at the time, when it was felt on both sides, not without reason, that British rule 

[121 

in India was coming to an end. This did not turn out to be completely correct, of course, for the Raj still had 
another seventeen years to run, but it almost certainly served as a portent of the future. 

The Second World War (1939-45) 

During the Second World War, five more battalions of the Garhwal Rifles were raised. These were: the 4th (re-raised 

having been converted into a training battalion and designated 10th Battalion earlier), the 5th, 6th, 7th and 25th 

ri3i 
(Garrison) battalion. The Regiment saw active service in almost all of the theatres of the war, including: Burma, 

ri4i 

Malaya, Egypt, Iraq, Eritrea, Abyssinia. 

The 2nd and 5th Battalions were captured in the fall of Singapore and remained in captivity until the end of the war. 

ri3i 

The Regiment's casualties during the war were high, with some 350 killed and approximately 1,400 wounded. 
However, whilst other regiments received due reward for their sacrifices, the Garhwal Regiment received very few 
— no Victoria Crosses — a fact which has never been explained, although there has been speculation that this was 
due in part to the memory of the 1930 Peshawar incident. 

Following the war the 1st and 3rd Battalions served briefly in a garrison role in Sumatra and Italy before returning to 

India. The 4th Battalion was used to reconstitute the 2nd Battalion in May 1946. The 5th Battalion was not raised 

ri3i 
again and the 6th Battalion was disbanded at war's end. 

Post Independence 

After the formation of India in 1947 and the subsequent merger of the 
various states in India at the time, the Garhwal Princely State was 
among the first to be merged in with the Indian Union. Subsequently, 
the Regiment was transferred to the newly independent Indian Army. 
Following this, the Regiment was involved in the conflict in Jammu & 
Kashmir for a time, during which the 3rd Battalion's role with the 161st 
Brigade in the Uri-Punch linkup was of particular note. 

In 1950, the Royal title was dropped from the Regiment's name when India became a Republic. Other regimental 
symbols that were associated with the British were also discontinued, although the regimental lanyard continued to 

ri7i 

be worn on the right shoulder in traditional 'Royal' fashion. In 1953, the Regiment contributed to the United 

n ri 
Nations custodian force in Korea. 

Indo-China War of 1962 

ri9i 

The 4 Garhwal Rifles played a significant role in the India-China War of 1962. The sacrifice along the frontier of 
Garhwali lives was enormous, as the Indian Army was ill -prepared for the rapidly advancing Chinese. Badly 
equipped for high altitude combat, short on supplies, and reconnaissance of the enemy, the Indian troops struggled 
valiantly onward, despite fighting a losing war to both the invaders and frostbite. Indeed, one battalion of the 
Garhwal Rifles was surrounded and suffered many casualties in the short, but bloody engagement that followed. Rfn. 
Jaswant Singh Rawat of the 4 Garhwal Rifles (Mahavir Chakra — posthumously), was honoured after being 
executed, by the Chinese themselves. He has a temple in his honour at Tawang (Arunachal Pradesh). 




The Garhwal Rifles 99 

Indo-Pakistan War of 1965 
Battle of Gadra City 

The 1 Garhwal Rifles were deployed along the border in Rajasthan Sector. The battalion commanded by Lt. Col 
O.P.Lahiri launched attack on Gadra City at 6.45 a.m. and captured it by 1.00 p.m. In the morning of 18 
September one company of the battalion repulsed Pakistani attack who fled leaving behind 12 bodies and 1 Jeep. 
On 22 September the battalion offered a stubborn resistance to the Pakistani multi pronged offensive to recapture 
Gadra City and were supported by Pakistan Air Force. But the battalion stood the ground and repulsed all the 
attacks. 

Battle of Buttur Dograndi 

The 8 Garhwal Rifles played a vital role in the Battle of Buttur Dograndi where the Major Abdul Rafi Khan of 8 
Garhwal Rifles had managed to regroup his scattered companies after the first failed assault and it was decided that 
A Sqn Poona Horse along with 8 Garhwal would launch another attack on Buttur Dograndi which had in the 
meantime been occupied by some elements of 3 Frontier Force. D company of the 8 Garhwalis led the advance and 
met only minor opposition and the village was retaken.On 17 September, Pakistan's 4th Corps artillery sporadically 
fired on the Garhwali positions with medium and heavy guns. Later during the day some enemy armour also 
appeared with infantry. The Garhwalis fought on with their small arms, well concealed as they were in the thick 
crops. Two tanks ( 25 Cavalry) entered the defended area and started spraying the Garhwalis with their machine guns 
from close range. Rifleman Balwant Singh Bisht took up a rocket launcher and managed to put one of these tanks out 
of action. He was himself blown to pieces by a shell shot from the tank gun. Casualties were heavy on both sides but 
3FF and the tank troop had to withdraw against the determination of the Garhwalis. Although the later battle saw the 
Garhwalis being ordered to withdraw under heavy artillery fire of the enemy as the position had become untenable, 
yet the determination of Major Khan allowed them to withdraw to safety, but Major Khan stayed back with the 
wounded who could not be evacuated. Major Khan was awarded Vir Chakra posthumously in the battle. After the 
battle statistics of killed were 2 officers and 47 other ranks. On the other hand 3rd Battalion The Frontier Force 
Regiment: Killed 3 JCOs and 64 other ranks, wounded 3 JCOs and 100 other ranks. 

Operation Hill 

The 2nd Battalion battalion was part of the battle during Operation Hill. On October 6/7, 1965 the battalion was 
nominated by the GOC for the task of attacking and capturing the area where the Pakistani infiltrators had managed 
to build up their defences. The attack by the battalion was launched with great courage and determination. However, 
due to wrong intelligence assessment of enemy strength and disposition with insufficient time to reorient itself and 
very little fire support, the battalion suffered heavy casualties and the attack was beaten back by a battalion strength 
of Pakistanis. The battalion took part in second attack on enemy position in conjunction with other battalions. In this 
operation, B company laid an ambush and captured one Pakistani officer. Capt C N Singh of the "Superb Second" 
won the only Mahavir Chakra of the regiment during the 1965 operations. Reacting to specific information about 
presence of infiltrators, Capt CN Singh attacked them with great ferocity and valour. In a close quarter hand-to-hand 
fight, he was fatally wounded and later succumbed to his injuries. For his gallant leadership and valour, he was 
awarded the coveted Maha Vir Chakra. after Major Khan death Maj HS Rautela took the command and successfully 
fought and evaucated the injured till the replacement could arrive. He later won the Sena Medal for his gallantary 
when he captured the village of Gurkhi in Pakaishtan and was named after his name. The battalion won 1 MVC, 2 
SMs and 5 CO AS Commendation Cards. [22] 



The Garhwal Rifles 100 

1971 War 

During the 1971 war with Pakistan, 11th Garhwal was in the Eastern theatre with the 6th Mountain Division under 

Maj. Gen P.C. Reddy. 2nd Garhwal Rifles was with 2nd Mountain Division and was allotted to 101 Comn Z for 

[231 
thust upon Dhaka itself. 12th Battalion was in the Bengal area for support. All the units performed all the tasks 

satisfactorily. 

The 5th Garhwal Rifles was tasked in the Battle of Hilli. In the third phase of the battle, 5 Garhwal Rifles, were 

given a very difficult task of capturing several small villages of Basudevpur, Hakimpur and Rangapara. Each attack 

T241 
had to be separately organised, with adequate mortar and artillery fire. The Garhwalis emerged victorious. 

Post 1971 

Established as a single class regiment, the Garhwal Rifles remained so until 1984. Following a national policy 
review, the 18th Garhwal Joint Battalion was constituted in 1985 along with the merger of companies of Jat, Dogra 
and Maratha regiments. 

The Kargil Operations in 1999 

The Garhwal Rifles had the proud privilege of playing a decisive role in dislodging Pakistani forces and recapturing 

Tiger Hill during the Kargil conflict of 1999. The Chief of Army Staff made a special immediate award of a "Unit 

T251 
Citation" to 18th Battalion, The Garhwal Rifles, for their meritorious and gallant performance during the battles 

of Point 5140 on the night of 19/20 June and Point 4700 on the night of 27/28 June 1999, in Dras Sector. This award 

was received by their commanding officer, Col. Anshu Trivedi. 

Capt. Jintu Gogoi,17th Garhwal Rifles was lost in heavy artillery exchange with the enemy in the Batalik Sector. 
Not to be outdone the 17th Garhwal Rifles and the 10th Garhwal Rifles performed above all expectations during 
the Kargil War. 

With so many families in the hills of Garhwal and Kumaon who have sons (and daughters) in the military, the 
conflict in Kashmir has taken a heavy toll. The Garhwal Rifles, as well as other Himalayan regiments (the Gurkha 
Rifles, Ladakh Scouts, Naga Regiment, and Jammu and Kashmir Light Infantry) were all entrusted with operations 
in Kargil in 1999. They joined their Sikh, Rajasthani, Mahar, and Bihari brothers as a multicultural and multi-faith 
force on the frontlines, suffering the brunt of casualties in defence of the state. 

Operation Sarp Vinash 2003 

The Indian Army's Northern Command conducted a complex militant camp-busting operation called Sarp Vinash 
with skill and precision, easily one of the landmark counter-terrorism operations in Jammu & Kashmir— Hillkaka 
area. Hillkaka was no Kargil in its strategic importance but merely a staging post for Pakistani Muslim militants. 
Operation Sarp Vinash was a division-size operation involving seven battalions and two brigade headquarters. 
Spearheaded by 9 Para Special Forces, six other units of 163 Infantry Brigade and 12 RR sector took part. These 
were 2/4 Gorkha Rifles, 15 Garhwal Rifles, 4 Garhwal Rifles, 16 and 20 Rashtriya Rifles. It was estimated that up 
to 100 militants were in and around the Hillkaka hideout spread out in the forest when Special Forces struck in the 
initial raid. They killed 13 Pakistani militants and captured two of whom one died later. In subsequent combing 
operations which lasted 10 days, 4 Garhwal Rifles ambushed seven militants near Haripur while they were 
attempting to cross over into Srinagar. Altogether, 45 Muslim militants were killed against a loss of four soldiers 
killed and two wounded. Substantial recoveries were made. Approximately 60 caches and hideouts were busted 
yielding 20 AK 47 rifles, 5 PIKA guns, two sniper rifles and unspecified quantities of grenade launchers, self loading 
rifles and 45 kg of plastic explosives. In addition substantial quantities of radio sets, and other communication 
equipment was also recovered besides rations enough to feed 500 men for two weeks. 



The Garhwal Rifles 101 

Units 

D*3rd Battalion 

4th Battalion 
5th Battalion 
6th Battalion 
7th Battalion 
8th Battalion 
9th Battalion 
10th Battalion 
11th Battalion 
12th Battalion 
13th Battalion 
14th Battalion 
15th Battalion 
16th Battalion 
17th Battalion 
18th Battalion 
19th Battalion [27] 

Honours 
Battle honours 

So far the Regiment has earned 30 battle honours. Of these, five have been awarded in the post-Independence period. 
The Regiment has also won the following theatre honours: Jammu & Kashmir — 1947—48, Ladakh — 1962, Punjab 
— 1965, Rajasthan — 1965, East Pakistan — 1971, Kargil — 1999. 

Battle Honours Pre Independence 

Punjab Frontier 1897-1898 
LaBassee 1914 
Armentiers 1914 
Festubert 1914-1915 
Neuve Chapelle 1915 
Aubers 1915 

France and Flanders 1914-1915 
Egypt 1915-1916 
Macedonia 1918 
KhanBaghdadi 1918 
Sharqat 1918 
Macepotamia 1917-1918 
Gallabat 1940 
Barentu 1941 
Keren 1941 
Massawa 1941 
Amba Alagi 1941 
Kuantan 1942 
Yenangyaung 1942 
Monywa 1942 



The Garhwal Rifles 102 

• Citta Di Castello 1944 

• North Arakan 1944 

• Ngakyedauk Pass 1944 

• Ramree 1944 

• Taungup 1945 

rofil 

Battle Honours Post Independence 

Tithwal 1947-48 
J&K 1947-48 
Ladakh 1962 
Nuranang 1965 
Buttar Dograndi 1965 
Gadra Road 1965 
Punjab 1965 
Rajasthan 1965 
Hilli 1971 
East Pakistan 1971. 

Theatre Honour Second World War 

• North Africa (1940-43) 

• Malaya (1941-42) 

• Burma (1942-45) 

• Italy (1943-45) 

Decorations 

Decorations (Pre Independence) 

Victoria Cross Recipients 

• Naik Darwan Singh Negi - First World War, Festubert-France, 1914 

• Rifleman Gabbar Singh (posthumous) - First World War, Neuve Chapelle, 1915 

• Lt. William David Kenny (posthumous) - Waziristan Campaign, 1920 

Soldiers from the Garhwal Regiment were among the first Indian soldiers to receive the Victoria Cross — which 

was, at the time, the highest decoration a soldier in the British or Commonwealth Forces could receive for gallantry 

[291 
— with two soldiers receiving this honour for their actions during the First World War. A British officer of the 

4th/39th Garhwal Rifles, also received a Victoria Cross during the Waziristan Campaign in 1920. 

Decorations (Post Independence) 

Ashok Chakra Recipient: 

nil 

• Naik Bhavani Datt Joshi (posthumous), June 1984, Operation Blue Star, Amritsar, India for his actions during 

the operation against Sikh separatists 
Mahavir Chakra Recipient: 

• Lieutenant-Colonel Kaman Singh, Indo-Pakistan War, 1948. 

• Lieutenant-Colonel B.M Bhattacharya, Sino-Indian war, 1962 

• Rifleman Jaswant Singh Rawat (posthumous), Sino-Indian war, 1962 

• Captain Chandranarayan Singh, Indo-Pakistan war, 1965 

Of the other Gallantry award winners the following are of particular note - 



The Garhwal Rifles 103 

• During the Indo-Pakistan War of 1971, Rifleman Makar Singh Negi of 6 Garhwal Rifles received the Vir Chakra 
for exceptional bravery & valour, during the Battle of Nawanpind. 

• In 1989, Rifleman Kuldeep Singh Bhandari of 5 Garhwal Rifles received the Vir Chakra for his bravery, 

[32] 
leadership qualities and dedication to duty. 

• In 2003, Captain Vivek Mishra of 16 Garhwal Rifles received the Shaurya Chakra for his bravery, leadership 

[331 
qualities and dedication to duty. 

T341 

• Major Ajay Kothiyal received Kirti Chakra in 2004. He also led the mission which made military history and 

record as the first military to use ski in a mountaineering expedition. He used ski to come down the mountain - 
Mt. Trisul(7120m) [35] 

• Capt Vishal Bhandral (posthumous) Kirti Chakra in September 2006 near Bandipura in Baramulla district, 
J&K. [36] 

Reunion 2004 

The 12th Reunion of the Garhwal Rifles was organized at its Regimental Centre in Lansdowne in June 2004. The 
highlight of the two-day celebrations was the special sainik sammelan presided over by Maj Gen MC Bhandari, the 
Colonel of Garhwal Rifles and Garhwal Scouts. 

Addressing the sammelan, Maj Gen Bhandari recalled the gallant deeds of the Garhwali soldiers and said that the 
Garhwal Rifles has added a golden chapter in the annals of the Army history. Maj Gen Bhandari, on the occasion, 
released a commemorative First Day cover designed by Army Postal Service (APS) in the presence of Col M 
Eleesha, Director, APS, Central Command. 

An attestation parade was also held as part of the reunion celebrations in which 266 recruits were inducted as 
full-fledged soldiers. Maj Gen Bhandari, who administered the oath, also presented medals to the distinguished 
recruits of the course. Rfn Rajiv Singh was adjudged the best recruit and received gold medal. Rfn Ashish Rawat 
was declared best in drill, Rfn Bhagwan Singh in PT and Rfn Sandeep Singh in firing. After the parade, the Colonel 
of the Regiment felicitated 22 Veer Naris and next-of-kin of martyrs. 

Maj Gen Bhandari, retired senior officers and the Subedar Major of the Regimental Center laid wreaths in homage to 
those who laid down their lives in the battlefield and brought glory to their regiment in a solemn ceremony organised 
at the Regimental War Memorial. 

About 300 officers and jawans, both serving and retired, from across the country participated in the celebrations. The 
veteran soldiers who attended the celebrations included the 92-year-old Lt Col IS Thapa and 80-year-old Maj PM 
Rex who served the Royal Garhwal Rifles from 1942 to 1948 and had come along with his wife from England. 
Several senior retired officers of the regiment attended, including Lt. Gen. ML Tuli (former Vice Chief of Army 
Staff), and Lt. Gen. K. Mahendra Singh (former Deputy Chief of Army Staff, and Col. of the regiment), participated. 
Lt Gen RS Gaur, who retired as a Quarter Master General, Army Headquarters also participated in celebrations. 
They cherished old memories on this occasion. 

A badakhana and a variety entertainment programme were other highlights of the celebrations. A number of 
adventurous events organised to mark the occasion included para-drop and sky-diving demonstration by 50 
(Independent) Para Brigade, motorcycle display by a 36-member team of the Corps of Military Police which came 
from Bangalore dogs' display by RVC Centre, Meerut. 



The Garhwal Rifles 104 

The Quasqui Centenary (125 yrs) Celebrations 

The regiment shall be celebrating completion of its 125 years of valour laden history during Oct 2012. The event will 
be celebrated as a mega event spread over six days. The details will be posted shortly. 

The Regimental Centre — Lansdowne 

Lansdowne, at a height of 5800 ft (unknown operator: u'strong 1 m) above sea level, is the recruitment centre of the 
Garhwal Rifles. On October 1, 1921 the regimental centre celebrated its first founder's day. Now October 1 is 
celebrated as the raising day of the battalion. After Independence, the name of the centre was changed to Garhwal 
Rifles Regimental Centre. The rigorous drills during the training helps to infuse a sense of discipline in every recruit. 
Special emphasis is laid on physical fitness, mental toughness and weapon handling. After successful completion of 
the 34-week training course, a Garhwali youth is turned into a soldier. The soldier is then trained for two more weeks 
in counter-insurgency operations. 

Colonels of the Garhwal Rifles and Scouts 

• Maj. Gen. G Bharat Singh, MC 

• Maj. Gen. Hira Lai Atal 

• Maj. Gen. H.N. Shingal PVSM, AVSM 

• Lt. Gen. K. Mahendra Singh, PVSM (1979-1987) 

• Lt. Gen. R.V. Kulkarni, PVSM, UYSM 

• Maj. Gen. SPS Kanwar 

• Brig. Abinash Dhillon 

• Brig. Jagmohan Rawat 

• Maj. Gen. Satish Sondhi 

• Maj. Gen. Anil Walter Ranbhise 

• Lt Gen Dr Mohan Chandra Bhandari,PVSM, AVSM* 

• Lt. Gen. Paramjit Singh, PVSM, AVSM, VSM 

• Lt Gen B .K. Chengappa, AVSM 

• Lt Gen Syed Ata Hasnain, UYSM, AVSM, SM, VSM** 

Notes 

[I] Their involvement with regiments such as the Garhwal Rifles and the Kumaon Regiment reflects the participation of the hill people in the 
defence forces and their commitment to the Indian nation. 

[2] Sharma, p. 240 

[3] Sharma, p. 239 

[4] "List of Awardees" (http://envfor.nic. in/citizen/award/igpp.html#LIST). Ministry of Environment and Forests. . 

[5] Sharma, p. 241 

[6] Sharma, p. 242 

[7] Gabar Singh Negi 

[8] Sharma, p. 246 

[9] London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 32046. pp. 9133—9134 (http://www.london-gazette.co.uk/issues/32046/supplements/9133). 7 

September 1920. Retrieved 2008-01-15. 
[10] Kaul, p. 36 

[II] Sharma, p. 247 

[12] This was the opinion of the official Court of Inquiry, as cited by Sharma, p. 263, footnote 13 

[13] Sharma, p. 252 

[14] Sharma, p.248 

[15] Sharma, p. 253 

[16] Sen p.? 

[17] Sharma, p. 254 



The Garhwal Rifles 105 

[18] The Tribune, Chandigarh, India - National Capital Region (http://www.tribuneindia.com/2003/20031030/ncr.htm) 

[19] Maxwell, p. 330 

[20] http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/ARMY/History/1965War/PDF/1965Chapter08.pdf 

[21] The Poona Horse in the Battle of Buttur Dograndi September 1965 (http://www.defencejournal.com/feb-mar99/poona-horse.htm) 

[22] 2 Battalion, Garhwal Rifles (http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/2-garhwal.htm) 

[23] Surrender at Dacca - Birth of a nation - Lt. Gen J.F.R. Jacob, Manohar Publishers, 1997 

[24] New Age: Victory Day Special (http://www.newagebd.com/2007/dec/16/victoryday07/v05.html) 

[25] http://www.indianarmy.gov.in/arkargil/arunitcit.htm#9 

[26] The Lessons of Op Sarp Vinash (http://www.rediff.com/news/2003/jun/04ashok.htm) 

[27] http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/rgt-garhwal.htm 

[28] http://indianarmy.nic.in/Site/FormTemplete/frmTemplP2C_l.aspx?MnId=X0JhVOKHGag=&ParentID=VE+Qz4Hs3Yo= 

[29] For many years Indian soldiers were not eligible to receive the Victoria Cross, instead they received the Indian Order of Merit, which was 

considered to be equivalent. This was changed in 1911, however, when all members of the British Empire and Commonwealth forces became 

eligible for the Victoria Cross. On a further note, there were five VCs awarded to Indian soldiers during the First World War, and the Garhwal 

Regiment had the honour of winning two of them. 
[30] Barthorp, p. 158 

[31] http://indianarmy.nic.in/award/ashok_chakral.html 
[32] mod.nic.in/samachar/May24-88/index.htm 
[33] mod.nic.in/samachar/sepl6-04/index.htm 

[34] The Hindu : Ashok Chakra for Triveni Singh (http://www.hindu.com/2004/01/26/stories/2004012604591 100.htm) 
[35] http ://mod. nic. in/samachar/augO 1 -05/index. htm 
[36] R-Day awards: Five to get Kirti Chakra, Shaurya for 25 (http://www.indianexpress.com/news/rday-awards-five-to-get-kirti-chakra-shau/ 

21795/) 

References 

• Barthorp, Michael. 2002. Afghan Wars and the North-West Frontier 1839-1947. Cassell. London. ISBN 
0-304-36294-8. 

• Dalve, J. P. (Brig.). Himalayan Blunder. Natraj Publishers 

• Das, Chand. 1997. Hours of Glory: Famous Battles of the Indian Army, 1801—1971. Vision Books. 

• Evatt, J. Historical Record of the Royal Garhwal Rifles Vol I, 1887—1922. Gale & Polden. 

• Jacob, JFR Lt. Gen. 1997. Surrander at Dacca, birth of a nation, Manohar Publishers 

• Kaul, Suvir. 2002. The Partitions of Memory: The Afterlife of the Division of India. Indiana University Press. 
ISBN 0-253-21566-8. 

• Maxwell, Neville. 1970. India's China War. Pantheon Books. 

• Palit, D.K. (Brig.) War in the High Himalayas 

• Prasad, S.N & Chakravorty, B. 1976. History of the Custodian Force (India) in Korea, 1953—54. Historical 
Section, Ministry of Defence, Government of India. 

• Sen, L.P. (Lt.Gen.). 1998. Slender was the thread. Orient Longman 

• Sharma, Gautam. 1990. Valour and Sacrifice: Famous Regiments of the Indian Army. Allied Publishers. ISBN 
81-7023-140-X. 

External links 

• The Garhwal Rifles (http://www.defenceindia.com/defenceind/garhwal_rifles.html) - Website Defence India 

• The Garhwal Rifles (http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/rgt-garhwal.htm) - 
Globalsecurity.org 



Kumaon Regiment 



106 



Kumaon Regiment 



The Kumaon Regiment 


Regimental Insignia of the Kumaon Regiment 


Active 


1813 - Present (1945-Present with the name "The Kumaon regiment") 


Country 


India 


Branch 


Army 


Type 


Infantry 


Size 


19 Battalions including 1 battalion of the Kumaon Scouts 


Regimental 
Centre 


Ranikhet, Uttarakhand 


Motto 


Parakramo Vijayate (Valour Triumphs) 


War Cry 


Kalika Mata Ki Jai (Victory to the Great Goddess Kali) 
Bajrang Bali Ki Jai (Victory to Bajrang Bali) 
Dada Kishan Ki Jai (Victory to Dada Kishan) 
Jai Durge Naga 


Decorations 


2 Param Vir Chakras, 4 Ashoka Chakras, 10 Maha Vir Chakras, 6 Kirti Chakras, 2 Uttam Yudh Seva Medals, 78 
Vir Chakras, 1 Vir Chakra & Bar, 23 Shaurya Chakras, 1 Yudh Seva Medal, 127 Sena Medals, 2 Sena Medals 
and Bar, 8 Param Vishisht Seva Medals, 24 Ati Vishisht Seva Medals, 1 PV, 2 PB, 1 PS, 1 AW and 36 Vishisht 
Seva Medals. 


Battle honours 


Post Independence Srinagar (Badgam), Rezangla, Gadra City, Bhaduria, Daudkandi, Sanjoi Mirpur and 
Shamsher Nagar 


Commanders 


Current 
commander 


Lt Gen N. C. Marwah, AVSM 


Notable 
commanders 


General S M Shrinagesh 
General K S Thimayya 
General T N Raina 


Insignia 


Regimental 
Insignia 


A demi-rampant lion holding a cross. The demi-rampant lion is part of the arms of the Russel family, whose 
ancestor had started the body of troops now formed into the Kumaon Regiment. 



The Kumaon Regiment is one of the most decorated regiments of the Indian Army. The regiment traces its origins 
to the 18th century and has fought in every major campaign of the British Indian Army and the Indian Army, 
including the two world wars. Kumaon gets its recruits from Kumaonis of Kumaon division and Ahir from the 



plains 



[l] 



History 



Martial History of Kumaonis 

Kumaonis have been famous for their valour, their legendary courage and their indomitable honour. The Kumaonis 
were never fully subjugated by the powerful Muslim dynasties of Delhi. They often offered their martial services as 
mercenaries, and fought on both the British as well as Gurkha sides in the Anglo-Nepalese War. Their valour was 
recognized by the British and they were enlisted in the British Army. Interestingly, the famous 3rd Gurkha 



Kumaon Regiment 107 

regiment was known as the Keemaon battalion when it was formed and included Kumaonis along with the 
Gurkhas. They were classified as a Martial Race by the British. The achievements of the regiment are a living 
testimony of their martial traditions. 

Origins in the Hyderabad Contingent 

The Kumaonis were in the military of the East India Company from the early 19th century. They often moved to 
other states in search of military service, including in the service of the Nizam of Hyderabad. 

The Nizam's Contingent was formed when Richard Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley, brother of Arthur Wellesley, 

1st Duke of Wellington, became Governor-General of India and formed a plan to rid India of French influence. His 

first action, on arriving in India in 1798, was to effect the disbandment of the Indian units of the Nizam under the 

command of Monsieur Raymond and officered by non-British Europeans. These soldiers were formed into the 

British officered Nizam's Contingent that fought at the Battle of Seringapatam in 1799 against Tippu Sultan in the 

mi 
final battle of the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War. 

In 1813, Sir Henry Russell, then British Resident in the court of Nizam of Hyderabad, raised the Russell Brigade 
comprising two battalions. Later, four more battalions were raised and they were known as the Berar Infantry. In 
addition, two battalions known as the Elichpur Brigade, were raised by Nawab Salabat Khan, Subedar of Berar, as a 
part of the Nizam's forces. The men of the Russell Brigade were chiefly Hindus, recruited from Oudh and other parts 
of Uttar Pradesh. [5] 

By 1853, at the time of the signing of a treaty between the Nizam and the British, the Nizam's forces consisted of 8 
battalions. The force was renamed as the Hyderabad Contingent, and became part of the British Indian Army. 

During World War I, a Kumaon Battalion was raised at Ranikhet on 23 October 1917 as 4/39th Kumaon Rifles. In 
1918, it was redesignated as 1st battalion, 50th Kumaon Rifles and a second battalion was raised. These were merged 
with the Hyderabad Contingent into the 19th Hyderabad Regiment in 1923. Some units of the regiment were 
demobilized after World War I, but the regiment was again expanded during World War II. 

On 27 October 1945, the 19th Hyderabad was renamed as 19 Kumaon Regiment. Post-independence, it has been 
known as the Kumaon Regiment. 

Regimental history 

On 1 November 1970, the Naga Regiment was raised and affiliated with the Kumaon Regiment. Kumaon has 
produced three Indian Army Chiefs: General Satyawant Mallannah Shrinagesh (4 Kumaon), General Kodendera 
Subayya Thimayya (4 Kumaon) and General Tapishwar Narain Raina (14 Kumaon). 

1 Kumaon, originally raised in March 1813, converted to the airborne role in 1946 but remained a part of the 
regiment until April 1952 when it was formally inducted into the Parachute Regiment as 3 Para. 

14 Kumaon, converted to the mechanised infantry role, and was transferred to the Mechanised Infantry Regiment, as 
its 5th Battalion. 

Engagements 
World War I 

During World War I, the first all Kumaoni battalions were raised. The first was formed in 1917 as the 4/39th 
(Kumaon) Royal Garhwal Rifles and redesignated in 1918 as the 1st Battalion, 50th Kumaon Rifles when it fought in 
the Battle of Megiddo (1918). A 2nd Battalion was also raised in 1918 but disbanded in 1923. The Hyderabad 
Contingent, with its mixed Kumaoni, Jats, Ahirs and Deccan Muslims, continued and fought with distinction in the 
Great War. In 1922, during the Indian Army reorganisation, the six regiments of the Hyderabad Contingent were 
renamed as the 19th Hyderabad Regiment and infantry companies formed from the Kumaon region replaced many of 



Kumaon Regiment 108 

the Deccan Muslim based companies. In 1923 the l/50th Kumaon Rifles joined the 19th Hyderabad Regiment as the 

Mi 
1st Kumaon Rifles. In 1935 the battalion commanders attempted to have the regiment renamed as the 19th 

Kumaon Regiment, due to the diminishing links to the Deccan and Hyderabad regions. The request was refused. 

World War II 

The 19th Hyderabad Regiment in 1939 consisted of four regular battalions; the 1st (Russell's), 2nd (Berar), 4th and 

The Kumaon Rifles. The Hyderabads expanded during the war adding another eight battalions to the 19th Hyderabad 

Regiment. Two more battalions, the 1st and 2nd Hyderabad Infantry, were raised as part of the Indian State Forces. 

The battalions of the 19th Hyderabad Regiment fought in the Middle East, North African Campaign, Persia, Battle of 

mi 
Malaya, Battle of Singapore and Burma Campaign. 

The Kumaon Rifles were based in Hong Kong at the beginning of the Second World War but were transferred to the 
Middle East as part of the 24th Indian Infantry Brigade. The battalion took part in the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran 
in 1941 under Major-General William Slim. They remained in Persia as part of the garrison throughout the rest of 
the war. 

The 4th Battalion was part of the 12th Indian Infantry Brigade based in Malaya when the Japanese Army invaded in 
December 1941. The 4/19th Hyderabads were one of the few battalions in Malaya that were relatively well trained in 
jungle warfare. Although the battalion performed well in the fighting retreat in north-west Malaya, they were 
practically annihilated at the disastrous Battle of Slim River on 7 January 1942. The few survivors of the 4th 
Battalion were withdrawn to Singapore where they took part in the brief defence of the island before it surrendered 
on 15 February 1942. 

Sino-Indian War of 1962 

Battle of Walong 

This was the only battle of the war in which an Indian unit attacked the Chinese, rather than defending. On 14 
November 1962, 6 KUMAON single-handedly attacked and captured Chinese defenses in the Walong sector, 
Arunachal Pradesh without any artillery or aerial support. 

The Chinese retaliated with wave after wave of human bodies and artillery. The Kumaonis were vastly outnumbered 
by over 10 to 1, but held the ground and repulsed every attack until all their ammunition was exhausted, without any 
logistical support. They then engaged in hand-to-hand combat, and fought to the last man and bullet. Five times as 
many Chinese soldiers died in the battle. The Chinese succeeded in retaking the defences when there was no 
Kumaoni left standing. 

Five Vir Chakras were awarded to 6 KUMAON soldiers for the battle. The Battalion celebrates November 14 as 
Walong Day. 

Battle of Rezang La 

Among the many heroic exploits to the regiment's credit is the last stand of Company C, 13 Kumaon Regiment, at 
Rezang La, Ladakh. The First Battle of Rezang La has been placed in the ten most heroic stands in history along 
with the Battle of Saragarhi and Battle of the Alamo. Of the 118 men at Rezang La, 109 men laid down their lives, 5 
men were captured and only 4 men returned alive. None of the No. 7 Platoon survived the action. 

Major Shaitan Singh, commanding officer of the C Company, was posthumously awarded the Param Vir Chakra for 
his exemplary leadership during the battle. The account of this battle was an inspiration for Kavi Pradeep's legendary 
song, Aye Mere Watan Ke Logon, sung by Lata Mangeshkar. 

13 Kumaon was deployed in Chushul sector. 'C Company's three platoons were numbered 7, 8 and 9 and had 
Lee-Enfield .303 rifles with about 600 rounds per jawan, and between them six LMGs, and 1,000 grenades and 
mortar bombs. The 'C Coy held a crucial position at Rezang La, at a height of 5000 metres (unknown operator: 



Kumaon Regiment 109 

u'strong 1 ft). The company area was defended by three platoon positions and the surrounding mountainous terrain 
isolated it from the rest of the battalion. The expected Chinese attack on Rezang La came on the morning of 
November 18. It was at the end of a very cold winter night, with light snow falling. The icy winds howling through 
Rezang La were biting and benumbing. More than the thin air and cold, the location of Rezang La had a more 
serious drawback. It was crested to Indian artillery because of an intervening feature, which meant that C Coy had no 
covering fire from the big guns. In the dim light of the morning, the Chinese were seen advancing through nullahs to 
attack No. 7 and No. 8 platoon positions. 

The Indian Army troops fell on their prepared positions to face the Chinese offensive. At 0500 hours when visibility 
improved, both platoons opened up on the advancing Chinese with rifles, light machine guns, grenades and mortars. 
Indian artillery could, however, not be used. The nullahs were littered with Chinese dead bodies. The survivors took 
position behind boulders and the dead bodies. The Chinese, though they failed the first frontal attack, were not 
discouraged. They subjected the Indian positions to intense artillery and mortar fire at about 0540 hours. Soon afer 
about 350 Chinese troops commenced advance through the nullahs. This time, No. 9 Platoon, which held fire till the 
enemy was within 90 metres opened up with all weapons in their possession. Within minutes, the nullahs were again 
full of dead bodies, mainly the Chinese. 

Unsuccessful in frontal attack, the enemy, approximately 400 strong, then attacked from the rear of the company 
position. They simultaneously opened intense medium machine gun fire on No. 8 Platoon. This attack was contained 
at the barbed wire fencing of the post. The Chinese then resorted to heavy artillery and mortar shelling. An assault 
group of 120 Chinese also charged No. 7 Platoon position from the rear. However, Indian Army 3-inch mortar killed 
many of them. When 20 survivors charged the post, about a dozen Kumaonis rushed out of their trenches to engage 
in hand-to-hand combat. Meanwhile, the Chinese brought up fresh reinforcements. The encirclement of No. 7 Platoon 
was now complete. The platoon, however, fought valiantly till there were no survivors. No. 8 Platoon also fought 
bravely to the last round. 

Major Shaitan Singh, the Company Commander, displayed exemplary leadership and courage in the battle of Rezang 
La. By all survivor accounts, he led his troops most admirably. Unmindful of his personal safety he moved from one 
platoon post to another and encouraged his men to fight. While moving among the posts he was seriously wounded, 
by a sniping Chinese MMG. But he continued to fight along with his men. While he was being evacuated by two of 
his comrades, the Chinese brought heavy machine gun fire on them. Major Shaitan Singh sensing danger to their 
lives, ordered them to leave him. They placed him behind a boulder on the slopes of a hill, where he breathed his 
last. 

The Chinese announced a unilateral ceasefire on November 21, 1962. 

In this action, 109 Kumaonis out of a total of 123 were killed. Of the 14 survivors, 9 were severely injured. The 
Chinese suffered almost a thousand casualties. After the war was over, the body of Major Shaitan Singh was found at 
the same place, dead from the bullet wounds and the freezing cold. He was flown to Jodhpur and cremated with full 
military honours. Major Shaitan Singh was awarded Param Vir Chakra, the highest wartime gallantry medal, 
posthumously, for his leadership and devotion to duty. 



Kumaon Regiment 110 

Indo-Pakistan War of 1965 

Battle of Kumaon Hill 

Two companies of Kumaon captured Kumaon Hill after ousting companies of 23 Azad Kashmir Battalion and the 
Special Service Group from the heights on 21 September. Captain Surendra Shah and Naik Chander Singh were 
awarded the Vir Chakra for the battle. 

Battle of Maharajke 

On 7 September 1965 a Kumaon battalion attacked and captured a Pakistan Army stronghold in village Pagowal, 13 
miles inside West Pakistan. On 7 September, 9 KUMAON, under the command Capt V K Bogra further advanced 
and captured Maharajke. Naik Ganesh Dutt of the 9 Kumaon was awarded the Vir Chakra for his role in capturing 
Maharjke against Pakistani defenses. 

Battle of Chhamb 

To preempt Pakistani attacks into India, a Kumaon battalion was advanced into to Mandiala Heights in West 
Pakistan at August end, 1965. Before they had the chance to set up any defences, the Pakistan Army started a major 
offensive in the Chhamb sector in the early hours of 1 September, accompanied by massive artillery shelling 
targeting the Kumaon battalion's positions. There followed an armored thrust by 2 Pakistani armored divisions. 
Faced with enemy advancing from 3 sides, the battalion held off for a day and a half. On 2 September the battalion 
was ordered to withdraw, after they had destroyed 4 Pakistani tanks. One Vir Chakra was awarded for the action. 

Indo-Pakistan War of 1971 

T71 
Kumaon battalions were deployed and fought on both the Eastern and the Western fronts during the war. 

Operation Meghdoot 

The Indian Army's initiative to hold the Siachen Glacier consisted of units of the Kumaon Regiment and the Ladakh 
Scouts. It was led by Major R.S. Sandhu, who was awarded the Vir Chakra for his leadership. Captain Sanjay 
Kulkarni's unit was the first to land on Bilafond La and hoist the Indian tricolour. Kumaon units were instrumental in 

ro] 

Indian success in capturing the glacier and repelling Pakistani attempts to retake it. 

Anticipating a Pakistani attack on the glacier at the start of the spring thaw in 1984, a full Kumaon battalion led by 
Lieutenant Colonel (later Brigadier) D.K. Khanna, marched on foot with full packs and equipment for weeks in the 
dead of the winter across Zoji La, through the world's toughest terrain, highest altitudes and most forbidding climate. 
Naik (later Subedar/Honorary Captain) Ram Mehar Singh was awarded the Shaurya Chakra for his gallant role 
during the move. This turned out to be a vital move that enabled Indian victory in Operation Meghdoot. 

Operation Pawan 

Kumaon units were deployed to Sri Lanka during Operation Pawan. A Kumaon battalion was the first Indian Army 

ro] 

unit to land in Jaffna at the Palali airfield. It successfully cleared the Kokuvil area, and moving to Mallakam. A 
number of LTTE militants were killed or captured. 

Another battalion was deployed to search and destroy LTTE camps in the Kumurupiddi and Irrakandi areas of the 
Trincomalee Sector. Among the areas in which Kumaon units were deployed and operated included Kilividdi of 
Muttur Sector, Sampur, Vellvutturai and Point Pedro. 



Kumaon Regiment 111 

Kargil War 

Kumaon units were deployed during Operation Vijay to oust Pakistani Army regulars who had infiltrated the Kargil 
sector posing as insurgents. In difficult terrain and hostile weather conditions, they cleared and captured a number of 
altitude features. The regiment was honored with a number of gallantry awards for the operations. 

Units 

2nd Battalion 

3rd Battalion <Rifles> 

4th Battalion <Fighting Fourth> 

5th Battalion 

6th Battalion 

7th Battalion 

8th Battalion 

9th Battalion 

1 1th Battalion <double first veer aheer» 

12th Battalion 

13th Battalion [ REZANG LA ] 

15th Battalion < Indore> 

16th Battalion 

17th Battalion (ex-31st Battalion) 

18th Battalion 

19th Battalion 

20th Battalion 

21st Battalion 

Kumaon Scouts 

The Kumaon regiment also has affiliated to it three battalions (third Bn the Naga Regt is recently raised)of the Naga 
Regiment and two Territorial Army units (the 111 Infantry Battalion and the 130 Infantry Battalion), a naval ship 
and an airforce squadron. 

Furthermore, the following regiments were also associated with this regiment at one time: 

• 1st Battalion - Now the 3rd Parachute 

• 10th Battalion - Now the Kumaon Regimental Centre 

• 14th Battalion - Now the 5th Mech. Inf [9] 

Battle honours 

Srinagar (Badgam) 
Rezang La 
Gadra City 
Bhaduria 
Daudkandi 
Sanjoi Mirpur 
Shamsher Nagar 



Kumaon Regiment 112 

Decorations 

The regiment has won 2 Param Vir Chakras, 4 Ashoka Chakras, 10 Maha Vir Chakras, 6 Kirti Chakras, 2 Uttam 
Yudh Seva Medals, 78 Vir Chakras, 1 Vir Chakra & Bar, 23 Shaurya Chakras, 1 Yudh Seva Medal, 127 Sena 
Medals, 2 Sena Medals and Bar, 8 Param Vishisht Seva Medals, 24 Ati Vishisht Seva Medals, 1 PV, 2 PB, 1 PS, 1 
AW and 36 Vishisht Seva Medals. 

Param Vir Chakra 

• Major Somnath Sharma (Posthumous), 4 Kumaon, Badgam, Kashmir, Indo-Pakistan War of 1947 

T71 

• Major Shaitan Singh, (Posthumous), 13 Kumaon, Chushul, Ladakh, Sino-Indian War of 1962 

Major Somnath Sharma, 4th Kumaon, was the first recipient of the Param Vir Chakra (Posthumous), for the 
Regiment in October 1947. He was also the first individual, from the three Services, to receive the Param Vir Chakra 
- India's highest award for gallantry. Major Shaitan Singh, 13th Kumaon, was the second recipient of the Param Vir 
Chakra (Posthumous), in November 1962. 

Ashoka Chakra 

• Major Bhukant Mishra (Posthumous), 15 Kumaon, June 1984, Operation Blue Star, Amritsar, Punjab 

• Naik Nirbhay Singh (Posthumous), 15 Kumaon, June 1984, Operation Blue Star, Amritsar, Punjab 

• Subedar Sujjan Singh (Posthumous), 13 Kumaon, 1994, Operation Rakshak,Zalurah, Kupwara, J&K, India 

• Naik Rambeer Singh Tomar (Posthumous), 15 Kumaon (on deputation to 26 Rashtriya Rifles), Doda, Jammu and 
Kashmir 

Maha Vir Chakra 

T71 

• Lieutenant Colonel Dharam Singh, Indo-Pakistan War of 1947 

T71 

• Sepoy Man Singh (Posthumous), Indo-Pakistan War of 1947 

T71 

• Naik Nar Singh (Posthumous), Indo-Pakistan War of 1947 

T71 

• Sepoy Dewan Singh, Indo-Pakistan War of 1947 

T71 

• Major Malikiat Singh Brar (Posthumous), Indo-Pakistan War of 1947 

T71 

• Brigadier (later General) Tapishwar Narayan Raina, Sino-Indian War of 1962 

Colonels of the Regiment 

• Maj. Gen. SB Pope DSO, CB - August 28, 1931 to May 31, 1949 

• Gen. KS Thimayya Padma Bhushan, DSO - June 01, 1949 to May 08, 1961 

• Lt. Gen. Kunwar Bahadur Singh MBE - May 16, 1961 to May 15, 1971 

• Gen. TN Raina Padma Bhushan, MVC - May 16, 1971 to May 31, 1978 

• Lt. Gen. PN Kathpalia PVSM, AVSM - June 01, 1978 to October 31, 1985 

• Lt. Gen. RN Mahajan PVSM, AVSM - November 01, 1985 to July 31, 1991 

• Lt. Gen. DD Saklani PVSM, AVSM - August 01, 1991 to December 31, 1993 

• Lt. Gen. MM Lakhera PVSM, AVSM, VSM, ADC - June 01, 1994 to October 31, 1995 

• Maj. Gen. Surendra Shah VrC, VSM - November 01, 1995 to July 31, 2001 

• Maj. Gen. AK Sarwate AVSM - August 01, 2001 to February 28, 2003 

• Lt. Gen. AS Bahia PVSM, AVSM** - March 01, 2003 to 



Kumaon Regiment 113 

References 

[1] Brief History of the Kumaon Regiment from official site of INDIAN Army (http://indianarmy.nic.in/Site/FormTemplete/ 

frmTempl2PLM8C.aspx?MnId=QezfHTV88Qc=&ParentID=DULbcoORu9o=) 
[2] Ethnic Group Recruitment in the Indian Army by Dr. Omar Khalid. (http://www.defenceindia.com/def_common/ 

ethnic_group_recruitment. html) 
[3] "History of the Kumaon Regiment" (http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world7india/rgt-kumaon.htm). Globalsecurity.org. . 

Retrieved 2009-05-21. 
[4] "Indian Army, A brief history of the Kumaon Regiment" (http://indianarmy.nic.in/arms/kumaon/history.html). Official Home of the 

Indian Army. . Retrieved 2009-05-21. 
[5] http://indianarmy.nic.in/Site/FormTemplete/frmTempl2PLM8C.aspx?MnId=QezfHTV88Qc=&ParentID=DULbcoORu9o= 
[6] Gardner, Brian. "Orders ofBattle.com" (http://www.ordersofbattle.com/UnitData.aspx?UniX=9686&Tab=Sup). . Retrieved 2009-05-21. 
[7] http://indianarmy.nic.in/Site/FormTemplete/frmTemp5Pl lC.aspx?MnId=Q6YcbySIYr8=&ParentID=l/O4fj0Mcdg=&flag=p 
[8] http://indianarmy.nic.in/Site/FormTemplete/frmTemp3PLMMCRM6C.aspx?MnId=YSzhflkWAbU=&ParentID=l/O4fj0Mcdg= 
[9] http://www.bharat-rakshak.eom/LAND-FORCES/Units/Infantry/l 1 l-Kumaon-Regt.html 
[10] http://www.euttaranchal.com/education/institutes/kumaon_regiment.php 

(http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/rgt-kumaon.htm) 

The Kumaon Regiment on Bharat-Rakshak (http:/ / www. bharat-rakshak. com/ LAND-FORCES/ Army/ 
Regiments/Kumaon. html) 



Jammu & Kashmir Rifles 



114 



Jammu & Kashmir Rifles 



Jammu & Kashmir Rifles 


The Regimental Insignia of the Jammu & Kashmir Rifles 


Active 


1821— present 


Country 


India 


Branch 


Army 


Type 


Line Infantry 


Role 


Infantry 


Size 


19 battalions 


Motto 


Prashata Ranvirta (Valour in Battle is Praiseworthy) 


War Cry 


[2] 
Durga Mata Ki Jai (Victory to Goddess Durga) 


Decorations 


2 Param Vir Chakras, 1 Padma Bushan, 2 Ashok Chakras, 3 Param Vishist Seva Medals, 6 Maha Vir Chakras, 
Kirti Chakras, 4 Ati Vishist Seva Medals, 34 Vir Chakras, 21 Shaurya Chakras, 1 Uttam Yudh Seva Medal, 97 
Sena Medals, 2 Yudh Seva Medals, 31 Vishist Seva Medals, 52 Mentioned-in-Despatches, 243 CO AS 
Commendation Cards and 101 Army Commanders Commendation Cards 


11 


Insignia 


Regimental 
Insignia 


An oval embracing the sun, the State emblem. The Sanskrit inscription around the sun, which cannot be read on the 
regimental insignia above, translates as, "Ever Victorious in War" 



The Jammu & Kashmir Rifles is an infantry regiment of the Indian Army. The Jammu & Kashmir State Forces was 
the only former Princely State Forces of India to be absorbed into the Indian Army as a distinct and separate 
Regiment. In 1963, the designation was changed to Jammu & Kashmir Rifles. After the conversion, the Ladakh 



Scouts came under the aegis of the Regiment, where it remained until raised as a separate Regiment in 2002 



[4] 



History 



The Jammu & Kashmir Rifles has a unique regimental history. It was not raised by the British but by an intrepid 
Indian ruler called Gulab Singh in 1821. Gulab Singh was one of the ablest Generals of Maharaja Ranjit Singh and 
later became the ruler of the Jammu & Kashmir state. 

The Sikhs ruled Kashmir until their defeat by the British. Thereafter, Maharaja Gulab Singh of Jammu paid Rs. 75 
lakhs to the East India Company in 1846 in exchange for Kashmir and some other areas under a treaty later named as 
'Treaty of Amritsar'. Jammu and Kashmir as a single entity was unified and founded by Maharaja Gulab Singh on 16 
March 1846. Zorawar Singh, a General in the Dogra Corps of the Khalsa Army of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, later led 
daredevil campaigns in northern areas like Ladakh, Baltistan, Gilgit, Hunza and Yagistan, consolidating smaller 
principalities and making the northern areas a part of the expanding dominions of Maharaja Gulab Singh. Zorawar 
Singh mounted a breath-taking invasion of Tibet in 1841. 

The Maharaja of Kashmir maintained a larger number of State Forces than any other Ruler of an Indian State under 
the British Raj. These forces were organized into the Jammu and Kashmir Brigades. They comprised one Bodyguard 
Cavalry regiment, two Mountain Batteries, seven active and one training battalions of Infantry and a Transport unit 
consisting of both pack and mechanized transport. Several of these units served with distinction on the North-West 
Frontier of India and overseas during the Great War . The state forces fought as Imperial Service troops in both the 
First and Second World Wars (under their own native officers). They distinguished themselves in East Africa, 



Jammu & Kashmir Rifles 115 

Palestine and Burma. 

Kashmir War of 1947 

The regiment's grimmest hour came during the Pakistani invasion of Kashmir in 1947. It was their heroic stand that 
gained time for the entry of the Indian Army and thus saved the Kashmir Valley. It may not be out of place to 
mention that the Indian people largely owe the State of Jammu & Kashmir to the heroic defensive stand made by the 
outnumbered and ill-equipped, but highly motivated, J&K State Force. They paid a steep price in blood and 
sacrificed over 76 officers, 31 JCOs and 1085 Other Ranks. For their gallant stand they earned three Maha Vir 
Chakra, 20 Vir Chakras and 52 Mentioned in Despatches. 

UN Peacekeeping Operations 

A Jammu and Kashmir Rifles battalion was part of the UN force in Cambodia during 1990-93. 

Recruitment 

Much of the Army's Jammu and Kashmir Light Infantry Regiment and Jammu and Kashmir Rifles Regiment are 
made of recruits from Poonch, Rajouri and Doda villages. 

Units 

1st Battalion 

2nd Battalion 

3rd Battalion 

4th Battalion 

5th Battalion 

6th Battalion 

7th Battalion 

8th Battalion 

9th Battalion 

10th Battalion 

11th Battalion 

12th Battalion 

13th Battalion 

14th Battalion 

15th Battalion 

17th Battalion 

18th Battalion 

19th Battalion 

20th Battalion 

16th Battalion - is now the 14th Mech. Infantry [8] 



Jammu & Kashmir Rifles 116 

Battle honours 

• Defence of Chitral 

• The Great War: Megiddo, Sharon, Nablus, Palestine 1918, Kilimanjaro, Beho Beho, East Africa 1914-17 

• The Second World War: Kennedy Peak, Defence of Meiktila, Burma 1942-45 

• Punch, Skardu, Jammu and Kashmir 1947-48, Battle of Asal Uttar, Punjab 1965, Syamganj, East Pakistan 1971 

• Point 5 140, 4875, Rocky Knob during kargil War, 1999. 

Note: Pre-1948 honours inherited from several battalions of Kashmir State Forces. 

Decorations 

Param Vir Chakra 

• Captain Vikram Batra, 13th Battalion - Kargil, 1999 

• Rifleman Sanjay Kumar, 13th Battalion - Kargil, 1999 

Others 

1 Padma Bushan 

2 Ashok Chakras 

3 Param Vishist Seva Medals 
6 Maha Vir Chakras 
1 1 Kirti Chakras 

4 Ati Vishist Seva Medals 
34 Vir Chakras 
21 Shaurya Chakras 

1 Uttam Yudh Seva Medal 
97 Sena Medals 

2 Yudh Seva Medals 
31 Vishist Seva Medals 
52 Mentioned-in-Despatches 
243 CO AS Commendation Cards and 
101 Army Commanders Commendation Cards 

References 

[1] http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/LAND-FORCES/Units/Infantry/115-Jak-Rifles.html 

[2] http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/LAND-FORCES/Units/Infantry/115-Jak-Rifles.html 

[3] http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/LAND-FORCES/Units/Infantry/115-Jak-Rifles.html 

[4] http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/rgt-jkr.htm 

[5] http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/rgt-jkr.htm 

[6] http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/rgt-jkr.htm 

[7] http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/rgt-jkr.htm 

[8] http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/LAND-FORCES/Units/Infantry/115-Jak-Rifles.html 

[9] http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/LAND-FORCES/Units/Infantry/115-Jak-Rifles.html 



Jammu and Kashmir Light Infantry 



117 



Jammu and Kashmir Light Infantry 



Jammu and Kashmir Light Infantry 


The Regimental Insignia of the Jammu and Kashmir Light Infantry 


Active 


1947— present 


Country 


India 


Branch 


Army 


Type 


Line Infantry 


Role 


Infantry 


Size 


19 battalions 


Garrison/HQ 


Avantipur, lammu & Kashmir 


Motto 


Balidanam Vir Lakshanam (Sacrifice is a Sign of the Brave) 


War Cry 


Bharat Mata Ki Jai (Victory to Mother India) 


Decorations 


1 Param Vir Chakra, 10 Maha Vir Chakras, 34 Vir Chakras, 4 Shaurya Chakras and 56 Sena Medals. 


Insignia 


Regimental Insignia 


A pair of crossed muskets 



The Jammu and Kashmir Light Infantry (JAKLI) is an infantry regiment of the Indian Army. 

The regimental center is in Srinagar's Airport Complex at Avantipur with a small winter setup near Jammu. It's 
regimental insignia consists of a pair of crossed rifles. The motto of the regiment is Balidanam Vir Lakshanam 

{Sacrifice is a characteristic of the Brave). 

The regiment mostly consists of volunteers from the state of Jammu & Kashmir. It has 50% Muslims while the rest 
represent other ethnic groups from the state 



12] 



History 

In response to the Pakistani invasion of Kashmir in 1947, local militias were raised for specific sectors, such as 
Jammu, Leh, Nubra, etc. The militias were a paramilitary force under the Indian Ministry of Home Affairs and 
operated on the Line of Control. Following the Sino-Indian War of 1962, in 1963 the 7th and 14th Battalions of 
the J&K Militia were spun off to form the Ladakh Scouts. 

The militias conducted themselves with great distinction during the Indo-Pakistan War of 1965 and earned 3 Battle 
Honours during the Indo-Pakistan War of 1971. The troopers of the force felt strongly that they wanted the dignity 
and privileges of a regular army unit, especially keeping in mind their performance and sacrifice in the recent wars. 
Keeping this in mind, the then head of the J&K Militia, Brigadier Lekhraj Singh Puar of the Garhwal Rifles, who 
was on deputation to the MHA from the Indian Army, prepared and presented plans to the Ministry of Home Affairs 
for conversion of the militia into regular unit on his own initiative. These efforts bore fruit, and in 1972, the J&K 
Militia was converted to a full fledged Army regiment as the Jammu and Kashmir Militia under the Ministry of 
Defence. Brigadier Puar went on to become the first Colonel of the Regiment. In 1976, the regiment was renamed as 
the Jammu and Kashmir Light Infantry. 



Jammu and Kashmir Light Infantry 118 

Engagements 



The JAK LI has served with honor in numerous theaters. 

Siachen Conflict 

In 1984, JAK LI was deployed to the Siachen Glacier, during Operation Meghdoot. The 8th JAK LI earned great 
honour by capturing a Pakistani post at 21,000 feet at the Siachen Glacier in 1987. Naib Subedar Bana Singh, 8th 
JAK LI, earned the Param Vir Chakra for the Regiment in this battle. He is the first and only recipient of the PVC for 
the Regiment. Major VS Minhas won a Vir Chakra, for gallantry displayed during the same engagement. 

IPKF and Sri Lanka 

In 1987, JAK LI was deployed to Sri Lanka during Operation Pawan. 

UN Peacekeeping in Somalia 

In 1992-93, a unit from JAK LI Regt.ie 2JAKLI was deployed as a part of UNISOM II, the UN Peacekeeping 
Mission in Somalia. 

Kargil War 

In 1999, JAK LI earned honours in the Kargil War. The Chief of Army Staff made a special instant award of "Unit 
Citation" to 12th Battalion, The Jammu and Kashmir Light Infantry for their exceptionally gallant and sterling 
performance during the battles of Point 5203 on night 10/11 June 1999 and Point 4812 on night 30 June/01 July 
1999 in Batalik Sector. The overall performance of the battalion during Operation Vijay was exceptional and marked 
with exemplary valour and grit in the face of the enemy. 

Units 

1st Battalion 
2nd Battalion 
3rd Battalion 
4th Battalion 
5th Battalion 
6th Battalion 
8th Battalion 
9th Battalion 
10th Battalion 
11th Battalion 
12th Battalion 
13th Battalion 
15th Battalion 
16th Battalion 
17th Battalion 

The following two battalions were formerly a part of this regiment: 

• 7th Battalion - Now the 1st Ladakh Scouts 

• 14th Battalion - Now the 2nd Ladakh Scouts [6] 



Jammu and Kashmir Light Infantry 119 

Distinctions 
Battle Honours 

• Laleali, Indo-Pakistani War of 1 97 1 [2] [7] [8] 

• Picquet 707, Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 [2][8] 

T21 

• Shingo River Valley, Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 

• Gutrain, Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 

Gallantry Awards 

The following personnel of the JAK LI, have received the highest honors for gallantry: 

• Naib Subedar Bana Singh, 8 JAK LI, Operation Meghdoot, Param Vir Chakra 

• Lt Triveni Singh, 5 JAK LI, Ashoka Chakra 

T21 

• Lt Keishing Clifford Nangrum, 12 JAK LI, Posthumous, Kargil War, Maha Vir Chakra 

• Nb Sub Chuni Lai, Ashok Chakra (P), Vir Chakra, Sena Medal (Gallantry 

References 

[1] http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/LAND-FORCES/Units/Infantry/116-Jak-Li.html 

[2] Official Website of Indian Army (http://indianarmy.nic. in/Site/FormTemplete/frmTemplP2C_l.aspx?MnId=gsraipTJ3a8=& 

ParentID=VE+Qz4Hs3Yo=). Indianarmy.nic.in. Retrieved on 2011-03-21. 
[3] http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/LAND-FORCES/Units/Infantry/116-Jak-Li.html 
[4] http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/rgt-jakli.htm 
[5] http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/rgt-jakli.htm 
[6] http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/LAND-FORCES/Units/Infantry/116-Jak-Li.html 
[7] WAR MEMORIAL AT LALEALI : Honey Vinay blogs on sulekha, Current Affairs blogs, Honey Vinay blog from india (http://vinayk. 

sulekha.com/blog/post/2007/07/war-memorial-at-laleali. htm). Vinayk.sulekha.com (2007-04-25). Retrieved on 2011-03-21. 
[8] Chand N. Das (1997). Hours of Glory: famous battles of the Indian army, 1801—1971 (http://books.google.com/ 

books?id=6QpuAAAAMAAJ). Vision Books. . Retrieved 21 March 2011. 



Assam Regiment 



120 



Assam Regiment 



The Assam Regiment 




Active 15 June 1941 - Present 

Country India 



Branch 
Type 



Army 

Line Infantry 



Role 
Size 



Light Role 
22 Battalions 



Regimental 
Centre 

Nickname 



Happy Valley, Shillong 



Assam Regiment 



Motto Asam Vikram (Unique Valour) 

War Cry Rhino Charge 



March 
Mascot 



Badluram Ka Badan 
Uni-horned Rhinoceros of Assam 



Engagements 1945(Burma Front) 1 97 l(Chaamb Sector) 

Decorations 1 Ashoka Chakra (Class III), 2 Maha Vir Chakra, 3 Kirti Chakra, 5 Vir Chakras, 14 Shaurya Chakras, 2 Padma 

Shris, 5 Ati Vishisht Seva Medals, 1 Yudh Seva Medal, 51 Sena Medals and 8 Vishisht Seva Medals 



Notable 
commanders 



Commanders 

Brig 'Papa' Pandey Padmabhushan , Brig. Thenphunga Sailo 



Colours 



Insignia 

Black and Red(Golden stripe added to the flag on the occasion of golden Jubilee) 



The Assam Regiment is an infantry regiment of the Indian Army. The Regiment consists of 22 battalions; 15 regular 
units, three Rashtriya Rifles units, three infantry battalions of the Territorial Army and one battalion of Arunachal 
Scouts. It recruits exclusively from all the Seven Sister States of North-East India. 



Insignia 

The Regimental Center of the Regiment is situated at Happy Valley, Shillong. It has chosen the rhino as the emblem 
that is seen on the berets and on the belts that the soldiers (the self-named "Rhinos") wear proudly. The Regimental 
salutation of Tagra Raho (Keep Fit and Strong) is unique. In India, rhinos are found in the state of Assam which is 
also known for its tea gardens and oil refineries. The unique greeting adopted by the regiment as Tagda Raho was 
introduced by late Maj Gen SC Barbosa who commanded 2 Assam Regiment in 1960s. Originally he was 
commissioned in 1 Assam regiment.The Commanding Officer used to enquire about the health of the jawan saying : 
Tagda Hai ? Invariably, the answer used to be : Tagda Hai Saheb. This greeting became popular in a very short time. 



Assam Regiment 121 

History 

The initial draft of the regiment was drawn from the undivided state of Assam, consisting of the doughty Ahoms 
who had proved their martial prowess by defeating the Mughals at the Battle of Saraighat and the hardy, tough and 
cheerful Nagas, Mizos, Kukis, Garos, Manipuris and other tribals. Later, the Adis, nishis, Monpas, other tribes of 
Arunachal Pradesh, domiciled Gorkhas and Sikkimese were also drafted into the regiment and, today, the regiment 
can boast of being composed of troops of diverse customs, cultures, languages, traditions and ethos belonging to the 
seven states of the North-East. 

The Regiment was raised on 15 June 1941 in Shillong by Lt Col Ross Howman to meet the claim of the then 
undivided State of Assam for its own fighting unit and to counter the threat of the Japanese invasion of India. The 
young regiment soon proved its capabilities within three years of its raising, at the consecutive battles of Jessami, the 
epic defence of Kohima and the capture of Aradura, all of which were awarded as Battle Honours (now as 
Pre-Independence Battle Honours) to the Regiment. The Regiment earned high praise for its combat skills in World 
War II. After independence, the Regiment gained in strength and its battalions have taken part in all wars and 
counter-insurgency operations with distinction. It was awarded a Battle Honour for its tenacious defence at Chamb in 
the 1971 Indo-PakWar. 

Two battalions were part of the Indian Peace Keeping Forces in Sri Lanka in 1988 and a battalion served in 
Cambodia in 1993 as part of the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia. Three Territorial Army (TA) 
battalions and three Rashtriya Rifles (RR) battalions are affiliated with the Regiment. The unique cultural and tribal 
character of the Regiment makes for a fine combination of cheerful, tough and willing soldiery who excel in 
operations in mountainous and jungle terrain. The Regimental Colours are Black and Gold (State colours of 
undivided Assam) and Scarlet (the colour of the Infantry). Badges are of Silver and Black. The side arm is the 'Dah'. 
The Regimental Language is Hindi. When spoken in the regiment, it is a quaint and unique mixture of Hindi 
generously sprinkled with words from all the Northeast languages and sounds cryptic to the uninitiated. 

The area of Elephant Falls in Shillong was chosen to raise the First Battalion and here, under British instructors, the 
troops were trained to become a fighting machine. Within six months of its raising, the regiment was ordered to 
move to Digboi to defend the oil fields. In early 1942, it moved to Ledo and was involved in reconnoitring the 
alignment for the famous Stilwell Road. In 1944, when the invasion of India by Japan was imminent, the regiment 
was moved to Jessami and Kharasom to delay the advance of the 31st Japanese division. 

In its very first operation, the regiment won 71 gallantry awards. In addition, the regiment won six battle 
honours including Jessami, Kohima, Aradura, Toungoo, Kyaukmyaung Bridge-head and Mawlaik. It was also 
awarded the theatre honour Burma: 1942-45. Seldom has a regiment won so many gallantry awards, battle honours 
and theatre awards in a single campaign. 

The Regiment, from a small group of three battalions at the time of Independence, has now become 22-battalion 
strong with 15 regular battalions, three Rashtriya Rifles battalions, three units of Territorial Army and 1 battalion of 
Arunanchal scouts, raised specifically for counter-insurgency operation in Jammu and Kashmir. After Independence, 
the battalions of the regiment participated in all the conflicts against China and Pakistan and proved their mettle in 
each one of them. Two of its battalions, 4 Assam and 7 Assam, have had the privilege of being part of the Indian 
Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) in Sri Lanka and 1 Assam, 15th Assam has 10th Assam the unique distinction of being 
part of UN Peace Keeping Force in Cambodia(UNTAC), lebanon (UNIFIL) and Congo respectevely. 



Assam Regiment 



122 



Post-Independence 
Battle Honours 

• Chaamb 1971 



Honours & Awards 

2 Maha Vir Chakra, 

3 Kirti Chakra, 
5 Vir Chakras, 

1 Ashoka Chakra (Class III)(now Shaurya Chakra), 
14 Shaurya Chakras, 

2 Padma Shris, 
5 Ati Vishisht Seva Medals, 
1 Yudh Seva Medal, 
51 Sena Medals and 
9 Vishisht Seva Medals. 




Soldiers of Assam Regiment 



Regimental Battalions 

1st Battalion 

2nd Battalion - Second to None 

3rd Battalion - The Phantom Third 

4th Battalion - Formidable Fourth 

5th Battalion - Fighting fifth 

6th Battalion - The Sabre Sixth 

7th Battalion - Striking Seventh 

8th Battalion - The Head Hunters 

9th Battalion - The Nimble Ninth 

10th Battalion - The Thundering Tenth 

12th Battalion - Daring Dozen 

14th Battalion - Ferocious Fourteenth 

15th Battalion - One Five 

16th Battalion 

17th Battalion 

1 19 Infantry Battalion(T.A)- Assam Terriers 

165 Infantry Battalion(T.A)- Manipur Terriers 

166 Infantry Battalion(T.A)- Tezpur Terriers 
35th Rashtriya Rifles 
42nd Rashtriya Rifles 
59th Rashtriya Rifles 
Arunachal Scouts 

By 2006 the regiment had grown into a family of 19 battalions, 13 regular units, three Rashtriya Rifles units and 
three infantry battalions of the Territorial Army. Comprising exclusively troops from all the seven North-Eastern 
states, the regiment has established itself as a highly respected infantry regiment of Indian Army. In its six decades 
of martial history, the regiment has served with distinction in different wars and in various operational areas of the 



Assam Regiment 123 

country. It has also been a part of the Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) in Sri Lanka and UN Peace Keeping Force 
in Cambodia. The regiment has won seven battle honours, three theatre honours, six exclusive unit citations and 
several gallantry awards. The 42nd Rashtriya Rifles (Assam) formed specially to combat insurgency and terrorism, 
came into existence at a simple inaugural ceremony at the Assam Regimental Centre, Happy Valley in Shillong. 
Major General I. J. S Bora, GOC 101 Area, unfurled the Rashtriya Rifles (RR) flag heralding the formal raising of 
the battalion which would be commanded by Lt. Col. Naresh Razora. Smartly turned out guards of the new battalion 
presented the major general salute in presence of officers, jawans and their families of 101 area and 42nd RR 
battalion. While four RR battalions had already been raised in the recent past, the 41st RR battalion (Maratha Light 
Infantry) was simultaneously raised in Karnataka's Belgaum. Major General Bora said as Meghalaya was relatively 
peaceful, there was no contemplation of deployment of armed forces at present. The force, raised to relieve the Army 
of counter insurgency operations, proved its mettle both in Jammu and Kashmir and the North-East. 

The Phantom Third recently celebrated its Diamond Jubliee. The Sabre Sixth has been selected for Ceremonial 
Duties at Rashtrapati Bhawan for its outstanding work in Counter Terrorist operations. The contingent of the Assam 
Regiment has won the award for the "Best Marching Contingent" twice in the republic day celebrations held at Delhi 
in 1995 and 2004. The team of the Assam Regimental Centre won the Army Young Blood Firing Championship' in 
2005 and stood second in 2006. 

The Ferocious Fourteenth has won the Division and Command Football Championships and has fielded four players 
for the Army Red's & Green's. It has also bagged the first position in the Division Cambrian Patrol Championship 
2009 -10 & will be fielding its patrol in the Command Championships later in the year.The thundering tenth has won 
the division firing and sniper competition for the year 201 1-2012. 



Mahar Regiment 



124 



Mahar Regiment 



Mahar Regiment 


The Regimental Insignia of the Mahar Regiment 


Active 


1941— present 


Country 


India 


Branch 


Army 


Type 


Line Infantry 


Role 


Infantry 


Size 


19 battalions 


Motto 


Yash Sidhi (Success & Attainment) 


War Cry 


Bolo Hindustan Ki lai (Say Victory to India) 


Decorations 


1 Param Vir Chakra, 4 Maha Vir Chakra, 29 Vir Chakra, 1 Kirti Chakra, 12 Shaurya Chakra, 22 Vishisht Seva 
Medals and 63 Sena Medals. 


Insignia 


Regimental 
Insignia 


A pair of crossed Vickers medium machine guns, mounted on a tripod with a dagger. The dagger was initially the 

Pillar of Koregaon, where the combined British and Mahar troops defeated the overwhelming Maratha Army. The 

[21 
pillar was subsequently removed and was replaced with a dagger. 



The Mahar Regiment is an Infantry Regiment of the Indian Army. Although it was originally intended to be a 
regiment consisting of troops from the Mahars in Maharashtra, the Mahar Regiment is one of the only regiments in 
the Indian Army that is composed of troops from all communities and regions of India. 

History 

Under Shivaji and the Maratha Empire 

The Mahars were recruited by the Marathi king Shivaji as scouts and fort guards in his army. They were also heavily 
recruited by the British East India Company, at one part forming one-sixth of the Company's Bombay Army. The 
Bombay Army especially favoured the Mahar troops for their bravery and loyalty to the Colours, and also because 
they could be relied upon during the Anglo-Maratha Wars. They achieved many successes, most notably on 1 
January 1818, when 500 men of the 2nd Battalion 1st Regiment of the Bombay Native Light Infantry along with 250 
cavalrymen and 24 cannon defeated 20,000 horsemen and 8,000 footsoldiers of the Maratha Army in what would be 
called the Battle of Koregaon. This battle was commemorated by an obelisk, known as the Koregaon pillar, which 
featured on the Mahar Regiment crest until Indian Independence. The Bombay Army also saw action in the Indian 
Mutiny of 1857, and two regiments (the 21st and 27th) joined the revolt under the British. 



The Martial Races theory and disbandment 

After the Revolt, the British officers of the Indian Army, particularly those who had served in the First and Second 
Afghan Wars, began to give currency to the Martial Races Theory. This theory basically held that some races and 
communities among the Indians were naturally warlike, and more suited to warfare than others. A major proponent 
of this theory was General Lord Roberts of Kandahar, who became Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Army in the 
November 1885. There was a gradual "Punjabisation" of the Indian Army to the detriment of the other communities. 
The final blow for the Mahar troops came in 1892, when it was decided to institute "class regiments" in the Indian 



Mahar Regiment 125 

Army. The Mahars were left out of these class regiments, and it was notified that the Mahars, among with some 
other classes, were no longer to be recruited. The Mahar troops, who included 104 Viceroy's Commissioned Officers 
and a host of Non-commissioned officers and Sepoys were demobilised. For years, the Mahars regarded this event as 
a great betrayal of their loyalty by a government they had steadfastly served for over a hundred years. 

1892-1941 

After the demobilisation of the Mahar troops, there were many attempts by the leaders of the Mahar community to 
persuade the Government to let them serve in the Army once again. Petitions to this effect were drafted by 
ex-soldiers such as Gopal Baba Walangkar in 1894, and Shivram Janba Kamble in 1904. These petitions were 
supported in principle by the politician and social reformer Gopal Krishna Gokhale, who was opposed to the Martial 
Races theory. They were also supported by the Indian National Congress, who were also opposed to the recruiting 
policies of the Army. 

The recruitment policies of the British Indian Army continued until the beginning of the First World War in 1914. 
The War forced the Government to begin more broad-based recruiting, and the Mahars were at last allowed to enlist 
in the Army. One battalion of Mahar troops, the 111th Mahars was raised in the June 1917. However, the battalion 
did not see much service during the War, and in 1920 it was merged with the 71st battalion of the Punjab Regiment. 
Finally, the battalion was disbanded in March 1921, and the Mahars were once again demobilised. 

The period between the wars saw increased efforts by the Mahars to persuade the government to let them enlist in 
the Army. One proponent of Mahar recruitment was Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, whose father, Sub. Maj. Ramji Maloji 
Sakpal had been a soldier in the British Indian Army. However, the proposed reorganisation of the Indian Army that 
was to occur in the 1930s was postponed because of a lack of funds in the Great Depression. In 1939, the Second 
World War broke out, and once again, the Army was forced to overlook its narrow minded recruitment policies in 
the face of harsh necessity. 

Raising of the Mahar Regiment 

In the July 1941, B. R. Ambedkar was appointed to the Defence Advisory Committee of the Viceroy's Executive 
Council. He used this appointment to exert pressure within the military establishment for a Mahar regiment. He also 
appealed to the Mahars to join the Army in large numbers. In October, the Army gave in, and the 1st Battalion of the 
Mahar Regiment was raised in Belgaum under Lt. Col. HJR Jackson of the 13th Frontier Force Rifles and Sub. Maj. 
Sheikh Hassnuddin. The 2nd Battalion was raised in Kamptee in June 1942 under Lt. Col. JWK Kirwan and Sub. 
Maj. Bholaji Ranjane. A cap badge was designed for the Regiment by Capt. EEL Mortlemans, an officer of 2nd 
Mahar. The badge featured the Koregaon Pillar over the word "MAHAR". The third battalion, the 25th Mahars, was 
raised in Belgaum in the August 1942 by Lt. Col V. Chambier and Sub. Maj. Sardar Bahadur Ladkojirao Bhonsale, 
and the 3rd Mahars were raised in Nowshera by Lt. Col. RND Frier and Sub. Maj. Bholaji Ranjane. During the War, 
the 1st and 3rd Mahars served in the North-West Frontier Province, while the 2nd and 25th Battalions were 
employed on internal security duties within the country. The 2nd Battalion also saw service in the Burma Campaign 
as a part of the 23rd Indian Division, where they suffered 5 casualties and had one officer Mentioned in dispatches. 
They also served in Iraq after the War as a part of PAIFORCE. In 1946, the 25th Mahars were disbanded, along with 
many other garrison battalions of the Indian Army. Its officers and men were largely absorbed by the other three 
battalions of the Regiment. In the October 1946, the Regiment was converted into a Machine Gun Regiment, and the 
Regimental Centre was established at Kamptee. Following conversion of the Regiment to a machine-gun regiment, 
the cap-badge was changed. The new badge had two crossed Vickers machine guns over the Koregaon Pillar, over a 
scroll that said "The Mahar MG Regiment". The three surviving battalions of the regiment served as a part of the 
Punjab Boundary Force, and took part in escorting refugees during the Partition of India. 



Mahar Regiment 126 

The Border Scouts 

The Border Scouts were an irregular force formed by the people of the border villages in East Punjab during 
Partition. Hailing as they did from the erstwhile greater state of East Punjab (which included the present states of 
Haryana and Himachal Pradesh), the force had people hailing from a greater mix of ethnic, religious and caste 
backgrounds than was the norm in the Indian Army. They did some useful work defending villages from attacks 
during partition, and as a reward, were given a more permanent character as the East Punjab Frontier Scouts in 1948. 
They served along the border with Pakistan as border guards, and were regarded as a useful adjunct of the Punjab 
Armed Police. The unit was redesignated the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Battalions of the Border Scouts in 1951, with 
recruitment from different North Indian communities. In 1956, the decision to convert this force into Machine-Gun 
Regiments was taken, and the three battalions were merged with the Mahar Regiment, the only Indian Machine Gun 
Regiment in existence at the time. They joined the Regiment as the 4th, 5th and 6th Battalions of the Mahar 
Regiment, and it is to these units that the Regiment traces its mixed-class composition. The three Battalions style 
themselves battalions of the Mahar Regiment (Borders) even today. 

Composition and Recruitment 

The class composition of the Regiment also changed. While 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 7th, 8th and 13th battalions were all pure 
Mahar battalions, the others were mixed classes right down to the smallest sub-unit level. The conversion training 
started in November 1963 with 1st Mahar and completed in May 1964 with 10th Mahar. The year 1965 saw all the 
battalions of the regiment gearing up for operations. These included the newly raised 11th and 12th battalions that 
had the unique composition of Bengalis, Oriyas and Gujratis - the communities that had been stamped as non-martial 
by the British. Their entry into the Mahar fraternity added strength to national integration-the distinctive feature 
which the regiment has always been proud of. 

Units 

1st Battalion 

2nd Battalion 

3rd Battalion 

4th Battalion (Borders) 

5th Battalion (Borders) 

6th Battalion (Borders) 

7th Battalion 

8th Battalion 

9th Battalion 

10th Battalion 

11th Battalion 

12th Battalion 

13th Battalion 

14th Battalion (formerly 31st Mahar) 

15th Battalion (formerly 32nd Mahar) 

17th Battalion 

18th Battalion 

19th Battalion 

20th Battalion 

21nd Battalion [4] 



Mahar Regiment 



127 



Former Battalions 

• 25th Battalion (disbanded 1946). 

• 16th Battalion (formerly 8th Parachute Regiment) (converted to 12th Mechanised Infantry in 1981) 

Allied Units 

• 108th Infantry Battalion Territorial Army (based at Saugor) 

• 1 15th Infantry Battalion Territorial Army (based at Belgaum) 

• 1st Battalion Rashtriy a Rifles 

• 30th Battalion Rashtriy a Rifles 

• 51st Battalion Rashtriya Rifles 



References 

• The Martial Races at Country-Data.com 



[5] 



[1] http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/LAND-FORCES/Units/Infantry/114-Mahar-Regt.html 

[2] http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/LAND-FORCES/Units/Infantry/114-Mahar-Regt.html 

[3] http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/rgt-mahar.htm 

[4] http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/LAND-FORCES/Units/Infantry/114-Mahar-Regt.html 

[5] http://www.country-data.com/cgi-bin/query/r-6146.html 



Mechanised Infantry Regiment 



Mechanised Infantry Regiment 




J_ 


^^^mf^^y' 


Active 


1979 -Present 


Country 


^_ India 


Branch 


Indian Army 


Type 


Line Infantry 


Role 


Mechanised Infantry 


Size 


25 Battalions 


Regimental Centre 


Ahmednagar, Maharashtra 


Motto 


Valour & Faith 


War Cry 


Bolo Bharat Mata Ki Jai (Victory to Mother India) 


Insignia 


Regimental Insignia 


A rifle bayonet mounted on a BMP-1, depicting the infantry and mechanised facets of the Regiment 



The Mechanised Infantry Regiment is an infantry regiment of the Indian Army. It is one of the youngest regiments 
in the army, and though it was formed as a result of lessons learned in the 1965 Indo-Pak War, to give infantry 
battalions greater mobility, it was the mastermind of late Gen K Sundarji who had the foresight to cater the needs of 



Mechanised Infantry Regiment 128 

a modern army. Initially, some of the older infantry battalions of various regiments were equipped with armoured 
personnel carriers. The need for something more concrete and viable was felt along with a need to develop a 
common philosophy with regards to the type of tactics. This necessitated the raising a totally new arm in the Indian 
Army, resulting in the various mechanised battalions being brought together under a single cap badge as the 
Mechanised Infantry Regiment in 1979. 

The Mechanised Infantry Regiment has participated in Operation Pawan in Sri Lanka, Operation Rakshak in Punjab 
and Jammu & Kashmir and Operation Vijay in Jammu & Kashmir. It also specialises in UN Peacekeeping 
Operations in Somalia, Angola and Sierra Leone. The Regiment has its affiliation to INS Gharial, of the Indian 
Navy. The The Mechanised Infantry Regiment of the Indian Army has a special distinction of operating even in the 
high altitude areas of Ladakh and Sikkim. 

Gen Sundarji was appointed the first Colonel of the Mechanized Infantry Regiment, the post he held till his 
retirement. 

External media 



Images 

A I . [2] 

^ images of the Mechanised Infantry showing the combat vehicles. 

Videos 

~is] [3] 

LfeJ Indian Army Mechanised Infantry describing the weapons, vehicle and soldiers 



Battalions converted to Mechanised Infantry Regiment 

1st Battalion (former 1st Bn, The Madras Regiment) 

2nd Battalion (former 1st Bn, Jat Light Infantry) 

3rd Battalion (former 1st Bn, 8 Gorkha Rifles) 

4th Battalion (former 1st Bn, Sikh Regiment) 

5th Battalion (former 14th Bn, Kumaon Regiment) 

6th Battalion (former 1st Bn, Garhwal Rifles) 

7th Battalion (former 1st Bn, Dogra Regiment 

8th Battalion (former 7th Bn, Punjab Regiment) 

9th Battalion (former 7th Bn, The Grenadiers) 

10th Battalion (former 20th Bn, Maratha Light Infantry) 

1 1th Battalion (former 18th Bn, Rajputana Rifles) 

12th Battalion (former 8th Battalion, Parachute Regiment, (previously 16th Bn, Mahar Regiment) 

13th Battalion (former 18th Bn, Rajput Regiment) 

14th Battalion (former 16th Bn, Jammu & Kashmir Rifles) 

15th to 23rd Battalions (all these 8 battalions are New Raisings, some with highly specialised roles) 

24th Battalion (former 20th Bn, Rajput Regiment) [1] 



Mechanised Infantry Regiment 129 

References 

[1] Bharat Rakshak :: Land Forces Site - The Mechanised Infantry Regiment (http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/LAND-FORCES/Units/ 

Infantry/99-Mechanised.html) 
[2] http://www.warbirds.in/galleries/wr/Maharashtra/Ahmednagar/MIRC 
[3] http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=clUqbfh7n_E 



Naga Regiment 



130 



Naga Regiment 



Naga Regiment 


The Regimental Insignia of the Naga Regiment 


Active 


1970— present 


Country 


India 


Branch 


Army 


Type 


Line Infantry 


Role 


Infantry 


Size 


3 battalions 


War Cry 


Jai Durga Naga (Hail Durga Naga) 


Decorations 


1 Maha Vir Chakra, 4 Vir Chakras, 1 Yudh Seva Medal, 1 Vishist Seva Medal, 10 Sena Medals [1] 


Insignia 


Regimental 
Insignia 


A pair of crossed Naga spears and a dah (a cutting weapon used in Nagaland), with a shield bearing a mithun 
(deer) head. [2] 



The Naga Regiment is the youngest Regiment of the Indian Army. In 1970, the First Battalion of the Naga 
Regiment was raised in Ranikhet. 

History 



Formation 

During 1960, the delegation of the Naga Peoples Convention put forward a proposal for a separate regiment to fulfill 
their desire of playing a greater role in the Defence Forces of India. The Naga Regiment was the first infantry 
regiment to be raised in the post-Independence India. In 1957, when the Naga hills area was simmering with 
insurgency, a convention of the Naga people took place and it came out with a charter of demands including 
statehood for Nagaland and a separate entity for the Naga people in the Indian defence forces. Nagaland attained its 
statehood in 1963 and the Naga Regiment was formed seven years later. Nevertheless, a remarkable fact about its 
raising was that several ex-militants were given a fair chance to prove their newfound nationalism and made to join 
the Indian Armed Forces, many of them were directly appointed junior commissioned officers. But even before 
their training could be completed and the recruits were administered oath, trouble began brewing on eastern border 
of India. Bypassing the training schedule, the Naga Regiment was ordered to move into the concentration areas. And 
thus the youngest regiment of the Indian Army was pushed into the war with scanty preparedness. Still it held the 
Tri-colour aloft, it should be attributed jointly to the natural instincts of the Naga warriors and to the inherent valour 
of Kumaunis, Garhwalis and Gorkhas, the other hill tribes to be drawn into the Naga Regiment. 

First Battalion (1 Naga) of the Regiment was raised at the Kumaon Regimental Centre, Ranikhet on 01 November 
1970 under the command of Lt. Col. R.N. Mahajan, VSM. Being the only battalion, it was then designated as the 
NAGA Regiment. The manpower to raise this battalion was provided by battalions of Kumaon, Garhwal and Gorkha 
(3 Gokrha Rifles) regiments. 69 Nagas were enrolled directly from rehabilitation camps of underground Nagas. 
However, the Regiment was to comprise 50% Nagas and 50% of an equal number of Kumaoni, Garhwali and 
Gorkhas. Since many Kumaon battalions had been associated with Nagaland, particularly in the years preceding the 
raising of the Naga Regiment, it was affiliated to the Kumaon Regiment for all regimental matters. The second 



Naga Regiment 131 

battalion (2 Naga) was raised on 11 February 1985 at Haldwani. 

The traditional Naga weapons viz the Dao, the Spear and the prestigious Mithun have been integrated into the 
Regimental Crest. The Regiment's colours are Gold, Green and Red, the gold of the rising sun, the green of Infantry 
and red the colour of authority among Nagas. 1 Naga was presented with 'Colours' on 06 May 1978 at Dehradun by 
Shri Neelam Sanjiva Reddy, the President of India and 2 Naga was presented with 'Colours' on 10 May 1990 by 
General V.N. Sharma, PVSM, ADC, the Chief of Army Staff. [4] 

Operation Romeo 

The second Naga battalion was inducted into Keran sector of Kupwara district, where it was responsible for ensuring 
the sanctity of approximately 24 kilometres of Line of Control (LoC) and also to counter anti-national elements and 
their operations. It was in this sector the second Naga battalion participated in one of the landmark operations - 
Operation Romeo. The goal of this operation was to dominate the LoC. The entire operation was carried out with 
clockwork precision and without any casualties to Indian troops. 

Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 

1 Naga took part in Bangladesh operations and earned a name for the Regiment. It was awarded one Vir Chakra and 
three Sena Medals. 

Kargil War 

The battalion was the first one to be inducted into Operation Vijay in the Drass Sector on 11 May 1999. During this 
operation, the battalion captured Black Rock, Thums Up, Pyramid (all part of Point 5140), Pimple Hill (later 
renamed as Naga Hill) and Point 5060. The battalion was awarded with two Vir Chakra and two Sena Medals for 
their outstanding performance during this operation. The battalion has earned one Maha Vir Chakra, two Vir 
Chakras, one Yudh Seva Medal, one Vishisht Seva Medal and nine Sena Medals. 

North Bump 

During Operation Vijay, the unit performed with distinction and displayed indomitable resolve and valour in the face 
of the enemy. The renowned warriors of the Naga Regiment, fighting against heavy odds in the Tiger Hill complex, 
captured North Bump killing 15 Pakistan Army soldiers including one officer, Captain Imtiaz of 69 Field Regiment. 
The Naga's lost Captain Prem Raj, an artillery Forward Observation Officer and 10 soldiers of their battalion. 

Twin Valleys 

It was the role played by the 2 Naga during operation Vijay in Mashkoh valley that made it to win the title Head 
Hunters. The braves of 2 Naga captured Twin Bumps as part of the Point 4875 complex. The battalion raided enemy 
mortar position resulting in a large number of casualties to enemy troops and captured huge quantities of arms, 
ammunition, equipment and documents. The unit was once again honoured with unit citation by the COAS. It was 
within a span of three years and both times in face of enemy that 2 Naga got its both unit citations (The first was 
awarded by COAS for the excellent job done in counter-insurgency operations in Keran sector in Kashmir valley 
within a few years of its raising in the year 1997) 



Naga Regiment 132 

Issues 

Although two battalions of the Naga Regiment were raised as per the historic 16-point 1960 agreement that 
facilitated the formation of Nagaland state, as of 2001 there were complaints that there was no proper representation 
of Naga youths in the regiment, headquartered at Ranikhet in Uttaranchal. Nagaland comes under dispensation 
category and the education standard required for soldier general duty (GD) category is only class-V standard for 
tribal candidates. 

Although the Naga youths earned accolades in the Kargil War, desertions were also frequent. The Army conducted a 
special recruitment drive for all category of posts to recruit 325 Naga youths across the State. GOC, Nagaland, Major 
General R. N. Kapur said at least 3,000 Naga youths would be recruited in the Army, Assam Rifles and India 
Reserve Battalion this year and hoped the youth would avail the opportunity to join the armed forces. 

Units 

Currently, the Naga regiment has a strength of 3 battalions. However, the 1st and 2nd Battalion form the part of the 
Kumaon Regiment. 

• 1st Battalion (Bahadur Paltan) 

• 2nd Battalion (Head Hunters) 

• 3rd Battalion 

Decorations 

• 1 Maha Vir Chakra 

• 4 Vir Chakras 

• 1 Yudh Seva Medal 

• 1 Vishist Seva Medal 

• 10SenaMedals [7] 

References 

roi 

Naga Regiment on Bharat-Rakshak 



[1] http 

[2] http 

[3] http 

[4] http 

[5] http 

[6] http 

[7] http 

[8] http 



//www. bharat-rakshak.com/LAND-FORCES/Units/Inf an try/1 17-Naga-Regt.html 
//www. bharat-rakshak.com/LAND-FORCES/Units/Inf an try/1 17-Naga-Regt.html 
//www. globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/rgt-naga.htm 
//www.bharat-rakshak.com/LAND-FORCES/Units/Inf an try/1 17-Naga-Regt.html 
//www. globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/rgt-naga.htm 
//www. globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/rgt-naga.htm 
//www. bharat-rakshak.com/LAND-FORCES/Units/Inf an try/1 17-Naga-Regt.html 
//www. bharat-rakshak.com/LAND-FORCES/Units/Inf an try/1 17-Naga-Regt.html 



The Ladakh Scouts 



133 



The Ladakh Scouts 



Ladakh Scouts 




Regimental Insignia of the Ladakh Scouts 



Active 
Country 



1963 - Present 
India 



Branch 
Type 



Army 
Infantry 



Role 

Size 



Specialized Mountain Warfare Infantry Troops (High Altitude & Glacial Warfare) 
5 battalions 



Nickname 
War Cry 



Snow Warriors or Snow Tigers 

Ki Ki So So Lhargyalo (Victory to God). 



Decorations 



1 Ashok Chakra, 1 1 Mahavir Chakra, 2 Kirti Chakra, 2 Ati Vishisht Seva Medals, 26 Vir Chakra, 6 
Shaurya Chakra, 3 Yudh Seva Medals, 64 Sena Medals, 13 Vishisht Seva Medals, 13 



Mentions-in-Dispatches, 67 Chief Of Army Staff commendation cards, 2 leevan Raksha Padak 



[1] 



Insignia 



Insignia 



Ibex Ibex, 



The Ladakh Scouts, also known as the Snow Warriors or Snow Tigers, is an infantry regiment of the Indian 
Army. Specializing in mountain warfare, the regiment's primary role is to guard India's borders in the high altitude 
areas of the Ladakh region, as well as Jammu & Kashmir in general. 

Raised as a paramilitary unit, the Ladakh Scouts were converted into an Army regiment in 2000. The Ladakh Scouts 
are recruited mainly from India's Ladakhi and Tibetan communities and are among the Indian Army's most decorated 
units. Its soldiers have been honored with over 300 gallantry awards and citations including one Ashok Chakra, ten 
Maha Vir Chakras and two Kirti Chakras. 



The Ladakh Scouts 134 

History 

In 1948, the Nubra Guards were raised from local Ladakhi warriors to patrol India's mountainous border in the 

T21 
Ladakh region. In 1952, the Nubra Guards were merged as the 7th Battalion of the Jammu & Kashmir Militia, 

which later became the Jammu and Kashmir Light Infantry (JAKLI) Regiment. The 14th Battalion of the militia was 

also raised from Ladakh in 1959. 

On 1 June 1963, following the Sino-Indian War of 1962, the Ladakh Scouts was formed by spinning off the 7th and 
14th battalions of the J&K Militia. The primary role of the unit is reconnaissance and interdiction in the high-altitude 
border regions. 

The Ladakh Scouts was converted from a paramilitary unit to a full infantry regiment on 1 June 2000. Its parent 
regiment is the Jammu & Kashmir Rifles. 

Units 

The regiment consists of 5 battalions with support personnel affiliated to other arms of the army. 

Engagements 

Indo-Pakistani Wars of 1965 and 1971 

Units of the regiment have been deployed in combat in every major Indian operation since the Indo-Pakistan War of 
1965. The Scouts received battle honours in the Western Theatre of the Indo-Pakistan War of 1971. 

Operation Meghdoot 

Units of the Ladakh Scouts were deployed with a battalion of the Kumaon Regiment to capture the Siachen Glacier 

T21 
in April 1984, as a part of Operation Meghdoot. 

Kargil War 

The Ladakh Scouts were one of the first units to be deployed in action in Operation Vijay. Its units displayed 
exemplary gallantry and won numerous awards, including a Maha Vir Chakra for Major Sonam Wangchuk. The 
Scouts were awarded a Unit Citation for their gallantry during the battles of Point 5000 on night 05/06 July 1999, 
Dog Hill on the night 30 June/01 July , and Padma Go on the night 09/10 July 1999, in the Batalik Sector. The 
citation recognizes the unit's performance with distinction during Operation Vijay and display of exemplary valour 
and grit in the face of the enemy. 

Distinctions 
Battle honours 

• Turtuk, Indo-Pakistan War of 197 1 

Gallantry Awards 

Maha Vir Chakra Recipients: 

• Major Sonam Wangchuk, Batalik Sector, Kargil War 

Among the awards conferred on the soldiers of the Ladakh Scouts are: 

• 1 Ashok Chakra 

• 11 Maha Vir Chakras 

• 2 Kirti Chakras 



The Ladakh Scouts 135 

26 Vir Chakras 

6 Shaurya Chakras 

3 Yudh Seva Medals 

2 Ati Vishisht Seva Medals 

13 Vishisht Seva Medals 

64 Sena Medals 

13 Mentions-in-Dispatches 

67 Chief Of Army Staff commendation cards 

2 Jeevan Raksha Padaks 

Winter Sports 

The Ladakh Scouts have produced notable winter sport athletes, including Jamyang Namgial and Tashi Lundup. 

References 

[1] "Ladakh Scouts" (http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/rgt-ladakh.htm). GlobalSecurity.org. . 
[2] "Ladakh Scouts" (http://indianarmy.nic. in/Site/FormTemplete/frmTempSimple.aspx?MnId=q2SS7SL4DIY6BgcIF2CvQw==& 
ParentID=pTysHD2D5n/sfjXrwhyAPA==). Indian Army. . 



Assam Rifles 



136 



Assam Rifles 



Assam Rifles 


Active 


1835 -Present 


Country 


India 


Type 


Paramilitary 


Role 


Internal security 


Size 


46 Battalions 


Headquarters 


Shillong 


Motto 


Friends of the Hill People 


Commanders 


Director General Assam Rifles 


Lt Gen Rai 



The Assam Rifles are one of the Paramilitary forces of India. The unit can trace its lineage back to a paramilitary 
police force that was formed under the British in 1835 called Cachar Levy. Since then the Assam Rifles have 
undergone a number of name changes before the name Assam Rifles was finally adopted in 1917. Over the course 
of its history, the Assam Rifles and its predecessor units have served in a number of roles, conflicts and theatres 
including World War I where they served in Europe and the Middle East, and World War II where they served 
mainly in Burma. In the post World War II period the Assam Rifles has expanded greatly as has its role. There are 
currently 46 battalions of Assam Rifles under the control of the Indian Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) and they 
perform many roles including the provision of internal security under the control of the army through the conduct of 
counter insurgency and border security operations, provision of aid to the civil power in times of emergency, and the 
provision of communications, medical assistance and education in remote areas. In times of war they can also be 
used as a combat force to secure rear areas if needed. 



History 
Early history 

The present day Assam Rifles can trace its origins back to a paramilitary force known as Cachar Levy which was 
established by the British in 1835 in the Assam region. The Assam Rifles boast of being the oldest paramilitary 
force. With approximately seven hundred and fifty men, this force was formed as a police unit to protect settlements 
against tribal raids and other assaults as British rule slowly moved towards the north east parts of India. 

Indian Armed Forces 




Triservices Crest. 



Militarv Man Power 



Active troops 



1,325,000(3 ) 



Assam Rifles 



137 



Reserve forces 



Paramilitary forces 



1,155,000(7 ) 



1,293,300 (4 th ) 



Components 



Indian Army 



Indian Air Force 
Indian Navy 



Indian Coast Guard 
Paramilitary forces of India 



Strategic Nuclear Command 



Military history of India 



Air Force ranks and insignia 
Army ranks and insignia 



Naval ranks and insignia 

Despite problems with equipment and training, the contribution of this force in opening the region to administration 
and commerce was nevertheless quite significant and over time they have become known as the "...right arm of the 
civil and [the] left arm of the military" in the region. In 1870 these existing elements were merged into three 
Assam Military Police battalions which were spread out in the Lushai Hills (later 1st battalion), Lakhimpur (2nd 
battalion) and Naga Hills (3rd battalion). A fourth battalion was later formed Imphal in 1915. 

Since then the name of the force has undergone a number of changes, as have the roles that it has been required to 
perform. 

World War I and interwar years 

During World War I, men from what was then known as the Assam Military Police were part of the Indian forces 
that fought in Europe and the Middle East. Over three thousand men from the force were provided to the Gorkha 
regiments of the Indian Army in this time, earning seventy-six gallantry awards during the conflict including seven 

Indian Order of Merit awards and five Indian Distinguished Service Medals. These men performed with such 

T21 
distinction that the name Assam Rifles was assigned in 1917 as recognition of their part in the war. Elements of the 

force were also utilised in India during the war, being used to maintain internal security in order to free up troops 

from the army for use overseas. During this time, the most notable action occurred in 1917 when columns of the 

Assam Rifles were despatched to Patna, to restore law and order in the riot-torn city. 

After the war the force returned to northern India where they were used to maintain security amidst growing civil 
unrest and disorder. In concert with the British Indian Army, they also undertook a number of expeditions into 
remote tribal areas along the north-east frontier and into Burma. In 1924 they were sent to Malabar, which was then 
still part of the Madras Presidency, to carry out operations against the Mopla rebels. 



Assam Rifles 138 

World War II 

During World War II, the role of the Assam Rifles evolved once more as they were called upon to undertake even 
more varied tasks due to their status as both a police and military organisation. This time, however, their service 
would be undertaken closer to home. After the lightning Japanese advance in 1942, the Assam Rifles fought a 
number of independent actions behind enemy lines as the task of rear-area defence and rear-guard often fell to them 

during the Allies retreat into India. Later, as a large influx of refugees fled from the advancing Japanese into India, 

T21 
the Assam Rifles were given the task of managing and organising this mass of humanity. 

They also organized a resistance group on the Indo-Burmese border to counter the Japanese invasion and to harass 
the enemy line of communications. This group became known as "Victor Force" (or sometimes V-Force), and the 
nucleus of it was formed from platoons made up of men from the Assam Rifles. As part of this force, Assam Rifles 
platoons were used as covering forces during the latter stages of the Burma Campaign. Other elements fought in the 

defensive "boxes" around Kohima, whilst another, from the 4th Battalion trained as airborne troops and were 

T31 
dropped near the Sittang River behind Japanese lines. The 1st Battalion, as part of Lushai Brigade was sent ahead 

of the rest of the force to provide resistance in the Chin Hills. As a testament to the performance of Assam Rifles 

men during the war, members of the unit received forty-eight gallantry awards. These included: 3 Members of the 

British Empire, 5 Military Crosses, 4 Orders of British India, 1 Indian Order of Merit, 13 Military Medals, 15 Indian 

Distinguished Service Medals and 7 British Empire Medals. 

Postwar period 

Following the end of the war the five Assam Rifles battalions became part of the civil police under the Assam 

T31 
Inspector General of Police. After independence, however, the Indian government assigned the Assam Rifles its 

T21 
own Director General. As the numbers of the force and the number of battalions gradually increased, the rank of 

the force commander was also upgraded until now it is that of Lieutenant General. The present Director General of 

the Assam Rifles, is Lieutenant General Karan Singh Yadava, of the 3rd Gorkha Rifles. 

The role of the Assam Rifles continued to evolve when in 1950 a devastating earthquake hit the Assam region and 

the force was called in to assist in the reconstruction of the areas and help in the resettlement and rehabilitation of 

T31 
those affected by it. Later the force was once again called to undertake a combat role when, during the 1962 

Sino-Indian War elements were used to delay the advancing Chinese forces so that the Indian Army could establish 

its defence lines. During this time and since then, the Assam Rifles also maintained their peacekeeping role in the 

northern areas of India in the face of growing tribal unrest and insurgency. In this environment the maintenance of 

law and order, countering insurgency and reassuring the people of the region became important tasks for the security 

forces and initially they fell to the Assam Rifles before the Army assumed control, and then later their experience 

T21 
and goodwill in the region was drawn upon in order to assist the army in conducting these tasks. In recognition of 

the unit's skill in counter insurgency operations, three battalions were deployed on Operation Pawan in Sri Lanka 

T31 
between December 1988 and February 1990. 

Through its deployment in what has become known as the "tribal belt", the Assam Rifles have developed an ethos 

that is based primarily upon the notion of extending the hand of friendship with the people of the region despite the 

T21 
troubles that have occurred there. This has resulted in their employment in a number of developmental activities in 

the region as they have worked to bring order and security to it. As such, their role has been further expanded to 

include the provision of medical assistance and basic education, assisting in reconstruction and agriculture and 

handling communications in remote areas. 

From a force of five battalions in 1947, the Assam Rifles has grown substantially over the years. In 1960 there were 

T31 
seventeen battalions, in 1968 there were twenty-one and now there are forty-six battalions today. In addition, the 

Force has several area HQs, a training centre that processes up to 1,800 recruits at time, and a number of logistics 

•<• [4] 
units. 



Assam Rifles 



139 



Human rights violations 

The force has been accused repetitively for human rights violation in the states of North Eastern India. The custodial 
rape and murder of Thangjam Manorama of Manipur in July 11, 2004 is one of the many examples of violation of 
human rights. 

Decorations 

Members of the Assam Rifles have received the following military decorations since Indian independence: 



Award 


Times awarded 


Ashoka Chakra 


3 


Vir Chakra 


5 


Kirti Chakra 


31 


Shaurya Chakra 


120 


Param Vishisht Seva Medal 


5 


Ati Vishisht Seva Medal 


12 


[7] 
Sena Medal 


188 


181 
Vishisht Seva Medal 


74 


Yudh Seva Medal 


1 


Mention in Dispatches 


10 



(Source: Assam Rifles Honours and Awards ). 

N.B. Prior to Indian independence members of the Assam Rifles were eligible for British decorations. During 
World War I and World War II members of the Assam Rifles received many such awards for their actions, 
although these have not been included here. There have also been numerous civil awards to members of the 
Assam Rifles. These can be found at the source listed above. 

Rank structure 



Assam Rifles Ranks 


Equivalent Army Ranks 


Equivalent Navy Ranks 


Equivalent Air Force 
Ranks 


Director General (Army officer on 
deputation) 


Lieutenant General (Army 
Commander's Scale) 


Vice Admiral (FOC-in-Cs 
Scale) 


Air Marshal (AOC-in-C's 
Scale) 


Inspector General (Army officer on 
deputation) 


Major General 


Rear Admiral 


Air Vice Marshal 


Deputy Inspector General (Army officer on 
deputation) 


Brigadier 


Commodore (IN) 


Air Commodore 


Commandant 


Colonel 


Captain (IN) 


Group Captain 


2I/C 


Lieutenant Colonel 


Commander (IN) 


Wing Commander 


Deputy Commandant 


Major 


Lt. Commander 


Sqn Leader 


Assistant Commandant 


Captain 


Lieutenant (IN) 


Flight Lieutenant 


No Equivalent 


[10] 
Lieutenant 


Sub Lieutenant 


Flying Officer 



[11][12][13][14][15][16] 



Assam Rifles 140 

References 

Notes 

[I] The Assam Frontier Police (1883), the Assam Military Police (1891) and Eastern Bengal and Assam Military Police (1913), before finally 
becoming the Assam Rifles in 1917. See Sharma 2008. 

[2] See History of the Assam Rifles (http://assamrifles.net/site/aboutus.htm) 

[3] Sharma 2008. 

[4] See Assam Rifles Training Centre (http://assamrifles.net/site/training.htm). 

[5] "INDIA: Torture and murder of a woman by armed forces in India" (http://humanrights.asia/news/urgent-appeals/UA-96-2004). . 

Retrieved July 28, 2004. 
[6] There has been one instance of a multiple award of the AVSM to the same recipient, that is a Bar being awarded. This is included in this 

figure. 
[7] There have been four Bars awarded for the Sena Medal to members of the Assam Rifles. These are included in this figure. 
[8] There has been one instance of a Bar being awarded for the VSM to a member of the Assam Rifles. This has been included in this figure. 
[9] http://assamrifles.net/site/HonorsAwards_AssmRifles.aspx 
[10] http://mod.nic.in/6thCPC/PAYSERVICES-notification.pdf 

[II] http://careerairforce.nic.in/career_opp/caropp_officer_payperks.html 
[12] http://bsf.nic.in/career.htm 

[13] http://news.outlookindia.com/item.aspx7653202 

[14] http://indianairforce.nic.in/show_page.php?pg_id=121 

[15] http://www.persmin.nic.in/WriteReadData/SV/IPS_PayRules2008_English.pdf 

[16] https://pcdaopune.gov.in/6cpc.aspx 

Bibliography 

• Parker, John. (2005). The Gurkhas: The Inside Story of the World's Most Feared Soldiers. Headline Book 
Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7553-1415-7. 

• "History of the Assam Rifles". Retrieved 25 February 2009. Available at: http://assamrifles.net/site/aboutus. 
htm. 

• "Assam Rifles Training Centre". Retrieved 25 February 2009. Available at: http://assamrifles.net/site/training. 
htm. 

• Shakespear, Leslie. (1929). History of the Assam Rifles. Macmillian: London. Reprinted in 1977 by Firma. 

• Sharma, A.K. (2008). "The Assam Rifles: Sentinels of the East". 16 May 2008. Retrieved 25 February 2009. 
Available at: http://frontierindia.net/the-assam-rifles-sentinels-of-the-east. 

External links 

• Assam Rifles in Global Security site (http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/assam-rifles.htm) 

• The Assam Rifles- Sentinels of the East by Lt Col (Retd.) A.K Sam Sharma (http://frontierindia.net/ 
the-assam-rifles-sentinels-of-the-east) 



141 



Indian Army Armoured Corps 

Indian Army Armoured Corps 

This article is on the post-independence corps. For the pre- 1947 corps, see Indian Armoured Corps. 

The Indian Army Armoured Corps is one of the combat arms of the Indian Army. Formed in 1947 from two-thirds 
of the personnel and assets of the Raj's Indian Armoured Corps. It currently consists of 63 armoured regiments, 
including the president's bodyguards. The naming of the regiments varies. The terms "Cavalry", "Horse" and 
"Lancers", which have been dispensed with in the case of units raised post-independence, are historical legacies from 
the raising and renaming of these units when part of the East India Company's army and/or later the British Indian 
Army. The Armoured Corps School and Centre is at Ahmednagar. As a matter of tradition, each Armoured 
Regiment has its own "Colonel of the Regiment", an honorary post for a senior officer who oversees the regimental 
issues concerning the unit. 

List of Regiments 

The list of regiments forming part of the Armoured Corps of the Indian Army is as follows : 

• President's Bodyguard 

• 1 Horse (Skinner's Horse) "The Yellow Boys" 

• 2nd Lancers (Gardner's Horse) 

• 3 Cavalry "Flamingoes" 

• 4 Horse (formerly 4th Duke of Cambridge's Own Hodson's Horse) also fondly called "Chor Horse" in the 
Armoured fraternity for their "unorthodox" ways of making Regimental property. 

• 5 Armoured Regiment. The original 5th Horse (Probyn's) was transferred to Pakistan in 1947. This Indian Army 
regiment was raised in Jodhpur on December 1, 1983. The regiment is based at Patiala and appears to be part of 
1st Armoured Division (India). 

• 6 Armoured Regiment - Original 6th Duke of Connaught's Own Lancers was transferred to Pakistan in 1947. This 
Indian Army regiment was raised in 1984. 
7th Light Cavalry 

8 Cavalry 

9 Horse (formerly 9th Royal Deccan Horse)Deccan Horse 

10 Armoured Regiment 

1 1 Armoured Regiment 

12 Armoured Regiment 

1 3 Armoured Regiment 

14 Horse (Scinde Horse) 

15 Armoured Regiment 
16th Light Cavalry 

17 Horse (The Poona Horse) Fakr-e-Hind (The most decorated Armoured Regiment of the Indian Army). 

18 Cavalry 

19 Armoured Regiment 

20 Lancers 

Central India Horse Positioned as ser 21 in the order of precedence. 
40 Armoured Regiment 



Indian Army Armoured Corps 



142 



41 Armoured Regiment - Raised in 1980. 

T31 

42 Armoured Regiment Raised in 1981. Founding commanding officer Brig Ranjit Talwar (18 Cav) (Retd.) 

T31 

43 Armoured Regiment Raised in 1981. First regiment to be equipped with Arjun tank. 

T31 

44 Armoured Regiment Raised in 1981. Founding commanding officer Brig D.S. Dhillon (Retd.) 

T31 

45 Cavalry Raised in 1965. Traces lineage to the old 45 Cavalry. 

T31 

46 Armoured Regiment Raised in 1982. Founding commanding officer Col. P.S. Sandhu (Retd.) 

47 Armoured Regiment 

48 Armoured Regiment 

49 Armoured Regiment 

50 Armoured Regiment 

5 1 Armoured Regiment 

52 Armoured Regiment 

53 Armoured Regiment 

56 Armoured RegimentRaised on 1st Oct 201 1.... Called "The LION HEARTS". It is the Youngest Armoured 
Regt. 

61 Cavalry 

62 Cavalry 

63 Cavalry 

64 Cavalry General Bipin Chandra Joshi, former Chief of the Army Staff, was commissioned into this regiment. 
He later served as the Colonel of the Regiment. 

65 Armoured Regiment 

66 Armoured Regiment 

67 Armoured Regiment 

68 Armoured Regiment 

69 Armoured Regiment 

70 Armoured Regiment 

7 1 Armoured Regiment 

72 Armoured Regiment 

73 Armoured Regiment 

74 Armoured Regiment Lieutenant General Kamal Davar was Colonel of the Regiment in 2001. 

75 Armoured Regiment The only Indian armoured regiment to have been raised on foreign soil during the 1971 
Indo-Pak war at Gadra Road (in Pakistan) on 12 Mar 1972. Last unit to hold T-55; second regiment to be 
reequipped with Arjun tank. 

76 Armoured Regiment 

8 1 Armoured Regiment 

82 Armoured Regiment 

83 Armoured Regiment 

84 Armoured Regiment 

85 Armoured Regiment 

86 Armoured Regiment Lieutenant General Kamal Davar was Colonel of the Regiment in 2001. 

87 Armoured Regiment 

88 Armoured Regiment 

89 Armoured Regiment 

90 Armoured Regiment 



[5] 



Indian Army Armoured Corps 143 

Notes 

[1] This list is as per unit serial number but not as per the order of precedence of the Indian Army. In that list The President's Bodyguard is first 

but is followed by 16 Light Cavalry, 7 Light Cavalry, 8 Cavalry and 1st Horse. 
[2] History of the 3rd Cavalry (http://www.indianpost.com/viewstamp.php/Alpha/3RD CAVALRY). 
[3] Web-page on "armoured Corps" at Bharat Rakshak (http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/LAND-FORCES/Units/Armoured.html), accessed 

December 2009. 
[4] Globalsecurity.org, 5 Armoured Regiment (http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/5-ar.htm), accessed 23 July 2010 
[5] LT GEN KAMAL DAVAR TAKES OVER AS DIRECTOR GENERAL MECHANISED FORCES (http://pib.nic.in/archieve/lreleng/ 

Iyr2001/raug2001/04082001/r040820011.html), August 4, 2001> 

Further reading 

• Cavalry Officers Association [2000] Valour Honour Tradition (Vignettes of the Indian Armored Corps 
1773-2000. Director General Mechanized Forces, Sena Bhawan, New Delhi 1 10001. 

• THE INDIAN ARMOUR History of the Indian Armoured Corps. 1941-1971 Maj Gen Gurchan Singh Sandhu 
PVSM Vision Books (incorporating Orient Paperbacks), New Delhi, 1987, ISBN 81-7094-004-4. 

• Izzat: Historical Records and Iconography of Indian Cavalry Regiments 1750-2007 

by Ashok Nath. Centre for Armed Forces Historical Research, United Services Institution of India, New Delhi. 
Pages 828. Rs 6,000. (http://www.tribuneindia.com/2009/20090412/spectrum/bookl.htm) 

References 

• Indian Armoured Corps (http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/armour.htm) 

• Army official website (http://www.indianarmy.nic.in/ethos/armd.html) 

• Video: -Armoured Fist: Battle Tanks of the Indian Army Part 1/2 (http://www.youtube.com/ 
watch?v=gXMRWE6Paks) 

• Video: -Armoured Fist: Battle Tanks of the Indian Army Part 2/2 (http://www.youtube.com/ 
watch?v=nOYwQRjF6fQ) 



144 



Armoured Regiments (62) 

President's Bodyguard (India) 



The President's Bodyguard is an elite household cavalry regiment of 
the Indian Army. It is senior-most in the order of precedence of the 
units of the Indian Army. The primary role of the President's 
Bodyguard is to escort and protect the President of India which is why 
the regiment is based in the Rashtrapati Bhawan in New Delhi, India. It 
is equipped as a mounted unit, with horses for ceremonies at the 
presidential palace and BTR-60 vehicles for use in combat. The 
personnel of the regiment are also trained as paratroopers and 
nominally are expected to lead in airborne assaults in the role of 
pathfinders. 




The mounted President's Bodyguard during a 
state visit by a foreign dignitary. 



History 




President's Body Guards coming out of the 
President's house in their winter ceremonial dress. 



The first bodyguard to be raised in India was in 1773 when European 
troops, already recruited into the East India Company's service as 
infantry, were earmarked for the role. Since the army of the East India 
Company had no cavalry of any kind at that point of time, two troops 
of dragoons and one troop of hussars were raised - the latter becoming 
the personal bodyguard of the Governor. These were however 
disbanded in the reorganisation of the army by Robert Clive after his 
return to India in 1765. By 1772, the Company did not have a single 
cavalryman in service. 

President's Body Guard (PBG) is the oldest surviving mounted unit 
and the senior most regiment of the Indian Army. PBG was raised by Governor Warren Hastings in Sep, 1773. 
Hastings handpicked 50 troopers from the 'Moghal Horse', which was raised in 1760 by local sirdars, Sirdars Mirza 
Shahbaz Khan & Sirdar Khan Tar Beg. In the same year, Raja Cheyt Singh of Benaras provided another 50 troopers 
that took the strength of the unit to 100. The first commander of the unit was Capt. Sweeny Toone, an officer of the 
Honourable East Indian Company(HEIC), who had Lt. Samuel Black as his subaltern . 

The establishment of the unit was as follows: - 
1 Captain 

1 Lieutenant 
4 Sergeants 
6 Daffadars 
100 troopers 

2 Trumpeters 
1 Ferrier 



President's Bodyguard (India) 145 

GGBG was the only Corps of cavalry in the Bengal presidency till 1777 when two Regiments of Cavalry were 
transferred to the HEIC by Nawab of Oudh. Both the regiments were raised in 1776. 

Titles 

President's Body Guard's title kept on changing with the passage of time: - 

1773-1780 The Governor's* Troops of Moghals. Other titles in use were Troops of Body Guard, Governor's Troops 
of Bodyguards, Troops of Horse guards, Troops of Black Cavalry, Body Troop. 

1784 Governor General's Body guards (GGBG) 

1859 His Excellency the Viceroy's Body Guards** 

1944 44th Divisional Reconnaissance Squadron (GGBG) 

1946 Governor General's Bodyguard 

1947 After independence, the unit got split between Governor General's Body Guard, India & Governor General's 
Body Guard, Pakistan. 

1950 The President's Body Guard, India. In Pakistan the title remained GGBG till 1956. 

Strength & Ethnic Composition 

Strength of the regiment varied throughout its history. Minimum strength of the unit was 50 when it was raised in 
1773 but the precise maximum strength of the unit is not known. President of India's website claims a number of 
1929 just before the First Sikh war but some historians believe the number to be 469. As per the book "Historical 
Records of the Governor General's Body Guards" published in 1910, maximum strength of the unit was 529 all ranks 
on 12th Feb, 1844 just before the first Sikh War. In addition to 529 all ranks, orders were also issued to attach two 
Rissalahs of Irregular Cavalry, taking the strength of the unit to 730 all ranks. 

Ethnic composition of the unit also kept on changing. It started with Muslims (Moghals) from Awadh (Eastern U.P.) 
when it was raised in 1773. By 1800, Hindus (Rajput & Brahmins) were allowed to join GGBG along with Muslims 
but the area of the recruitment remained the same, Awadh & Bihar. In 1800, the recruitment pool was changed from 
Bengal Presidency to Madras Presidency & GGBG was reconstituted with troopers from Madras cavalry & for next 
60 years, South Indian Castes formed bulk of the unit. After the Great Mutiny of 1857, center of recruitment of 
Indian Army was shifted from Awadh & south India to North India. GGBG was no exception & Sikhs were enlisted 
for the first time in Aug, 1883 & Punjabi Muslims in Oct, 1887. Recruitment of Brahmins & Rajputs ceased in 1895. 
After that, the recruitment was fixed at 50% Sikhs (Malwa & Majha) & 50% Muslims (Hindustani & Punjabi). 
Currently Jat, Sikhs & Rajputs are taken in equal number primarily from the states of Punjab, Haryana & Rajasthan. 
Minimum height necessary to be enlisted is 6 feet. Before independence the average height of the troopers was 6 feet 
3 inches. Because of the personality & appearance of the men, popular acronym of GGBG was 'God's Gift to 
Beautiful Girls'. 



President's Bodyguard (India) 



146 



Battle honours 

The President's Bodyguard has the following battle honours: 

Java 

Ava 

Maharajpoor 

Moodkee 

Ferozeshah 

Aliwal 

Sobraon 

all of which, except for "Java", are considered to be repugnant and cannot be carried on regimental colours. 



Operational History 

PBG first saw action in 1773-74 when it was deployed against 
Sanyasis — a band that ravaged the countryside in the guise of 
mendicants. Its next campaign was against Rohillas in April 1774 in 
the battle of St. George where Rohillas were defeated completely. The 
unit was also present during the 3rd Mysore War (1790—92) against 
Tipu Sultan. During this campaign, it successfully thwarted an 
assassination attempt on the life of Governor General Lord Cornwallis. 
In 1801, a detachment consisted of 1 Native officer & 26 other ranks 
went to Egypt to ride the horses of experimental horse artillery. It 
marched for 120 miles in the desert in the height of summer. All their 
horses died & they had to place the guns on camels. They never saw 
action in Egypt as Alexandria had capitulated by the time, they arrived 
there. 

But all these campaigns did not bring any Battle Honour to GGBG 
They earned their first Battle Honour 'Java' in 1811 during the 
conquest of the island. At present PBG has the unique distinction of 
being the only surviving unit to carry this honour. In 1824, a 
detachment volunteered to sail over kaala paani (Black War, at that time, Hindu soldiers would refrain from sailing 
over sea for the fear of losing their caste) to take part in the first Burmese War and earned their second Battle Honour 
Ava'. Body Guards received their third Battle Honour 'Maharajpore' for the battle of Maharajpore in 1843 when 
British intervened in the battle for the succession that erupted in Gwalior after the death of Maharaja Scindia. 

PBG fought all the main battles of the First Sikh War & earned four Battle honours. During the 1857 mutiny, Lord 
Canning himself asked the officers and other ranks to serve without arms as a precautionary measures, which they 
did in good faith and later, they escorted Lord Canning to the grand Darbar at Allahabad where on 1st Nov, 1858, it 
was proclaimed that India will be governed by the Crown and title of Viceroy was conferred on the Governor 
General. 




President's Bodyguard (India) 



147 



During the WW1, Lord Harding offered the Body Guards as Divisional 
Cavalry for the Meerut Division, which was going to France. But it 
was decided that the best use of the Body Guards would be working as 
trainers for raw remounts of cavalry & artillery. Thus for the entire 
period of the WW1, GGBG worked as remount training center. 
However, a detachment of the unit was sent to France as a 
reinforcement of 3rd Skinner's Horse. During the World War 2, for a 
brief period of time, GGBG served as 44th Division Reconnaissance 
Squadron. 




Lt. Col. Mahender Singh in summer Ceremonial 
uniform. 



Independence came with partition of the nation & armed forces were also divided in 2:1 ratio between India & 
Pakistan. GGBG was no exception, so Muslim elements of the unit went to Pakistan & Sikhs and Rajput elements 
stayed with India. The title of the Body Guard remained GGBG till 26 January 1950 when India became Republic & 
GGBG became President's Body Guard. The first commandant of the regiment was Lt. Col. Thakur Govind Singh 
and his adjutant was Shibzada Yakub Singh, who decided to join Pakistan Army. After the division of other assets of 
the regiment, when it came to gold plated buggey of the Viceroy, both India & Pakistan wanted it. To decide the fate 
of the buggey, Col. Singh & Sahibzada Yakub Singh tossed a coin & India got the buggey. 

After the independence, PBG saw action in all the major wars. It rendered yeoman service in the capitol & helped 
reinstating confidence in general public. In 1962 Indo-China war, PBG armoured cars were the first one to be 
airlifted to Chusul. It participated in Op. Ablaze in 1965 indo-Pak war. The regiment served in Siachin glacier where 
it has been serving till date. A detachment of the regiment was a part of the Indian Peace Keeping Forces to Sri 
Lanka during 1988-89 & Indian contingents to UN Peace Keeping Forces to Somalia, Angola & Sierra Leon. 



President's Bodyguard (India) 



148 



Other Body Guard Units 



Before Independence, there were three more Body guard units, one for each Presidency. These units were called 
Governor's Body guard (and not Governor General's Body Guards). All these units were disbanded in 1947. Here is 
a short introduction to each unit. 



Governor's Body Guard, Madras: - 

This was the senior most regiment among the three Governor's Body 
Guard regiments. Raised in 1778 at Madras with one Sergeant, one 
Corporal & 12 European troopers & was placed under command of Lt. 
P. Sullivan. Unlike other Madras Army regiments, GBG, Madras 
retained its title throughout its history till 1947 when it was disbanded. 
The strength & composition of the unit, however, kept on changing. In 
1778, it had one European troop & in 1781, the strength was raised to 1 
European & 1 Native troops. The European troop was disbanded in 
1784 & a company of the light infantry was attached. By 1799, 
strength of the GBG was raised to 100 men & they performed escort 
duty in Persia & Mysore war. From 1808 to 1820, detachments from 
different Madras cavalry regiments joined GBG on rotation. 

The regiment took part in third Maratha War (1817—1819) where its 
charge along with 6th Bengal Light Cavalry changed the course of the 
war & considered as the decisive factor in winning the war. During the 
war, the regiment earned its only Battle Honour 'Seetabuldee' for the 
relief of Nagpur Residency. GBG, Madras also took part in the First Burma war (1824—1826), where it rescued the 
advance guard which was surrounded by a large body of enemy force at Pagan. During the First World War, the 
regiment served as a remount training center and also patrolled the beaches during the bombardment of Madras by a 
German ship Emden. A combined force was also formed from detachment from Bombay & Madras Body Guards 
and was sent to serve in France. 

The Governor's Body Guards, Madras also received a standard from Lord Willingdon in March 1924 bearing its only 
Battle Honour 'Seetabuldee'. At the time of its raising, the unit only had European troops. But 1781 onwards, South 
Indian classes dominated the regiment for most of the time, especially Deccani & Madrasi Muslims. In 1947, Unit 
had Rajputs from Rajasthan & Jats from Eastern UP & Punjab. 









Jju* 


?P5pi! 


^5^3 ^H 


J ffjSl 'i.jj^j^^^^r 


r^ 


^Cps«t ■^*^* -■■ 


'■■ 





Governor General Body Guards, Madras 



Governor's Body Guard, Bombay 

The unit was raised on 22 March 1865 in Poona from a selected body 
of troopers of a disbanded unit, The Southern Mahratta Horse(SMH), 
which was first raised in 1850. Though the unit was re-organized twice 
in 1895 & 1938 but there was no change in its title. It also retained its 
title throughout its existence till 1947 when it was disbanded. In 1865, 
it had mahratta troopers only from SMH but later Sikhs, Deccani 
Muslims & Punjabi Muslims were also recruited in the unit. 



A 




flK#^ Nfc 




wfft- 


tf§~ 


'Mi 


J// 


Ton* 


j*^SJ*-«*«- - 


~5 v <* 



Governor General Body Guards, Bombay 



President's Bodyguard (India) 



149 



Governor's Body Guard, Bengal 

In 1912, capitol of India was transferred from Calcutta to Delhi & the Viceroy, along with Governor General's Body 
Guard, moved to Delhi and Bengal got the status of the Presidency just like Bombay & Madras. At that time, Capt. 
Rivers Berney Worgan of 20th Deccan Horse raised Governor's BG, Bengal from volunteers from different Bengal 
cavalry regiments. This was the youngest unit among three GBG units. GBG, Bengal also retained its title 
throughout its existence & was also disbanded in 1947. Only Punjabi Muslims & Rajputs were recruited for the unit. 
Since GBG, Bengal came into existence in 1912, there is no photo of the unit by Fred Bremner. 

When it came to uniform, all three GBG units followed the pattern of Governor General's Body Guards and they just 
added few articles like cummerbunds and plastrons. 



Standards, Guidons & Banners 




Banner of Lord Reading - First ever banner 
presented to PBG. 



In 1779, Honourable East India Company started issuing Standards to 
Indian Cavalry regiments. In 1800, GGBG was presented with its first 
Standard by Marquess Wellesley at the conclusion of his Review of the 
Body Guard. In 1815, the Countess of Moira & London presented a 
standard to the newly raised squadron. Two more Standards were 
presented to the newly raised squadrons of the Body Guards in 1844, 
when the strength of the regiment was highest. Standards were 
abolished in regiments of Indian Cavalry in 1864 & in 1931, a Guidon 
was presented to the Body Guards, which was last carried on escorts in 
1936. 




Dr Rajender Prasad presenting his banner to 
PBG. 




Two Silver state Trumpets with Banners were presented to the Body 
Guards by Lord Reading in 1923 on the 150th anniversary of the 
raising of the unit. One banner represented Star of India with the Battle 
Honors of the regiment (see photo SILVER TRUMPET) and the other 
banner carried Coat-of-Arms of the viceroy. Each Successive Viceroy 
presented a banner to the Body Guard on assuming office, banners of 
past viceroy's being kept in the custody of the regiment. The practice is 
in place till date & every president present a silver trumpet to the 
regiment — the only difference being replacement of the coat-of-arms 
of Viceroy with the monogram of the President. 



Banner of Dr Rajender Prasad - First President of 
India. 



President's Bodyguard (India) 



150 




Dr Rajender Prasad with PBG on the streets of 
old Delhi. 



First trumpet with banner by the President of Republic of India was 
presented by Dr. Rajender Prasad on 14 May 1957. It had maroon 
background, emblem and crest in gold thread. The design incorporated 
the initials of Dr. Rajender Prasad in Devnagri script in the center & 
four emblems in gold in all four corners of the banner, from the 
Personal Standard of the President. The Personal Standard of the then 
President, Dr. Rajender Prasad was presented to the regiment on 18th 
Jan, 1958 by the President himself. In Nov, 1958, President Rajender 
Prasad presented new Regimental Standard to the PBG, the previous 
Regimental Standard had been laid up after India became republic. Old 
Regimental Standard still rests in the Regiment's Officer's mess. 



When the 2nd President Dr. Radha Krishnan assumed office, he presented his banner to the PBG on 21st Oct, 1962. 
His banner had grey background and emblem and crest in gold thread. The design incorporated his initials in 
Devnagri script in the center & four emblems in gold in four corners, from the Personal flag of the President. New 
President's Standard of the Body Guard & the Regimental Standard were awarded by the President Dr. Radha 
Krishnan on Nov 11th, 1963. The Regimental Standard is dark blue in colour with Regimental crest in the center 
surrounded by the lotus flowers & Ashoka leaves. Five scrolls on either side of the crest are for the Battle Honours & 
Standard bears the motto "Bharat Mata ki Jai". 



Present status 

In 2003, the President's Bodyguard had an establishment of 7 officers, 15 NCOs, and 140 enlisted men, for a total 
strength of 180 men. Throughout its history, the Bodyguard has varied in size from 50 men when first raised, to 
1,929 men in 1845. However, it was usually around squadron size, or about 130 men. 

The current commanding officer of the regiment Colonel TS Mundi is 
from 45th Armoured Regiment. Lt. Col. Mahender Singh of 2nd 
Lancers (Gardner's Horse) is Second-in-Command of the regiment. 
The medical officer of the regiment is Major Surendra Poonia of 
Special Forces. He is also a international level Powerlifter & has 
represented India in Croatia & Spain during World Medical Games 
where medical professionals from all over the world came to 
participate. Major Poonia won 1 Gold, 1 Silver & 1 Bronze medal in 
Croatia in 2010 and 2 Gold,2 Silver & 1 Bronze in Spain in 2011. All 
officers of the PBG are handpicked by Indian Armoured corp and are 
officers of different cavalry regiments having outstanding career. By tradition, the CO has always been of Brigadier 
or Colonel rank. He is assisted by Majors, Captains, Risaldars and Daffadars. Soldiers hold the ranks of Sowar or 
Naik. Recruitment to the Regiment in India now is in equal share, to Sikhs, Jats and Rajputs, with officers and 
administrative staff from all over India. 




Col. T. S. Mundi, current CO of the regiment. 



President's Bodyguard (India) 



151 




Major Surendra Poonia after winning gold medal 
in Croatia. 




References 

[1] Jackson, Major Donovan (1940). India's Army. London: Low, Marston. pp. 1—8. 
[2] Singh, Sarbans. Battle Honours of the Indian Army 1757 - 1971. New Delhi: Vision 
Books. ISBN 81-7094-115-6. 

External links 

• President's Bodyguards - from the official site of the President of 
India (http://presidentofindia.nic.in/presidentsbodyguards.html) 

• The President's Bodyguard (http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/ 
LAND-FORCES/Units/Infantry/219-PBG.html) 

(http://www.hindu.com/2010/07/18/stories/2010071857820300. 
htm) (http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ news/ 
bodyguard-shows-his-mettle/ 647692/) (http ://epaper. indianexpress. 
com/ 9651/ Indian-Express/ 

1 l-August-201 l?show=clip#page=25:w=760:h=479:l=3:t=1729) 



Major Surendra Poonia with the President of 
India, Mrs Pratibha Devi Singh Patil. 



1st Duke of York's Own Skinner's Horse 



152 



1st Duke of York's Own Skinner's Horse 



1st Duke of York's Own Lancers (Skinner's Horse) 



Skinner's Horse party, folio from 'Reminiscences of Imperial Delhi', an album by Sir Thomas Metcalfe, 1843. 



Active 



1803- 1946, and to date 



Country 
Allegiance 



India 

United Kingdom (till 1947) 
India (post 1947) 



Branch 



Type 



British Indian Army (till 1947) 
Indian Army (post 1947) 

Cavalry 



Size 
Nickname 



Regiment 
Yellow Boys 



Engagements 



First Afghan War 

Battle of Ghazni 

Battle of Jellalabad 

Battle of Kabul (1842) 

Bhurtporel842 

First Sikh War 

Battle of Moodkee 

Battle of Ferozeshah 

Battle of Aliwal 

Battle of Sobraon 

Second Sikh War 

Battle of Ramnagar 

Battle of Chillianwallah 

Battle of Gujrat 

Second Afghan War 

Kandahar 1878-80 

Afghanistan! 878 

Boxer Rebellion 

Battle of Peking 

World War I 

France and Flanders 

Defence of Gumboz 

World War II 

East African Campaign 

Battle of Keren 

Amba Alagi 

Western Desert Campaign 

Agordat 

Abyssinia 

Senio Flood Bank 

Italian Campaign 
Commanders 



Colonel of 
the Regiment 



George VI of the United Kingdom 
1937 - 1950 



Notable 
commanders 



Imes Skinner 



1st Duke of York's Own Skinner's Horse 153 

The 1st Duke of York's Own Lancers (Skinner's Horse) was a unit of the British Indian Army from 1922 to 
independence and thereafter a unit of the Indian Army. 

Its foundation was when it was raised in 1803 as Skinner's Horse by James Skinner (Sikander Sahib) as an irregular 
cavalry regiment in the service of the East India Company, the regiment became (and remains) one of the seniormost 
cavalry regiments of the Armoured Corps of the Indian Army. 

There were two regiments of Indian Cavalry raised by Colonel James Skinner in 1803. They became the 1st Bengal 
Lancers and the 3rd Skinner's Horse. On the reduction of the Indian Army in 1922, they were amalgamated and 
became Skinner's Horse (1st Duke of York's Own Cavalry). The old 1st Lancers wore yellow uniforms (unique in 
the world) and the old 3rd wore blue. Each regiment had the full-dress (mounted) long 'Kurta' worn with a turban 
and cummerbund, also a full-dress (dis-mounted) or levee, dress. These were not in general use after 1914 but could 
still be worn by officers on special assignments (e.g. as an aide-de-camp). The mess jacket and waistcoat of the old 
1st Bengal Lancers was adopted by the 1922 regiment of Skinner's Horse and was the cold weather mess dress until 
1939. All six of these uniforms are in the collection of the National Army Museum. 

Early history 

After formation in 1803 the regiment was involved in a number of the campaigns on the Asian sub-continent, 
notably the First Afghan War, the Second Afghan War, the First Sikh War and the Second Sikh War. It was first 
regiment sent overseas during the Boxer Rebellion and participated in the Battle of Peking. 

World War I 

The regiment was at Meerut when the First World War broke out. The regiment was a part of the 7th (Meerut) 
Cavalry Brigade, 2nd Indian Cavalry Division. The brigade received orders to mobilise on October 24, 1914. 

The regiment was in France till August 1916. It saw extensive action in many parts of France. It was awarded the 
battle honours France and Flanders for its fine performance. It was sent to Mesopotamia as a part of the 7th Meerut 
Cavalry Brigade Headquarters. The regiment was then ordered back to India where it concentrated in Rawalpindi in 
August, 1916 for operations in Afghanistan. A detachment of the regiment was tasked to guard the post at 
Gumboz. 

Between the wars 

After World War I, the British Indian Army was scaled down. On May 18, 1921, two regiments were amalgamated 
at Sialkot with the new title of the 1st Duke of York's Own Skinner's Horse. The 1st Duke of York's Own Lancers 
which had been only Muslims and the 3rd Skinner's Horse consisted of one squadron each of Sikhs, Jats, Rajputs and 
Rangars (Muslim Rajputs). After the amalgamation, the regiment would only consist of only three Squadrons: 
Rajputs, Rangars and Jats. The Sikh Squadron, which had been part of the 3rd Skinner's Horse for 72 years, was 
disbanded. 

Each of the squadrons was equipped with one Hotchkiss gun and with .303 Short Magazine Lee Enfield rifles. The 
machine gun troops of the Headquarters Squadron were equipped with the .303 Vickers machine gun. The regiment 
acquired the status of a regular force of the British Indian Army and was equipped with the latest weapons which 
helped in later campaigns across the globe. 



1st Duke of York's Own Skinner's Horse 



154 



World War II 

At the beginning of World War II the regiment was still mounted, but 
was quickly converted to act as a mechanised reconnaissance regiment 
and was attached to the 5th Indian Division and when the division was 
sent to the Sudan, formed part of Gazelle Force. During the rest of the 
war the regiment was attached variously to the 4th Indian Infantry 
Division; the British 10th Armoured Division, the 3rd Indian Motor 
Brigade and the 10th Indian Infantry Division. The regiment fought in 
East Africa, North Africa and Italy and was awarded battle honours for 
Agordat, Keren, Amba-Alagi, Abyssinia, Senio Flood Bank and 
Italy. . The senior Pakistani politician Sardar Shaukat Hayat Khan 
(1915-1998), who served with Skinner's Horse in Sudan/ Africa during 
the Second World War, has written a brief but memorable account of 
the regiment's service there, in his memoirs, "The Nation that Lost its 
Soul" (Lahore: Jang Pubs, 1995). 




An Indian Pattern Carrier Mk IIA named 'Dhar 

IV, North Africa, 10 April 1942. Possibly 

Skinner's Horse by the Divisional Emblem 



Post World War II 

The regiment was switched to tanks in 1946, receiving the Stuart tank, and a year later Churchills. In 1947 with 
Indian Independence the regiment became part of the Indian Army Armoured Corps. The first Indian commander 
was Lt Col RM Bilimoria, and the regiment was stationed at Ahmadnagar. The regiment took part in the Hyderabad 
Police Action in 1948, following which action it stopped the use of Stuart tanks. The Churchill tank remained in use 
until 1957, after which the regiment was equipped with Sherman Mk IV's. Eight years later in 1965 the regiment 
converted to the T-54 and then to the T-55. In 1979 the regiment converted to the T-72 tank. 

James Skinner (who raised the regiment) built St. James' Church, Delhi. In 2003, a special service was held there to 
commemorate the bicentenary of the regiment. 



Name Changes 

Like all regiments of the Indian Army, the 1st Duke of York's Own Lancers (Skinner's Horse) underwent many 
name changes in their history. 

1823 1st (Skinner's) Local Horse 

1840 1st Irregular Cavalry (Skinner's Horse) 

1861 1st Regt. of Bengal Cavalry 

1896 1st Regt. of Bengal Lancers 

1899 1st (The Duke of York's Own) Regiment of Bengal Lancers 

1901 1st (Duke of York's Own) Bengal Lancers (Skinner's Horse) 

1903 1st Duke of York's Own Lancers (Skinner's Horse). 

1921 1st Duke of York's Own Skinner's Horse. 

1947 1st Horse (Skinner's Horse) 



1st Duke of York's Own Skinner's Horse 155 

Notes 

[1] "global security" (http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/skinners-horse.htm). . Retrieved 29 June 2008. 
[2] Bicentennial plaque at St James' Church (http://www.flickr.com/photos/markbowyer/1422633648/) 

References 

• Chris Kempton. The Register of Titles of the Units of the HEIC and Indian Armies 1666 to 1947. 

• J. Baillie Fraser (editor): Military Memoir of Lieut. Col. James Skinner. 

• Luscombe, Stephen; Griffin, Charles. "Land Forces of the British Empire: 1st Bengal Lancers (Skinner's Horse)" 
(http://www.britishempire.co.uk/forces/armyunits/indiancavalry/skinners.htm). Archived (http://web. 
archive.org/web/20070927 193450/http://www. britishempire.co.uk/forces/armyunits/indiancavalry/ 
skinners.htm) from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-31. 

Further reading 

• Sikandar Sahib by Denis Holman 

• Skinner's Horse by Christopher Rothero 

• Sworn to Die by Lt-Col MAR Skinner 

• A Short History of the 1st Duke of York's Own Lancers (Skinner's Horse), (1803 - 1908) by Major H Roberts 

• Skinner's Horse, by Philip Mason. HarperCollins. 1980. ISBN 0-06-013036-9. 

External links 

• Cavalry Uniforms of the late 19th Century (http://www.members.tripod.com/~Glosters/IAcavalryl.htm) 



2nd Lancers (Gardner's Horse) 



156 



2nd Lancers (Gardner's Horse) 



2nd Lancers (Gardner's Horse) 


Active 


1809 - 1946 


Country 


India 


Allegiance 


Great Britain 


Branch 


British Indian Army 


Type 


Cavalry 


Size 


Regiment 


Part of 


Indian Cavalry Corps 


Nickname 


Gardner's Horse 


Engagements 


Nepal War 




World War One 




Battle of the Somme 




Battle of Bazentin 




Battle of Flers 




Courcelette 




Hindenburg Line 




Battle of Cambrai 




World War II 




Battle of Gazala 


Commanders 


Colonel-in-Chief 


King Edward VII (1904) 



The 2nd Lancers (Gardner's Horse) was a cavalry regiment of the British Indian Army raised in 1809. It served in 
the Nepal and First World Wars. During the reconstruction of the British Indian Army in 1922 it was amalgamated 
with the 4th Cavalry. 

Early history 

The regiment was raised in 1809 by William Linnaeus Gardner who had previously served with the 74th 
Highlanders; it first saw service in the Nepal War of 1815. Like all regiments of the Indian Army, the 2nd Lancers 
(Gardner's Horse) underwent many name changes in various reorganisations. (They are listed below): 



World War I 

The regiment was sent to France in World War I as part of the Mhow Cavalry Brigade, 2nd Indian Cavalry Division. 
It was brigaded with the 6th (Inniskilling) Dragoons and the 38th King George's Own Central India Horse Once in 
France its personnel were called upon to serve in the trenches as infantry. The high number of officer casualties 
suffered early on had an effect on performance. British officers who understood the language, customs and 
psychology of their men could not be quickly replaced, and the alien environment of the Western Front had some 
effect on the soldiers. During their time on the Western Front the regiment was involved in the Battle of the 
Somme, Battle of Bazentin, Battle of Flers Courcelette, the Advance to the Hindenburg Line and the Battle of 
Cambrai. In February 1918 they left France for Egypt, joining the 4th Cavalry Division in the Desert Mounted Corps. 
From May 1918 the Regiment took part in General Allenby's campaign in Palestine. On 20th September 1918 during 
the Battle of Megiddo (Armageddon) during Allenby's advance on Jerusalem, the 2nd Lancers, commanded by 
Captain, temporary Major and Acting Lt. Colonel, Douglas Davison launched an improvised cavalry charge which 



2nd Lancers (Gardner's Horse) 157 

broke the Turkish lines, destabilised the defence, and paved the way for victory instead of stalemate before 
Jerusalem. One squadron, on the initiative of its commander, moved on to capture the village of El Afuleh, along 
with around 100 German personnel, aircraft, trucks and railway stock. Capt. D.S. Davison was awarded the DSO for 
his part in this battle. The Regiment returned to India in December 1920. 

Victoria Cross 

The Regiments' only Victoria Cross was awarded during World War I to Gobind Singh (7 December 1887 - 9 
December 1942) a Lance-Daffadar (corporal) in the 27th Light Cavalry attached to the 2nd Lancers (Gardner's 
Horse). On 12 December 1917, east of Peizieres, Singh volunteered three times to carry messages between the 
regiment and brigade headquarters, a distance of 1.5 miles (2.4 km) over open ground which was under heavy fire. 
He succeeded in delivering the messages, although on each occasion his horse was shot from under him and he was 
compelled to finish the journey on foot. 

Albert Medal 

The Albert Medal is awarded for "daring and heroic actions performed by mariners and others in danger of perishing, 
by reason of wrecks and other perils of the sea". It was awarded on 15 March, 1919 to Trooper Mangal Sain, 2nd 
Indian Lancers (Gardner's Horse) at Beirut, Lebanon. Whilst guarding a party of Turkish POWs who were being 
allowed to swim, he saved a prisoner and a British soldier from drowning. 

World War II 

The regiment served in the Western Desert Campaign during World War II as part of the 3rd Indian Motor Brigade, 
7th Armoured Division. It was brigaded with the 18th King Edward's Own Cavalry and the 11th Prince Albert 
Victor's Own Cavalry (Frontier Force). It also supplied men for the Indian Long Range Squadron. 

In 1941 the 3rd Indian Motor Brigade, during the Battle of Gazala, formed the southernmost point of the Gazala Line 
near Bir Hacheim. On 27 May 1942, Italy s Ariete Armoured Division overran the 3rd Indian Motor Brigade. 

Regiment's name changes 

1809 Gardner's Horse 

1823 2nd (Gardner's) Local horse 

1840 2nd Irregular Cavalry 

1861 2nd Regt. of Bengal Cavalry 

1890 2nd Regt. Of Bengal Lancers 

1901 2nd Bengal Lancers 

1903 2nd Lancers (Gardner's Horse) 

1922 2nd Lancers (Gardner's Horse), retained old name after amalgamation 

1935 2nd Royal Lancers (Gardner's Horse) 

1947 To Indian Army upon Partition 

1950 2nd Lancers (Gardner's Horse) upon India becoming a Republic 



2nd Lancers (Gardner's Horse) 158 

References 

[1] "cwgc.org" (http://www.cwgc. org/ypres/content.asp?id=33&menu=subsub). . 
[2] Haythornthwaite P.J. (1992). The World War One Sourcebook, Arms and Armour Press. 
[3] "1914-1918" (http://www.1914-1918.net/albert_medal.htm). . 

[4] Mitcham, W. S., Mitcham Jr., W. S. (2007). Rommel's Desert War: The Life and Death of the Afrika Korps. Stackpole Books. ISBN 
0-8117-3413-7 

Further reading 

• Kempton, C (1996). A Register of Titles of the Units of the H.E.I.C. & Indian Armies 1666-1947. Bristol: British 
Empire & Commonwealth Museum. ISBN 978-0-9530174-0-9 

• Gaylor, J (1992). Sons of John Company: The Indian and Pakistan Armies 1903- 1991. Stroud: Spellmount 
Publishers Ltd. ISBN 978-0-946771-98-1 

• D.E.Whitworth (2005) (Paperback editions/story of the 2nd Lancers (Gardner's Horse) from 1809-1922. Naval 
& Military Press Ltd. ISBN 978-1-84574-316-1 

External links 

• Uniforms of the late 19th Century (http://www.members.tripod.com/~Glosters/IAcavalryl.htm) 



3rd Cavalry 



159 



3rd Cavalry 



3rd Cavalry 


Active 


1922 - 1946 


Country 


British India 


Allegiance 


British Crown 


Branch 


British Indian Army 


Type 


Cavalry 


Size 


Regiment 


Part of 


Indian Cavalry Corps 


Equipment 


Horse 


Engagements 


First Afghan War 
Second Afghan War 
North West Frontier 
World War I 
Mesopotamian 
campaign 
World War U 


Battle honours 


Afghanistan- 1879-80 
Mesopotamia-1916-18 
North Malaya 
Central Malaya 
Malaya- 194 1-42 



The 3rd Cavalry was a regular cavalry Regiment in the British Indian Army formed from the 5th and 8th Cavalry 
regiments in 1922. 

The which served on the North West Frontier and during World War I and World War II. 



Early history 

The 3rd Cavalry was formed from two older Regiments the 7th Irregular Cavalry which was raised in 1841 at 
Bareilly and the 17th Cavalry which was raised at Sultanpur in 1846. Often re-designated, by the turn of the 
century they were called 5th Cavalry and 8th Lancers. The two regiments serving in India and abroad, saw action in 
Afghanistan, Bhutan, Mesopotamia and Palestine earning Battle Honours Afghanistan 1879-80 and Mesopotamia 
1916-18. they were amalgamated in 1922, to form the 5th/8th Cavalry, re-designated in 1923 as 3rd Cavalry, 
which was amongst the first Regiments to be Indianised. 



3rd Cavalry 160 

5th Cavalry 

Raised at Bareilly in 1841 as a result of the First Afghan War the regiment also served in the Second Afghan War 
between 1878 - 1880. Like all the regiments of the Indian Army, the 5th Cavalry underwent many name changes in 
the various reorganisations. They are listed below: 

1841 7th Irregular Cavalry 

1861 5th Regiment of Bengal Cavalry 

1901 5th Bengal Cavalry 

1903 5th Cavalry. 

World War I 

At the start of World War I the 5th Cavalry was part of the 4th (Rawalpindi) Infantry Brigade in October 1916 they 
transferred to the 1st (Peshawar) Division for service on the North West Frontier until October 1917 when they left 
to take part in the Mesopotamian campaign . 

8th Lancers 

The 8th Lancers were the last regiment to be raised before the Indian Mutiny. They served in Peshawar in 1857 and 
in the Second Afghan War. They were issued with lances in 1899 to become the 8th Bengal Lancers, this title was 
later changed to the 8th Lancers. Like all the regiments of the Indian Army, the 8th Lancers underwent many name 
changes in the various reorganisations. They are listed below. 

1846 17th Irregular Cavalry 

1847 18th Irregular Cavalry 

1861 8th Regiment of Bengal Cavalry 

1900 8th Regiment of Bengal Lancers 

1901 8th Bengal Lancers 
1903 8th Lancers 

World War I 

During World War I the 8th Lancers were part of the Jhansi Brigade, at Mhow under the command of Major General 
Townshend the brigade consisted of the: 

8 Lancers 

38th Central Indian Horse 

2nd Royal Berkshire Regiment 

10th Jats 

99th Decan Infantry 

107 Pioneers 

116Mahratta 

60 Company RGA 



3rd Cavalry 161 

World War II 

In 1941, whilst still in the process of being equipped with armoured cars, 3rd Cavalry now part of the 11th Indian 

Infantry Division, was deployed to Malaya to counter the Japanese advance. They were involved in the battles at 

Taiping, Perak, Sungei Pattani, Penang Island, Perak River and the Battle of Slim River where two Indian Brigades 

were annihilated by the Japanese. The Regiment was then captured by the Japanese after the fall of Singapore and 

Mi 
went into captivity until the end of the war. For the Regiments service in Malaya it was awarded the Battle 

Honours "North Malaya" and "Central Malaya" and Theatre Honour "Malaya 1941-42". 
[l] 

References 

[1] "indiapost" (http://www.indianpost.com/viewstamp.php/Alpha/3RDCAVALRY). . 

[2] "orbat.com" (http://orbat.com/site/history/historical/india/armyl914.html). . 

[3] "1914-1918" (http://www.1914-1918.net/Peshawar_div.htm). . 

[4] Konstam. The Indian Army 1914-1947 .p40 

Further reading 

• Kempton, C (1996). A Register of Titles of the Units of the H.E.I.C. & Indian Armies 1666-1947. Bristol: British 
Empire & Commonwealth Museum. ISBN 978-0-9530174-0-9 

• Gaylor, J (1992). Sons of John Company: The Indian and Pakistan Armies 1903- 1991. Stroud: Spellmount 
Publishers Ltd. ISBN 978-0-946771-98-1 

External links 

• Uniforms of the late 19th Century (http://www.members.tripod.com/~Glosters/IAcavalryl.htm) 



4th Duke of Cambridge's Own Hodson's Horse 



162 



4th Duke of Cambridge's Own Hodson's Horse 



4th Duke of Cambridge's Own Hodson's 






Horse 




v ^ Tl' 


t 






rSn 




'^tfvSK 




r '-i# 




^>* ■ ~ r™"l*»- 


Active 


1857 — present 


Country 


India 


Allegiance 






British Crown 
India 


Branch 






British Indian Army 
Indian Army 


Type 


Cavalry 


Size 


Regiment 


Nickname 


The Flamingoes 


Anniversaries 


Cambrai Day 


Battle honours 






Delhi 

Lucknow 

Suakin 1885 

Chitral 

Punjab Frontier 

World War I 

France and Flanders 1914—18 

Battle of Givenchy 1914 

Battle of the Somme 1916 

Battle of Bazentin 

Battle of Flers Courcelette 

Battle of Cambrai 1917 

Khan Baghdadai 

Mesopotamia 1916-18 

Battle of Megiddo (1918) 

Battle of Sharon 

Capture of Damascus 

Palestine 1918 


Commanders 


Notable 






William Stephen Raikes 


commanders 






Hodson 
Osmond Barnes 



Hodson's Horse is a cavalry regiment which originated as part of the British Indian Army. It was raised by Brevet 
Major William Stephen Raikes Hodson during the Indian Rebellion of 1857, and exists today as the 4th Horse 
Regiment in the Indian Army. The first risala or troop was raised by Risaldar-Major Man Singh . 

The force was raised as an irregular cavalry regiment to assist with putting down the rebellion, and continued as part 
of the British Indian Army. The official designation has changed several times since the regiment's inception in 



4th Duke of Cambridge's Own Hodson's Horse 



163 



1857. In 1859, the regiment was split up into two regiments which survived broadly as the 9th Bengal Lancers and 
10th Bengal Lancers. In 1878, the 10th Bengal Lancers came to be known as the "Duke of Cambridge's own." In 
1921, the British decided to cut down on the number of cavalry regiments, and re-amalgamated the two as the 10th 
Duke of Cambridge's Own Lancers (Hodson's Horse). The regiment fought at the Battle of the Somme and the Battle 
of Cambrai in the First World War. It still recalls the latter as the regiment's most splendid battle, and celebrates 
Cambrai Day every year. 

The regiment is now an armoured regiment of the post-independence Indian Army. 



Name changes 

1857 Hodson's Horse 

1858 2nd Regiment of Hodson's Horse 
1861 10th Regiment of Bengal Cavalry 
1864 10th Regiment of Bengal Cavalry (Lancers) 
1874 10th Regiment of Bengal Lancers 
1878 10th Bengal (Duke of Cambridge's Own) Lancers 
1901 10th (Duke of Cambridge's Own) Bengal Lancers (Hodson's Horse) 
1903 10th Duke of Cambridge's Own Lancers (Hodson's Horse) 



Notable officers 

• Major William Stephen Raikes Hodson , Commanding officer on formation. 

• Colonel Osmond Barnes, commanded 10th Bengal (Duke of Cambridge's Own) Lancers and was Chief Herald of 
India 

• General Sir Henry Dermott Daly 

• Risaldar-Major Man Singh, raised the first troop or risala 

• Risaldar-Major Mir Dad Khan, Tareen, father of Pakistani general and president Ayub Khan. 



Photographic image, 1858 




British & Native Officers of Hodson's Horse, 1858 by Felix Beato 



This is a photograph about whose subjects 
there is disagreement in reputable academic 
circles. (1) www.britishempire.co.uk states 
the Europeans to be: Lt. Clifford Henry 
Mecham (standing); Major Henry Dermot 
Daly (seated); The Sikh officer standing at 
the far left with long beard is given as Man 
Sing; the Sikh seated on floor as Jai Singh. 
(2) National Army Museum, London, names 
the European officers as: Lt. Clifford Henry 
Mecham (standing); Asst. Surgeon Thomas 
Anderson (seated). (3) The Bridgman Art 
Library gives the European officer seated as 
Major William Stephen Raikes Hodson; 
officer standing: Lt. McDowell and seated 
on the ground is Sikh officer Risalder major 



4th Duke of Cambridge's Own Hodson's Horse 164 

Man Singh . The attribution to Hodson is surely incorrect, unfortunately, as there is apparently otherwise only one 
extant image of this famous officer, the engraving printed as frontispiece to his biography "Rider on a Grey Horse", 
by B.J. Cork, 1958. There appears to be no disagreement as to the title of the photograph, or its year. Reputable 
officers : Major Bhupinder Singh, Mahavir Chakra, posthumous. 1965 Indo Pak war. 

References 

• Kempton, Chris. A Register of Titles of the Units of the H.E.I. C. & Indian Armies 1666—1947. 

• Gaylor, John. Sons of John Company: The Indian and Pakistan Armies 1903—1991. 

External links 

Follow this link to view the uniforms of the late 19th Century 

• http://www.members.tripod.com/~Glosters/IAcavalryl.htm 

References 

[1] http://www.dnw. co. uk/medals/auctionarchive/viewspecialcollections/itemdetail.lasso?itemid=478 17 
[2] http://www.britishempire.co.uk/forces/armyunits/indiancavalry/9thblmansingh.htm 



7th Light Cavalry 



165 



7th Light Cavalry 



7th Light Cavalry 



Active 



Country 



1784- 

British India 
(1784-1947) 
India (1 947-) 



Allegiance 



Branch 



British Crown 
India 

British Indian Army 
Indian Army 



Type 
Size 



Cavalry 
Regiment 



Equipment Horse 

Engagements 



Third Mysore War 
Fourth Mysore War 
Pindari War 
World War I 
World War II 



Battle honours Mysore 

Seringapatam 

Mahidpur 

Merv 

Persia- 1915 

Imphal 

Kyaukmaung Bridgehead 

Meiktila 

Mandalay 

Rangoon Road 

Burma 1942-45 

Sri nagar (jk) 

ZOZELA 



The 7th Light Cavalry, was a regular army cavalry regiment in the British Indian Army which first came into 
British service with the East India Company and went on to serve on the North West Frontier and in World War I 
and World War II. 



Formation 

The history of this regiment can be traced to 1784 when they had been hired from the Nawab of Arcot by the East 
India Company, when these regiments mutinied for lack of pay John Company was forced to quell the mutiny. The 
regiments involved were disbanded and from the remnants, volunteers formed the 2nd Madras Cavalry which would 
eventually become the 7th Light Cavalry. 

They soon changed their title to the 3rd Madras Native Cavalry and it was under that title that they were first in 
action during the Third Mysore War in 1790 against Tipu Sultan. 

They were next in action during the Fourth Mysore War in 1799 and fought with distinction at the Battle of 
Seringapatam and at the Battle of Mahidpur in the Pindari War of 1817, after which they became known as the 3rd 
Madras Light Cavalry. For these actions they were awarded the battle honors Mysore, Seringapatam and 
Mahidipore. 



7th Light Cavalry 



166 



Apart from some minor operations against the southern Mahrattas from 1844 to 1855 and sending some troops to 
join the Decan force during the Mutiny of 1857, the regiment would not see any action for the next hundred years 



[l] 



In 1891 they were converted to lancers becoming the 3rd Regiment of Madras Lancers and in the reorganisation of 
the Indian Army in 1903, their title was changed to the 28th Light Cavalry. 



World War I 

At the start of World War I, the Regiment 
was stationed in Quetta being part of the 4th 
(Quetta) Division 



r-\ 



In 1915 two squadrons were sent to Persia 
where they were mounted on camels they 
were tasked with stopping German agents 
from traveling across Persia to 
Afghanistan. 

The Regiments success in Persia was 
demonstrated when they captured a German 
officer, Lieutenant Winkleman, who was 
attempting to reach the Amir of Afghanistan 
to convince him to rebel or start a Jihad, 



against the British in India 



[l] 



* t-1 


* HH 

W 

' jii A ^'"-Jtiiinm.. 
•*/ i 


_ 






mmm 


' 



Madras Cavalry 



Russia 

Following the Russian Revolution the Regiment was sent to Russia in 1917 to assist the White Russian forces to 
fight the Bolsheviks 



[l] 



The regiment received the battle honors Merv and Persia 1915 for their services in the Great War 



[l] 



Between the Wars 

In 1922 another reorganization saw the regiment renamed as The 7th Light Cavalry and a year later as the 
'Indianization' of the Indian Army officer corps began, the squadron officers were replaced by those of Indian origin, 
known as Viceroy's Commissioned Officers (VCOs). 



World War II 

At the start of the Second World War the Regiment was stationed in Bolarum part of the 4th (Secunderabad) Cavalry 
Brigade they were brigaded with the: 

14th/20th Hussars 

Prince Albert Victor's Own Cavalry 

3rd Field Regiment, Royal Artillery 



4th Cavalry Brigade Signal Troop 



[3] 



[4] 



The regiment was mechanized in 1942 and attached to the 254th Indian Tank Brigade, equipped with the M4 
Sherman. The Brigade under the command of Brigadier Reginald Scoones consisted of the: 

7th Light Cavalry 

1st Sqn 3rd Carabiniers 



7th Light Cavalry 167 

3rd Btn 4th Bombay Grenadiers 

1 lth Prince Albert Victor's Own Cavalry (Frontier Force) 

150th Regt Royal Armoured Corps. 

The Brigade fought with the 5th Indian Division and the 7th Indian Infantry Divisions in Burma and was involved in 
the Battle of Imphal, Battle of Kyaukmaung Bridgehead, Battle of Meiktila, and the Rangoon Road. 

Post war 

In 1947 the regiment passed to the independent nation of India. 

Regimental Titles 

1784 — 2nd Regiment of Madras Native Cavalry 
1786 — 1st Regiment of Madras Native Cavalry 
1788 — 3rd Regiment of Madras Native Cavalry 
1819 — 3rd Regiment of Madras Light Cavalry 
1891 — 3rd Regiment of Madras Lancers 
1903 - 28th Light Cavalry 
1922 - 7th Light Cavalry 
1947 - 7th Regiment of Light Cavalry, Army of India. 

Victoria Cross 

L/Daffadar Gobind Singh ,28th Light Cavalry February 1, 1917 Place of Action: east of Peizieres, France attached to 
the 2nd Lancers (Gardner's Horse) 

CitatiomLance Dafadar Gobind Singh of Indian Cavalry was awarded the Victoria Cross "for most conspicuous 
bravery and devotion to duty on the 1st February 1917, east of Pozieres, France, in thrice volunteering to carry 
messages between the regiment and Brigade Headquarters, a distance of IVi miles over open ground which was 
under the observation and heavy fire of the enemy. He succeeded each time in delivering the message, although on 
each occasion his horse was shot and he was compelled to finish his journey on foot." 

References 

[1] "bharat-rakshak" (http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/LAND-FORCES/index.php?page=shop.browse&category_id=28& 

option=com_virtuemart&Itemid=26#). . 

[2] "orbat.com" (http://orbat.com/site/history/historical/india/armyl914.html). . 

[3] "adelphia" (http://home.adelphia.net/~dryan67/orders/ia.html). . 

[4] The Indian Army 1914—1947 By Dr Angus Konstam, Ian Sumner, Mike Chappell 

[5] "burmastar" (http://www.burmastar.org.Uk/tanks.htm#254th). . 

[6] London Gazette, 11 January 1918 



7th Light Cavalry 168 

Further reading 

Bowling A.H. Indian Cavalry Regiments 1880-1914 Almark Publishing 1971 
Carmen W.Y Indian Cavalry Uniforms Leonard Hill 1961 
Mollo B. The Indian Army Blandford Press 1981 

External links 

Follow this link to view the uniforms of the late 19th Century 
• http://www.members.tripod.com/~Glosters/IAcavalryl.htm 



8th King George's Own Light Cavalry 



169 



8th King George's Own Light Cavalry 



8th King 


George's Own Light 




Cavalry 


Active 


1787 - 1946 


Country 


India 


Allegiance 


British Crown 


Branch 


British Indian Army 


Type 


Cavalry 


Size 


Regiment 


Part of 


Indian Cavalry Corps 


Equipment 


Horse 


Battle honours 


Third Mysore War 




Fourth Mysore War 




Indian Mutiny 




Second Burmese War 




World War I 




Battle of Givenchy 1914 




France and Flanders 




1914-1916 




Afghanistan 1919 




Iraq- 1920 




World War II 




Burma Campaign 



The 8th King George's Own Light Cavalry was formed in 1922 by the amalgamation of the 26th King George's 
Own Light Cavalry and the 30th Lancers following a re-organisation of the Indian Cavalry Corps. Both regiments 
were regular cavalry units that had had long and distinguished records in the British Indian Army prior to their 
amalgamation. During World War II the regiment was converted into an armoured car unit and served during the 
Burma campaign. 



26th King George's Own Light Cavalry 

The 26th King George's Own Light Cavalry was originally raised as the 5th Regiment Madras Native Cavalry on 
23 October 1787 as part of the Madras Presidency Army. In 1788, it was re-designated as the 1st Madras Native 
Cavalry and in 1816 its name was changed to 1 Madras Light Cavalry. The Regiment was yet again renamed as the 
1st Regiment of Madras Lancers in 1886, and was known by that title till the turn of the century, when it was 
changed to 1st Madras Lancers. 

In 1903 it was renamed as the 26th Light Cavalry and three years later it became the Prince of Wales Own Light 
Cavalry and then in 1910, it became the 26th King George's Own Light Cavalry. During this time it participated in 
the Third Mysore War, 1789—1792, the Fourth Mysore War, 1793-1798. Campaigns against Dhoondia Wagh and the 
Polygars, 1799-1830. Campaigns in Afghanistan and Burma, between, 1880-1914. 



8th King George's Own Light Cavalry 



170 



World War I 

The 26th King George's Own Light Cavalry 
served in the South Yemen during World 
War I as part of the Aden Field Force, I: 

30th Lancers (Gordon's 
Horse) 

The 30th Lancers (Gordon's Horse) was 
formed in 1826 and participated in the 
Indian Mutiny, 1857-1859 and the Second 
Burmese War, 1860-1889. From the Second 
Burmese War to World War I, 1889-1914. 
Chap V - World War I to the 
Amalgamation, 1914-1922. Givenchy 1914; 
France and Flanders 1914-1916; 
Afghanistan 1919; Iraq 1920. 




World War I 

During the first world war the Regiment was part of the Ambala Cavalry Brigade, 1st Indian Cavalry Division they 
were brigaded with the 8th (King's Royal Irish) Hussars and the 9th Hodson's Horse They were sent to France for 
service on the Western Front where they at times would serve in the trenches as infantry due to the difference on 
troop levels each Cavalry Brigade once dismounted formed a dismounted regiment. The high number of officer 
casualties suffered early on had an effect on its later performance. British officers that understood the language, 
customs, and psychology of their men could not be quickly replaced, and the alien environment of the Western Front 
had some effect on the soldiers. The Regiment stayed in France as part of the 1st Indian Cavalry Division until 
March 1918 when the division was broken up and reformed in Egypt 



[4] 



Amalgamation 

In 1922, the two regiments were amalgamated to form the 8th King George's Own Light Cavalry, inheriting in the 



process, the traditions of both Regiments 



[5] 



World War II 

World War II 1939-1945; Waziristan 1939-1943; Vizagapatam 1944; Burma 1945, 19th Indian Division, 1946. 

In 1940, the Regiment started to become mechanised and convert to an Armoured Car Regiment which was not 
completed until 1943. It went onto serve in Burma with the 19th Indian Division. 

In April 1941 the Jat squadron was detached from the Regiment. Renamed as the 100th Light Tank Squadron, it was 
assigned to the new 44th Cavalry Regiment being formed at Risalpur. The squadron was sent to Malaya early in 
1942. On January 29, 1942, they arrived in Singapore with 16 tanks and were attached to the British 18th Infantry 
Division. The entire squadron was lost when the British forces surrendered on February 15, 1942. Brigadier 
Avininder Singh Bedi (Bong Bedi) took over Command from the British of the 8th Cavalry Regiment after 
Independence and was its first Indian commanding officer. Before Independence Brig. AS Bedi was a commanding 
officer of 3rd cavalry in the British Army 



8th King George's Own Light Cavalry 171 

Notes 

[1] "ornat.com" (http://orbat.com/site/cimh/regiments/8CAVALRY/8th Cavalry.html). . 

[2] "cwgc.org" (http://www.cwgc. org/ypres/content.asp?id=33&menu=subsub). . 

[3] Haythornthwaite P.J. (1992). The World War One Sourcebook, Arms and Armour Press. 

[4] "warpath" (http://www.warpath.orbat.com/indian_cav/l_ind_cav_div.htm). . 

[5] "orbat.com" (http://orbat.com/site/cimh/regiments/8CAVALRY/8th Cavalry.html). . 

[6] Klemen, L. "100th Indian Indp. Light Tank Squadron, Malaya 1942" (http://www.dutcheastindies.webs.com/indian_tank.html). The 
Netherlands East Indies 1941-1942. . 

References 

• Rawlinson, H.G. (1948). The History of 8th King George V's Own Light Cavalry. Gale & Polden Ltd. 

External links 

Follow this link to view the uniforms of the late 19th Century 

• http://www.members.tripod.com/~Glosters/IAcavalryl.htm 



9th Royal Deccan Horse 



172 



9th Royal Deccan Horse 



9th Royal Deccan Horse 


Active 


1790-1947 


Country 


British India 


Allegiance 


British Crown 


Branch 


British Indian Army 


Type 


Cavalry 


Size 


Regiment 


Part of 


Indian Cavalry Corps 


Nickname 


Deccan Horse 


Equipment 


Horse 


Engagements 


Second Afghan 




War- 1879- 1880 




Burma War-1886-1888 




China- 1900 


Battle honours 


Central India 




Battle of Givenchy 




Battle of the Somme 




Battle of Bazentin 




Battle of Deville Wood 




Battle of Flers Courcellete 




Battle of Cambrai 




France and Flanders 1914-18 




Battle of Megiddo 




Battle of Sharon 




Capture of Damascus 




Palestine 1918 




Battle of Meiktilla 




Rangoon Road 




Capture of Meiktila 




Defence of Meiktilla 




Battle of Pyabwe 




Burma 1942-45 



The 9th Royal Deccan Horse was a regular cavalry regiment of the British Indian Army , it was formed from the 
amalgamation of two regiments after World War I. They saw service from the Mutiny of 1857 up to and including 
World War II. 



9th Royal Deccan Horse 



173 



Formation 

The 9th Royal Deccan Horse can trace its formation to 1790 when it was called Asif Sah's Irregular Cavalry. Two 
Regiments were raised for service under the Nizam of Hyderabad in Berar who was allied with the East India 
Company. 

During the following years the Regiment's title would change and they were known by the following titles over the 
years; 

1st Regiment, Nizam's Cavalry 

2nd Regiment, Nizam's Cavalry 

1st Cavalry, Hyderabad Contingent 

2nd Cavalry, Hyderabad Contingent 

1st Lancers, Hyderabad Contingent 



2nd Lancers, Hyderabad Contingent 



[l] 



The Deccan Horse was frequently called for service during the 18th and 19th Centuries, winning a Victoria Cross in 
1859 and was also awarded the battle honour, 'Central India'.. 

The Regiment was also in action during the Second Afghan War, the Burma War, and in China during the Boxer 
Rebellion. In 1903 during Kitcheners reform of the Indian Army the two Regiments were incorporated into the 
regular Indian Army with the titles XXth Deccan Horse and the 29th Lancers (Deccan Horse).. 



World War I 



The 20th Deccan Horse was sent to 
France for service on the Western 
Front they were part of the 9th 
(Secunderbad) Cavalry Brigade of the 
2nd Indian Cavalry Division. 

The 29th Lancers were also sent to 
France they formed part of the 8th 
(Lucknow) Cavalry Brigade of the 1st 



Indian Cavalry Division 



[21 



Both Regiments would at times serve 
as Infantry in the trenches before being 



withdrawn for service in Palestine 



[11 




Mr # 




Deccan Horse, Bazentin Ridge 1916 



9th Royal Deccan Horse 



174 



Amalgamation 

The XXth Deccan Horse was awarded 
the titled Royal for their distinguished 
service during World War I, and in 
1922 following the amalgamation of 
the two regiments, the Royal Deccan 
Horse (9th Horse) was formed 



[l] 




World War II 

During the Second World War,the 
Regiment converted to tanks, and 

became part of the 255th Indian Tank 

T31 
Brigade The regiment took part in 

the re-conquest of Burma. 



Awards & Honours 
Victoria Cross 

Risaldar Badlu Singh, 14th Murray's 
Jat Lancers attached to the 29th 
Lancers , on September 23, 1918 at 
Kh. es Samariyeh, Jordan River, Palestine. 

Citation: Risaldar Badlu Singh was attached to 29th Lancers when "on the morning of the 23rd September 1918, his 
squadron charged a strong enemy position on the west bank of the river Jordan, between the river and Kh. es 
Samariyeh village. 

"On nearing the position, Risaldar Badlu Singh realised that the squadron was suffering casualties from a small hill 
on the left front occupied by machine guns and 200 infantry. Without the slightest hesitation he collected six other 
ranks and with the greatest dash and total disregard for danger, charged and captured the position, thereby saving 
very heavy casualties to the squadron. He was mortally wounded on the very top of the hill when capturing one of 
the machine guns single handed, but all the machine guns and infantry had surrendered to him before he died. 



9th Deccan Horse 



"His valour and initiative were of the highest order. 



.,[4] 



Konsal Singh 

• Description Medal card of Konsal Singh * 

• 20th Deccan Horse - Risaldar 

• Date - 1914-1920 

Honrery Capt. Jailal Singh Militry cross The Royal Deccan Horse Vill. Girdharpur(Babepur) Jhajjar Haryana 



References 



[1] "geocities" (http://www.webcitation.org/5kjLt5oPc). Archived from the original (http://www.geocities.com/stamparchive/Forces/ 

llll_DECCAN_HORSE.htm) on 2009-10-23. . 
[2] "cwgc.org" (http://www.cwgc. org/ypres/content.asp?id=33&menu=subsub). . 
[3] "wewerethere" (http://www.wewerethere.defencedynamics.mod.uk/ww2/india_l.html). . 
[4] London Gazette, 27 November 1918 



9th Royal Deccan Horse 



175 



[5] name = "National Archive" Record Number WO 372/11 at http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk 



5th King Edward's Own Probyn's Horse 



5 Horse 


# 


Active 


1857 - Present 


Country 


HO British India 
Q Pakistan 


Branch 


Army 


Type 


Armoured Regiment 


Size 


Regiment 


Nickname 


Probyn's Horse 


Engagements 


Indian Mutiny of 1857 
Second Opium War 1860-61 
Abyssinian Campaign 1868 
Second Afghan War 1878-80 
First World War 1914-18 
(Mesopotamia) 

Second World War 1939-45 (Burma) 
Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 


Commanders 


Colonels-in-Chief 


King Edward VII 
King George V 


Colonel of 
the Regiment 


Field Marshal The Lord Birdwood 


Notable 
commanders 


General Sir Dighton Probyn, VC 
General Sir Hugh Gough, VC 
General Sir Alan Hartley 
Lieutenant General Gul Hassan 



The 5 Horse is an armoured regiment of Pakistan Army. Previously, it was known as the 5th King Edward's Own 
Probyn's Horse, which was a regular cavalry regiment of the British Indian Army. It was formed in 1921 by 
amalgamation of the 1 1th King Edward's Own Lancers (Probyn's Horse) and 12th Cavalry. 



5th King Edward's Own Probyn's Horse 



176 



[1][2] 



11th King Edward's Own Lancers (Probyn's Horse) 

The 11th King Edward's Own Lancers (Probyn's Horse) was raised on 1 August 1857 by Captain Frederick Wale 
during the Indian Mutiny of 1857 and served at Lucknow. Captain Wale was killed in action on 1 March 1858, while 
leading the regiment in the pursuit of mutineers, and was replaced by Major Dighton Probyn, VC. In 1860 the 
regiment was dispatched to China to take part in the Second Opium War. They participated in the advance on Peking 
and returned to India in 1861 with a good reputation. The regiment saw service in the Second Afghan War of 
1878-80 and then took part in the Black Mountains Expedition, went to Chitral and formed part of the Malakand 
Field Force. During the First World War, the regiment served in Mesopotamia. 

1857 Wale's Horse 

1857 1st Sikh Irregular Cavalry 

1858 1st Sikh Irregular Cavalry (Probyn's Horse) 
1861 1 1th Regiment of Bengal Cavalry 
1864 1 1th Regiment of Bengal Cavalry (Lancers) 
1874 1 1th Regiment of Bengal Lancers 

1876 1 1th (Prince of Wales's Own) Regiment of Bengal Lancers 
1901 1 1th (Prince of Wales's Own) Bengal Lancers 

1903 1 1th Prince of Wales's Own Lancers 

1904 11th Prince of Wales's Own Lancers (Probyn's Horse) 
1906 1 1th King Edward's Own Lancers (Probyn's Horse) 



12th Cavalry 

The 12th Cavalry was also raised during the Mutiny of 
1857, by Captain PR Hockin in October 1857. It 
formed part of the 1868 Expedition to Abyssinia 
(Ethiopia) and served in the Second Afghan War of 
1878-80. During the First World War, it fought in the 
Mesopotamian Campaign 



[1][2] 



• 1857 2nd Sikh Irregular Cavalry 

• 1861 12th Regiment of Bengal Cavalry 

• 1901 12th Bengal Cavalry 

• 1903 12th Cavalry 

Probyn's Horse (5th King Edward 
VII's Own Lancers) 

After the First World War, the number of Indian 
cavalry regiments was reduced from thirty-nine to 
twenty-one. However, instead of disbanding the surplus 
units, it was decided to amalgamate them in pairs. This 
resulted in renumbering and renaming of the entire 
cavalry line. The 11th King Edward's Own Lancers 
(Probyn's Horse) and 12th Cavalry were amalgamated 
at Meerut on 28 August 1921 to form 5th King 
Edward's Own Probyn's Horse. The uniform of Probyn's Horse was blue with scarlet facings. The new regiment's 




Risaldar-Major, 1 1th King Edward's Own Lancers (Probyn's Horse). 
Watercolour by AC Lovett, 1910. 



5th King Edward's Own Probyn's Horse 



177 



[31 



badge consisted of the Prince of Wales's plumes. Its class composition was one squadron each of Punjabi Muslims, 
Sikhs and Dogras. The regiment was mechanised in 1940. During the Second World War, the regiment served with 
great distinction in Burma. On the Partition of India in 1947, Probyn's Horse was allotted to Pakistan. In 1956, 
Pakistan became a republic and all titles pertaining to British royalty were dropped. The regiment's new designation 
was 5 Horse, although informally, it continues to be known as the Probyn's Horse. During the Indo-Pakistani War 
of 1965, 5 Horse fought in the Battle of Khem Karan. 

• 1921 1 lth/12th Probyn's Horse 
(amalgamation) 

• 1922 5th King Edward's Own Probyn's 
Horse 

• 1927 Probyn's Horse (5th King Edward's 
Own Lancers) 

• 1937 Probyn's Horse (5th King Edward 
VII's Own Lancers) 

• 1956 5 Horse 

Battle Honours 

Lucknow, Taku Forts, Pekin 1860, 
Abyssinia, Ali Masjid, Peiwar Kotal, 
Charasiah, Kabul 1879, Afghanistan 
1878-80, Chitral, Malakand, Punjab 
Frontier, Mesopotamia 1915-18, Meiktila, Capture of Meiktila, Defence of Meiktila, Taungtha, Rangoon Road, 




Sherman tanks of Probyn's Horse moving up to attack Welaung during the Battle 
of Meiktila, Burma, 1945. 



Pyawbwe, Pyinmana, Toungoo, Pegu 1945, Burma 1942—45, Khem Karan 1965 



[4] 



References 



[1] Gaylor, John (1991). Sons of John Company: The Indian and Pakistan Armies 1903—91. Stroud: Spellmount. 
[2] Boyle, Maj CA. (1929). The History of Probyn's Horse (5th King Edward's Own Lancers). Aldershot: Gale & Polden. 
[3] The Sabre & Lance: Journal of the Pakistan Armoured Corps. (1997). Nowshera: The School of Armour & Mechanised Warfare. 
[4] Rodger, Alexander. (2003). Battle Honours of the British Empire and Commonwealth Land Forces 1662-1991. Ramsbury: The Crowood 
Press. 



Further reading 

• Boyle, Maj CA. (1929). The History of Probyn's Horse (5th King Edward's Own Lancers). Aldershot: Gale & 
Polden. 

• Maxwell, Capt EL. (1941). A History of the XI King Edward's Own Lancers (Probyn's Horse). Guilford: AC 
Curtis Ltd. 

• Mylne, Maj MH. (1945). An Account of the Operations in Burma carried out by Probyn 's Horse during February, 
March & April 1945. 



5th King Edward's Own Probyn's Horse 



178 



• Kempton, C. (1996). A Register of Titles of the Units of the 
H.E.I.C. & Indian Armies 1666-1947. Bristol: British Empire & 
Commonwealth Museum. ISBN 978-0-9530174-0-9 

• Gaylor, John. (1991). Sons of John Company: The Indian and 
Pakistan Armies 1903- 1991. Stroud: Spellmount Publishers 
Ltd. ISBN 978-0-946771-98-1 

• Cardew, FG. (1903). A Sketch of the Services of the Bengal 
Native Army to the Year 1895. Calcutta: Military Department. 

• Harris, RG, and Warner, C. (1979). Bengal Cavalry Regiments 
1857-1914. London: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 
978-0-85045-308-9. 

• Elliott, Maj Gen JG (1968). The Frontier 1839-1947: The 
Story of the North-West Frontier of India. London: Cassell. 

• Kirby, Maj Gen S Woodburn. (1965). The War against Japan, 
volume 4 (The Reconquest of Burma). London: HMSO. 

• Lucas, Sir Charles. (1926). The Empire at War, volume 5. 
London: Oxford University Press. 

• Trench, CC. (1988). The Indian Army and the King 's Enemies, 
1900-1947. London: Thames and Hudson. 

External links 









M I " 


Br , JjGfl 
1 

■ 

Km ' 1. 




■■■■■■■■■hJ'- r 


Bk 



Major Dighton Probyn, VC, 1867. 



Probyn's Horse (5th King Edward VII's Own Lancers) by John 

Gaylor at The Defence Journal (http://www.defencejournal.com/may99/probyn-horse.htm) 

11th Bengal Lancers (Probyn's Horse) at The British Empire (http://www.britishempire.co.uk/forces/ 

armyunits/indiancavalry/1 lthbl.htm) 

Uniforms of the late 19th Century (http://www.members.tripod.com/~Glosters/IAcavalryl.htm) 



14th Prince of Wales's Own Scinde Horse 



179 



14th Prince of Wales's Own Scinde Horse 



14th Prince of Wales's Own 
Scinde Horse 


Active 


1839 - 1947 


Country 


British India 


Allegiance 


British Crown 


Branch 


British Indian Army 


Type 


Cavalry 


Size 


Regiment 


Part of 


Indian Cavalry Corps 


Engagements 


Second Sikh War 
Second Afghan War 
World War I 
World War II 



The 14th Prince of Wales's Own Scinde 
Horse was a regular cavalry regiment of the 
British Indian Army it can trace its 
formation back to two regiments of Scinde 
Irregular Horse raised at Hyderabad in 1839 
and 1846 respectively. These two regiments 
were absorbed into the regular forces after 
the Mutiny of 1857 and became the 35th 
Scinde Horse and the 36th Jacob's Horse. 
They saw active service in Northern and 
Central India, Persia, Afghanistan on the 
North West Frontier and, during World War 
I, where they served in France and Palestine. 
The two regiments were amalgamated in 
1922, as the present 14th Prince of Wales's 
Own Scinde Horse which served in World War II 




5th Bombay Cavalry (Sind Horse). -1895 



1st Scinde Irregular Horse 

in 1861 became the 5th Bombay Cavalry 
in 1903 35th Scinde Horse 
2nd Scinde Irregular Horse 

in 1861 became the 6th Bombay Cavalry 
in 1903 36th Jacob's Horse 

In 1922 the two regiments were amalgamated as the 14th Prince of Wales's Own Scinde Horse. 



14th Prince of Wales's Own Scinde Horse 180 

35th Scinde Horse 

The 35th Scinde Horse saw service in the Second Sikh War where it was involved in the Battle of Gujrat and the 
Second Afghan War. During World War I the regiment remained in India 

36th Jacob's Horse 

Raised by Lieut. John Jacob of the Bombay Artillery, they served first in Southern Afghanistan and later under Sir 
Charles Napier in the taking of Scinde. They later were involved in the Second Sikh War and the Second Afghan 
War. During World War I the 36th Jacobs Horse was a part of the 8th (Lucknow) Cavalry Brigade, 1st Indian 
Cavalry Division which saw action in France on the Western Front and later moved to Egypt for the Palestine 
Campaign; the brigade formation was: 

1st (King's) Dragoon Guards 

29th Lancers (Deccan Horse) 

36th Jacob's Horse 

Signal Troop 

World War II 

In World War II the 14th Prince of Wales's Own Scinde Horse was attached to the newly formed 31st Indian 
Armoured Division, that had been raised in July 1940. The division trained extensively but with very few tanks — 
the tank Regiments assigned to 1st Indian Armoured Brigade had three M3 Stuart tanks each, though a number of the 
obsolete India Pattern light tanks were used for crew training. The final formation of the Division was the 252nd 
Indian Armoured Brigade and the 3rd Indian Motor Brigade Though lacking tanks, the 252nd Armoured Brigade 
was detached and sent to Iraq in January 1942. Division headquarters moved to Iraq in June 1942, where it took 
command of the shattered remnants of 3rd Indian Motor Brigade which had been detached and over run by the 
Italians at the Battle of Gazala and the 252nd Indian Armoured Brigade, which still had no tanks. 

Armor finally arrived in November, when one Regiment received M3 Stuart tanks and the other two received Grant 
medium tanks. 

The Armourd Brigade formation was, 

14th Prince of Wales's Own Scinde Horse , Grant Tanks 

4th Duke of Cambridge's Own Hodson's Horse , Stuart Tanks 

14th/20th King's Hussars, Grants Tanks 

31st Armoured Division never saw action as a unit, its closest brush with combat coming in April 1944 when it was 
rushed to Egypt to crush a mutiny among the Greek 1st Infantry Brigade. The Brigade received M4 Sherman tanks in 
November 1943, apparently in preparation for transfer to combat in Italy, but only drove them in Iraq, Syria and 
Egypt. 

References 

[1] "cwgc.org" (http://www.cwgc. org/ypres/content.asp?id=33&menu=subsub). . 



15th Lancers 



181 



15th Lancers 



15th Lancers (Baloch) 


Active 


1922 - 1937; 1955 - Present 


Country 


jjjQ British India 
Q Pakistan 


Branch 


Army 


Type 


Armoured Regiment 


Uniform 


Dark blue; faced buff 


Engagements 


Bhutan War 1864-65 
Second Afghan War 1878-80 
First World War 1914-18 
Third Afghan War 1919 
Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 


Battle honours 


Afghanistan 1879-80, Afghanistan 1919, Khem Karan 1965. 



The 15th Lancers (Baloch) is an armoured regiment of the Pakistan Army. It was formed in 1922 by the 
amalgamation of the 17th Cavalry and the 37th Lancers (Baluch Horse). 



17th Cavalry 

The 17th Cavalry was raised in 1857 at Muttra by Colonel CJ Robarts and was composed entirely of Afghans. 
Throughout its existence, the regiment remained an exclusively Muslim unit. In 1861, after several changes in 
nomenclature, it was designated the 17th Regiment of Bengal Cavalry. In 1865, it saw action as part of the Bhutan 
Field Force, while in 1879-80, the regiment operated on lines of communication during the Second Afghan War as 
part of the Kabul Field Force. During the First World War, it dispatched a squadron to Africa where it took part in 
the East African Campaign. In 1919, the regiment fought in the Third Afghan War. The regiment maintained a 
mounted pipe band from 1895 to 1902. The uniform of 17th Cavalry was blue with white facings. The regimental 
badge consisted of a silver star and crescent over "XVII" with a title scroll below. 

• 1857 Muttra Horse 

• 1857 Muttra Police Corps 



[2] [3] 



15th Lancers 



182 



1858 Rohilkhand Auxiliary Police Levy 

1859 Robarts' Horse 
1861 17th Regiment of Bengal Cavalry 
1882 Disbanded 
1885 Re-raised 

1900 17th Regiment of Bengal Lancers 

1901 17th Bengal Lancers 
1903 17th Cavalry 

37th Lancers (Baluch Horse) 

The 37th Lancers (Baluch Horse) was raised in 1885 
as the 7th Bombay Cavalry (Jacob-ka-Risallah) from 
the manpower of the 3rd Scinde Horse (Belooch 
Horse), which had been disbanded in 1882. This 
regiment was also an all-Muslim unit made up of 
Pathans and Baluchis. Their first chance of active 
service came in 1919, when they served in the Third 
Afghan War, although one of their squadrons 
operated in Persia during the First World War. The 
regiment's uniform was dark blue (khaki serge when 
on parade), with buff facings. The badge consisted of 
crossed lances and pennons with "37" over crossed 
lances. [2][3][4] 

• 1885 7th Bombay Cavalry (Jacob-ka-Risallah) 

• 1886 7th Bombay Cavalry (Belooch Horse) 

• 1890 7th Bombay Lancers (Belooch Horse) 

• 1903 37th Lancers (Baluch Horse) 



I 







37th Lancers (Baluch Horse) (left). Watercolour by Maj AC Lovett, 
1910. 



15th Lancers 

After the First World War, the number of Indian cavalry regiments was reduced from thirty-nine to twenty-one. 
However, instead of disbanding the surplus units, it was decided to amalgamate them in pairs. This resulted in 
renumbering and renaming of the entire cavalry line. The 17th Cavalry and 37th Lancers (Baluch Horse) were 
amalgamated at Lucknow in 1922 to form the 15th Lancers. Meanwhile, an existing 15th Lancers (Cureton's 
Multanis) joined the 14th Murray's Jat Lancers to form the 20th Lancers. 

The uniform of the new 15th Lancers was dark blue with buff facings, while the badge consisted of crossed silver 
lances bearing pennons with "XV" at the crossing and a scroll below. The same uniform and badges are still in use 
by the regiment. 

In 1937, the 15th Lancers became the training regiment of the 1st Indian Cavalry Group. It was converted into a 
training centre in 1940 by amalgamating it with the 12th Cavalry (Frontier Force). However, the next year, the 
Centre was disbanded. In 1955, the 15th Lancers was re-raised by the Pakistani Army as a Reconnaissance 
Regiment of the Pakistan Armoured Corps and equipped with M24 Chaffee light tanks. During the Indo-Pakistani 
War of 1965, the regiment served with great distinction in the Kasur Sector and was awarded the Battle Honour 
'Khem Karan 1965.' In 1969, the 15th Lancers was affiliated with the Baluch Regiment (now called the Baloch 
Regiment) due to the old link with the 37th Lancers (Baluch Horse). It added the title of 'Baluch' to its designation in 
1989. [2] 



15th Lancers 183 

1922 17th/37th Cavalry (amalgamation of 17th Cavalry and 37th Lancers) 
1922 15th Lancers 

1940 1st Indian Armoured Corps Centre (amalgamation of 15th Lancers and 12th Cavalry) 

1941 Disbanded 
1955 15th Lancers (re-raised) 
1989 15th Lancers (Baluch) 
1991 15th Lancers (Baloch) [7] 

Affiliations and alliances 

• Q The Baloch Regiment 

• m|: The Royal Dragoon Guards 

References 

[1] Ahmad, Lt Col RN. (2010). Battle Honours of the Baloch Regiment. Abbottabad: The Baloch Regimental Centre. 

[2] 15th Lancers (Baloch): Through the Ages 1858-1998. (1998). Lahore: 15th Lancers. 

[3] Gaylor, John (1991). Sons of John Company: The Indian and Pakistan Annies 1903—91. Stroud: Spellmount. 

[4] Cadell, Sir Patrick. (1938). History of the Bombay Army. London: Longmans & Green. 

[5] Sandhu, Maj Gen GS. (1981). The Indian Cavalry: History of the Indian Armoured Corps till 1940. New Delhi: Vision Books. 

[6] Harris, RG, and Warner, C. (1979). Bengal Cavalry Regiments 1857—1914. London: Osprey. 

[7] In 1991, the spelling of 'Baluch' was changed to 'Baloch' to better reflect the correct pronunciation. 

Further Reading 

15th Lancers (Baloch): Through the Ages 1858-1998. (1998). Lahore: 15th Lancers. 

Yeats-Brown, Major FCC. (1927). The Star and Crescent: Being the Story of the 17th Cavalry from 1858 To 

1922. Allahabad: The Pioneer Press. 

Ahmad, Lieutenant Colonel Rifat Nadeem. (2010). Battle Honours of the Baloch Regiment. Abbottabad: The 

Baloch Regimental Centre. 

Ahmed, Major General Rafiuddin. (2000). History of the Baloch Regiment 1939-1956. Abbottabad: The Baloch 

Regimental Centre. ISBN 1-84574-094-7 

Gaylor, J. (1992). Sons of John Company: The Indian and Pakistan Armies 1903- 1991. Stroud: Spellmount 

Publishers Ltd. ISBN 978-0-946771-98-1 

Cadell, Sir Patrick. (1938). History of the Bombay Army. London: Longmans & Green. 

Cardew, FG (1903). A Sketch of the Services of the Bengal Native Army to the Year 1895. Calcutta: Military 

Department. 

Harris, RG, and Warner, C. (1979). Bengal Cavalry Regiments 1857-1914. London: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 

978-0-85045-308-9. 

Sandhu, Maj Gen GS. (1981). The Indian Cavalry: History of the Indian Armoured Corps till 1940. New Delhi: 

Vision Books. 

Kempton, C. (1996). A Register of Titles of the Units of the H.E.I. C & Indian Armies 1666-1947. Bristol: British 

Empire & Commonwealth Museum. ISBN 978-0-9530174-0-9 



15th Lancers 



184 



External links 

• Uniforms of the late 19th Century (http://www.members.tripod.com/~Glosters/IAcavalryl.htm) 



16th Light Cavalry 



16th Light Cavalry 


Active 


1776 — present 


Country 


India 


Allegiance 


India 


Branch 


Army 


Type 


Armoured 


Size 


Regiment 


Engagements 


Second Anglo-Mysore 




War 




Third Anglo-Mysore War 




Fourth Anglo-Mysore War 




Third Anglo-Burmese War 




Third Afghan War 




World War I 




World War II 



The 16th Light Cavalry is a regiment of the 
Armoured Corps, a primary combat arm of 
the Indian Army. Prior to India gaining 
independence from the British in 1947, it 
was a regular cavalry regiment of the British 
Indian Army. It was formed in 1776 and is 
the oldest armoured regiment raised in 
India. The 16th Light Cavalry saw service 
in a number of conflicts ranging from the 
Second Anglo-Mysore War in 1781 to 
World War II. It has a number of battle 
honours including "Punjab 1965" earned 
during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965. 

History 















» 








mk- 












ft A 

f i ^ 


^ 




* 












_> 




V 


itt^. -rf 




HMMI 



Madras Cavalry 



Formation 

The Regiment was raised prior to 1776 as the 3rd Regiment of Native Cavalry in the service of Nawab of Arcot. In 
1780, while under service with the British East India Company, it formed part of the force that defeated Hyder Ali 
during the Second Anglo-Mysore War and was awarded battle honours for the Battle of Sholinghur , Battle of 
Mysore, Battle of Carnatic and the Battle of Seringapatam for service during the Anglo-Mysore Wars. After the 
Anglo-Mysore Wars the Regiment was next in action during the Third Anglo-Burmese War and were awarded the 



Battle Honour of Burma 1885-87. 



[2] 



16th Light Cavalry 185 

Early 20th Century 

During World War I (1914—1918) the regiment remained in India for the defence of the North West Frontier but they 
did send drafts to other Indian cavalry regiments serving in France and the Middle East. In 1919 the regiment was 
involved in the brief Third Afghan War, for which they were awarded the battle honour of Afghanistan 1919. 

World War II 

During World War II the regiment was employed in the defence of India having converted from horses to armour at 
Quettain 1941. 

In 1945 they were selected to undertake operations in Burma. Within three weeks the Regiment covered a distance of 
3,500 miles from Quetta to the banks of Irrawady River and was personally complimented by General Slim, the 
Fourteenth Army commander. 

In Burma the regiment was attached to the 255th Indian Tank Brigade, the brigade formation was; 

• 116 Royal Armoured Corps (Sherman tanks), formed from the Gordon Highlanders 

• 7th Light Cavalry (Stuarts) 

• 16th Light Cavalry (Armoured Cars). 

Lineage 

1776 — Regiment of Cavalry (Stevenson's), Nawab of Arcot's Army 

1784 - 3rd Madras Native Cavalry 

1784 - 1st Madras Native Cavalry 

1786 - 4th Madras Native Cavalry 

1788 - 2nd Madras Native Cavalry 

1819 - 2nd Madras Light Cavalry 

1886 — 2nd Regiment of Madras Lancers 

1901 — 2nd Madras Lancers 

1903 - 27th Light Cavalry 

1922 - 16th Light Cavalry 

[2] 
1947 — Allocated to India at independence and partition, continues in service as 16th Light Cavalry 

Battle honours 

[41 
The battle and theatre honours of the 16th Light Cavalry are: 

Pre-World War I 

• Sholinghur 

• Carnatic 

• Mysore 

• Seringapatam 

• Burma 1885-87 

World War I and later 

• Afghanistan 1919 
The Second World War 

• Meiktila 

• Capture of Meiktila 

• Defence of Meiktila 

• Rangoon Road 



16th Light Cavalry 186 

• Pegu 1945 

• Sittang 1945 

• Burma 1942-45. 

Indo Pak Conflict 1965 

• Punjab 1965 

Notes 

[1] Jackson, Major Donovan (1940). India's Army. London: Low, Marston. pp. 135-142. ISBN 978-81-87226-37-6. 

[2] "cavora" (http://16cavroa.com/). . 

[3] "wolftree" (http://www.wolftree.freeserve.co.uk/Burma/Burma.html). Archived (http://www.webcitation.org/5gTsF6eJk) from the 

original on 2009-05-02. . Retrieved 2009-03-26. 
[4] Singh, Sarbans. Battle Honours of the Indian Army 1 757 -1971. New Delhi: Vision Books, p. 305. ISBN 81-7094-1 15-6. 

References 

• Kempton, C. (1996). A Register of Titles of the Units of the H.E.I.C. & Indian Armies 1666—1947. Bristol: British 
Empire & Commonwealth Museum. ISBN 978-0-9530174-0-9. 

• Gaylor, J. (1992). Sons of John Company: The Indian and Pakistan Armies 1903—1991. Stroud: Spellmount 
Publishers Ltd. ISBN 978-0-946771-98-1. 

External links 

• Uniforms of the late 19th Century (http://www.members.tripod.com/~Glosters/IAcavalryl.htm) 

• http://16cavroa.com/ 

• http://www.wolftree.freeserve.co.uk/Burma/Burma.html 



The Poona Horse 



187 



The Poona Horse 



17th Queen Victoria's Own Poona 




Horse 


Active 


1817- 1947 British India 




1947 - present Indian Army 


Country 


British India 


Allegiance 


Great Britain 


Branch 


British Indian Army 


Type 


Cavalry 


Size 


Regiment 


Part of 


Indian Cavalry Corps 


Nickname 


Ponna Horse 


Engagements 


Battle Of Koregaum 




First Afghan War 




Battle of Kandahar- 1842 




Battle of Ghunzee- 1842 




Battle of Kabul-1 842 




Battle of Meanee-1843 




Battle of Hyderabad- 1843 




Persian Conflict 




Battle Of Kooshab- 1856 




Indian Mutiny 




Battle of Sindwaha-1858 




Abyssinia 1867-68 




Second Afghan War 1879-80 




Battle of Girishk 




Battle of Maiwand 




Battle of Kandahar-1880 




China 




Boxer Rebellion 




Battle of Peking- 1900 




World War I 




First Battle of Ypres-1914 




Battle of Givenchy 




Battle of La Basse- 1914 




Battle of Armentiers-1914 




Battle of the Somme-1916 




Battle of 




Flers-Courselette- 1916 




Battle of Cambrai- 1917 




Battle of Shaiba 




Battle of Ctesiphon 




Capture of Damascus 




Third Afghan War 




World War II 




First Battle of El Alamein 



The Poona Horse is an armoured regiment in the Armoured Corps of the Indian Army. The regiment, known before 
independence as The Poona Horse (17th Queen Victoria's Own Cavalry), was raised as a regular cavalry 
regiment in the Bombay Presidency army of the East India Company. It was formed from the 3rd Regiment of 



The Poona Horse 188 

Bombay Light Cavalry, raised in 1820, and the Poona Auxiliary Horse, raised about 1817-18. The latter unit was 
absorbed into the regular forces about 1860 and the two regiments later became the 33rd Queen Victoria's Own Light 
Cavalry and the 34th Prince Albert Victor's Own Poona Horse. These were amalgamated in 1921 into the present 
regiment, the battle honours of which tell of service in three Afghan Wars, in Persia, Abyssinia and China, as well as 
in the Great War. The regiment has fought with distinction in the 1965 and 1971 Indo-Pakistani Wars with an officer 
winning India's highest gallantry award, the Param Vir Chakra, in each war. 

History 

In accordance with the article VI of The Treaty of Poona between the British Governor-General of India Lord 
Hastings and Baji Rao II of the Peshwas, a cavalry regiment was raised on 15 June 1817. As per the treaty the force 
would be maintained by the Peshwa and was supposed to be permanently stationed in the territory of Peshwas. The 
interesting part of the treaty was that the force could have been used against the Peshwa by the British when 
necessary. The regiment was raised under the order of Mountstuart Elphinstone the Governor of Bombay. 

The two Regiments that would go onto form the Poona Horse were the 33rd Queen Victoria's Own Light Cavalry 
and the 34th Prince Albert victor's Own Poona Horse 

33rd Queen Victoria's Own Light Cavalry 

Raised at Sirur on 4 May 1820 by Major Peter Delamotte. 
1820 3rd Regiment of Bombay Light Cavalry. 
1861 3rd Regiment of Bombay Silladar Light Cavalry. 
1861 3rd Regiment of Bombay Light Cavalry. 
1876 3rd (The Queen's Own) Regiment of Bombay Light Cavalry 
1903 33rd Queen Victoria's Own Light Cavalry. 
1911 33rd Queen Victoria's Own Light Cavalry. 

1921 33rd/34th Cavalry. 

1922 17th Queen Victoria's Own Poona Horse. 

1927 The Poona Horse (17th Queen Victoria's Own Cavalry). 

1947 To Indian Army. 

1950 The Poona Horse (17 Horse) 

34th Prince Albert Victor's Own Poona Horse 

Raised at Poona (now Pune) on 15 July 1817 as a result of the treaty between the HEIC and The Peshwa Bajee Rao 
II. 

1817 The Auxiliary Horse 

1818 The Poona Auxiliary Horse. 
1847 The Poona Irregular Horse. 

1861 4th Regiment of Poona Silladar Horse. 

1861 1st Regiment of Poona Horse. 

1862 The Poona Horse. 

1885 4th Bombay Cavalry (Poona Horse). 

1890 4th (Prince Albert Victor's Own) Bombay Cavalry (Poona Horse). 

1903 34th Prince Albert Victor's Own Poona Horse. 



The Poona Horse 189 

1921 33rd/34th Cavalry. 

1922 17th Queen Victoria's Own Poona Horse. 

1927 The Poona Horse ( 17th Queen Victoria's Own Cavalry). 

1947 To Indian Army. 

1950 The Poona Horse (17 Horse) 

World War I 

In August 1914, the Poona Horse was stationed at Secunderabad, as part of the 9th (Secunderabad) Cavalry Brigade. 
They were brigaded with the 7th Dragoon Guards and the 20th Deccan Horse. The Brigade was dispatched to 
France and fought on the Western Front their first action being the First Battle of Ypres. 

France 

On 2 November 1914 the regiment was sent to reinforce the 2nd Gurkhas in the Neuve Chapelle sector on arrival 
they discovered that the Gurkhas defences had been breached and overrun. The Poona Horse was asked to recapture 
the position. The Regiment launched a counter attack in daylight and without any artillery support. The 
Commanding Officer Lieutenant Colonel Swanston who was leading the attack was killed. In France the regiment 
would be involved in the Battle of Givenchy, Battle of La Basse, Battle of Armentiers, Battle of the Somme (1916), 
Battle of Flers-Courselette and Battle of Cambrai (1917). In February 1918, the Poona Horse and all the other 
Indian cavalry regiments in France were deployed to Palestine to join General Allenby's forces. 

Palestine 

The Poona Horse arrived in Egypt in April 1918, they now formed the 14th Cavalry Brigade of the 5th Cavalry 
Division with the Deccan Horse and the Sherwood Rangers Yeomanry. 

The force also consisted of the 4th Cavalry Division,the Australian Mounted Division and the Anzac Mounted 
Division. 

On 19 September 1918, the allied offensive began. The Infantry broke through the Turkish defences and the Desert 
Mounted Corps followed up. When they reached the Gates of Damascus, the Poona Horse, along with rest of the 
14th Cavalry Brigade, were tasked with patrolling the road from Homs to Damascus Road. When they charged a 
party of Arabs who ran off leaving a large car behind with a European seated inside the Risaldar Major Hamir Singh, 
believing him to be a spy, demanded his surrender. The European turned out to be Colonel TE Lawrence. "El 
Aurens" was not amused. 

At 10:15 on the morning of 1 October 1918, the Regiment entered Damascus and after the rest of the Brigade. The 
Regiment was ordered to take Rayak and then march onto Aleppo, which they reached on 25 October just before the 
Armistice was signed on 30 October in Mudros Harbour, abroad the battleship HMS Agamemnon. 

Mesopotamia 

The 33rd Queen Victoria's Own were sent to Mesopotamia as part of the 6th (Poona) Division to counter Turkish 
advances and to protect the oil fields. They were involved in the Battle of Shaiba and the Battle of Ctesiphon. 

Between the wars 

In 1919, the 33rd Light Cavalry now part of the 1st Cavalry Brigade was posted to Risalpur they were brigaded with 
the, 1st Lancers and "M" Battery, Royal Horse Artillery. On 6 May 1919, they received the information that the 
Afghan Army had attacked the outpost at Landi Khanna,North of the Khyber Pass, and was advancing into India. 
The Infantry attacked the Khyber Pass to push the Afghans back. Once the pass had been cleared the Cavalry 



The Poona Horse 190 

advanced and after some skirmishing, and two set piece battles, the Afghan Army was dispersed.. 

Amalgamation 

In 1920, the decision was made to reduce the number of Indian Cavalry Regiments from 39 to 21. This would leave 
the army with 18 amalgamated regiments, plus the 27th Light Cavalry, the 28th Light Cavalry and the Guides 
Cavalry. This change was promulgated under Indian Army Order No 1257 November 22, 1921. Based on this 
decision, the 33rd Light Cavalry and 34th Poona Horse were amalgamated as the 33rd/34th Cavalry, which was 
changed in 1922 to the 17th Queen Victoria's Own Poona Horse.. The Regiments new organisation was now three 
sabre squadrons and a headquarters squadron, which would contain all the specialists, i.e, machine gunners, signalers 
etc, into one squadron.. 

World War II 

The Poona Horse was one of two Indian Army cavalry regiments selected to remain horsed while the rest of the 
cavalry was mechanised. This situation did not last long and just after the start of the war the regiment was 
mechanised. The Headquarters Squadron now had a mortar troop, signals troop, 'B' echelon administrative troop and 
light Aid Detachment for forward vehicle recovery and repair. The sabre Squadrons each now comprised a Squadron 
Headquarters, four armoured carrier troops and one rifle troop. Each troop had four Bren carriers and the rifle troop 
was mounted in four 15 cwt Chevrolet trucks now mechanised they become the Divisional reconnaissance regiment 
for the 6th Indian Division and deployed to Iraq. In 1942 the regiment was ordered to the middle east to join the 
British Eighth Army. In the closing stages of the First Battle of El Alamein, the Poona Horse was the guard force for 
General Claude Auchinleck, the commander of the 8th Army at the tactical headquarters sited on the Ruweisat 
Ridge, the most prominent tactical feature of the Alamein position. This was the highlight of the Regiment's war for 
they were then ordered back to Iraq as part of the British Tenth Army. In September 1944 the Regiment was sent 
to Cyprus on garrison duties and were still there in May 1945 when Germany surrendered. The Regiment returned 
to India in October 1945 and were issued their first tanks, the Stuart MK IV. 

Post Independence 

Post Independence the Regiment was part of the 1st Armoured Division (India) and participated in Operation Polo, 
Operation Ablaze and Operation Nepal. The division consisted of the 9th Armoured Brigade and 43rd Lorried 
Infantry Brigade. The Armoured Brigade consisted of the 16th Cavalry, Hodson's Horse and the Poona Horse 
equipped with upgunned Sherman tanks and Centurion tanks. 

Victoria Cross 

Members of the Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross. 

Lieutenant Arthur Thomas Moore 3rd Bombay Light Cavalry. On 18 February 1857. 

Lieutenant Frank Alexander de Pass 34th Prince Albert Victor's Own Poona Horse. On 24 November 1914. 

Lieutenant John Grant Malcolmson 3rd Bombay Light Cavalry. On 18 February 1857. 

Lieutenant (later Field Marshal)Sir Henry Evelyn Wood whilst on attachment with the 3rd Bombay Light 
Cavalry .On 19 October 1858. 



The Poona Horse 191 

Param Vir Chakra 

Since independence two members of the regiment have been awarded the Param Vir Chakra. 

• Lt. Col. Ardeshir Tarapore (Posthumous), Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, Battle of Butur-Dograndi 

• 2nd Lt. Arun Khetarpal (Posthumous), Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, Battle of Jarpal 

References 

[1] "bharat-rakshak" (http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/ARMY/Regiments2/PoonaHorse.pdf). . 

External links 

• Uniforms of the late 19th century (http://www.members.tripod.com/~Glosters/IAcavalryl.htm) 



18th King Edward's Own Cavalry 



192 



18th King Edward's Own Cavalry 



18th King Edward's Own Cavalry 


Active 


1842- 


Country 


British India 


Allegiance 


British Crown 


Branch 


British Indian Army 


Type 


Cavalry 


Size 


Regiment 


Part of 


Indian Cavalry Corps 


Patron 


King Edward VII 


Engagements 


Gwalior Campaign 




First Anglo-Sikh War 




Third Ango-Burmese War 




1882 Anglo-Egyptian War 




World War I 




Second Mohmand 




Campaign 




World War U 


Battle honours 


Punniar 




Moodkee 




Ferozeshah 




Sobraon 




Egypt 1882 




Tel-El-Kebir 




Punjab Frontier 



The 18th King Edward's Own Cavalry was a regular cavalry regiment in the British Indian Army. It was formed in 
1922 by the amalagamation of the 6th King Edward's Own Cavalry and the 7th Hariana Lancers. These 
regiments served the British Crown from before the Indian Mutiny to World War II. 



6th King Edward's Own Cavalry 

The 6th King Edward' Own Cavalry was raised at Fatehgarh in 1842 by Lt W H Ryves as the 8th Regiment of 
Bengal Irregular Cavalry, 

In 1861 became the 6th Regiment of Bengal Cavalry 

In 1883 became the 6th (the Prince of Wales) Regiment of Bengal Cavalry 

In 1901 became the 6th (Prince of Wales) Bengal Cavalry 

In 1906 became the 6th King Edward's Own Cavalry 

Their first action was in 1843 during the Gwalior Campaign in central India for which they earned the battle honour 
Punniar. In 1845 they were involved in the First Anglo-Sikh War and participated in the Battle of Moodkee the 
Battle of Ferozeshah and the Battle of Sobraon They were next in action in Egypt during the 1882 Anglo-Egyptian 
War where they were awarded the battle honours Egypt 1882 as a theatre honour and also honours for the Battle of 
Tel-El-Kebir. It was while on service in Egypt that khaki was worn by all ranks for the first time. 

During World War I they were part of the 1st Indian Cavalry Division, 2nd (Sailkot) Cavalry Brigade which arrived 
in France in November 1914. They were involved in the First Battle of Ypres and other actions on the Western Front 



18th King Edward's Own Cavalry 193 

but notably in, the German Retreat to the Hindenburg Line and the Battle of Cambrai 
The brigade formation was; 

17th Lancers (Duke of Cambridge's Own) 

6th King Edward's Own Cavalry 

19th Lancers (Fane's Horse) 

Brigade Signal Troop 

7th Hariana Lancers 

The 7th Hariana Lancers was formed in 1846 as a regiment of Bengal Irregular Cavalry raised in Meerut and 
Cawnpore by Captain Liptrott. The Regiment was raised after the First Sikh War in anticipation of the Second War 
starting. When the Second Sikh War broke out, they did not become involved in any engagements but found 
themselves in the reserve force. In 1857 when the Indian Mutiny broke out they were stationed on the North West 
Frontier the regiment remained loyal and did not mutiny. As a result of the mutiny and the reconstruction of the 
Bengal army, the irregular cavalry regiments 8th to 16th were disbanded and the 17th became the 7th Bengal 
Cavalry. They went to Burma in 1886 during the 3rd Burmese War which would be their last action until the Great 
War. In 1915 during World War I they were part of the forces sent to Mesopotamia and fought in the Battle of 
Shaiba where on 13 Apr Major Wheeler received a posthumous VC. They would lose a squadron in the actions at 
Kut-Al-Amara, they returned to Bolarum in October 1916. Like all regiments of the Indian Army, the 7th Cavalry 
underwent many name changes in the various reorganisations. They are listed below. There seems to be no reason 
for the name chosen in the 1904 reorganisation other than a large number of the men came from that district. 

In 1846 16th Irregular Cavalry 

In 1847 became the 17th Irregular Cavalry 

In 1861 became the 7th Regiment of Bengal Cavalry 

In 1900 became the 7th Regiment of Bengal Lancers 

In 1901 became the 7th Bengal Lancers 

In 1903 became the 7th Lancers 

In 1904 became the 7th Hariana Lancers. 

Victoria Cross 

One member of the 7th Hariana Lancers was awarded the Victoria Cross, Major George Godfrey Massy Wheeler. 
On 12 April 1915 at Shaiba, Mesopotamia, Major Wheeler led his squadron in an attempt to capture a flag which 
was the centre-point of a group of the enemy who were firing on one of his troop's picquets. He advanced, attacked 
the enemy's infantry with the lance, and then retired while the enemy swarmed out of hidden ground where Royal 
Artillery guns could attack them. On 13 April Major Wheeler led his squadron to the attack of the North Mound. He 
was seen far ahead of his men, riding straight for the enemy's standards, but was killed in the attack. 



18th King Edward's Own Cavalry 



194 



World War II 

In World War II the regiment was 
mechanised in December 1940 and 
attached to the 3rd Indian Motor 

Brigade which as initially part of the 

T31 
31st Indian Armoured Division. The 

brigade was sent to Egypt and the 

Western Desert Campaign and was 

attached to a number of different 

formations including the 2nd 

Armoured Division, 7th Armoured 

Division and the 9th Australian 

Division who they were with at the 

T31 
Siege of Tobruk. It also supplied 

men for the Indian Long Range 

Squadron. The brigade was later 

overrun by the Italians during the 

Battle of Gazala and took some days to 

reform. In 1942 the brigade returned to 

the 31st Armoured and was stationed 

in Iraq as part of Paiforce. 




An Indian Pattern Carrier Mk IIA named 'Dhar IV, North Africa, 10 April 1942 of the 
type used hy 3rd Indian Motor Brigade 



The Brigade formation was: 

2nd Lancers (Gardner's Horse), equipment Cavalry Carrier — 2 x Recon Sqn, 1 x AT Sqn 



[4] 



1 lth Prince Albert Victor's Own Cavalry (Frontier Force) equipment Cavalry Carrier - 2 x Recon Sqn, 1 x AT 
Sqn 



[41 



18th King Edward's Own Cavalry, equipment Cavalry Carrier - 2 x Recon Sqn, 1 x AT Sqn 



[4] [5] [6] 



References 

[1] Bengal Cavalry Regiments 1857-1914 By R. G. Harris, Christopher Warner 

[2] "1914-1918" (http://web.archive.Org/web/20080621141552/http://www.1914-1918.net/CAVALRY/lcavdiv_indian.htm). Archived 

from the original (http://www.1914-1918.net/CAVALRY/lcavdiv_indian.htm) on 21 June 2008. . Retrieved 06 July 2008. 

[3] "mod.nic" (http://mod.nic.in/samachar/decl5-20/html/ch9.htm). . Retrieved 06 July 2008. 

[4] Mackenzie (1951), p. 71 

[5] "axisforam" (http://forum.axishistory.com/viewtopic.php?f=56&t=104408&start=0). . Retrieved 06 July 2008. 

[6] "rothwell" (http://www.rothwell.force9.co.uk/NA310341.htm). . Retrieved 06 July 2008. 



18th King Edward's Own Cavalry 195 

Further reading 

• Kempton, C (1996). A Register of Titles of the Units of the H.E.I. C. & Indian Armies 1666-1947. Bristol: British 
Empire & Commonwealth Museum. ISBN 978-0-9530174-0-9 

• Gaylor, J (1992). Sons of John Company: The Indian and Pakistan Armies 1903- 1991. Stroud: Spellmount 
Publishers Ltd. ISBN 978-0-946771-98-1 

• Bengal Cavalry Regiments 1857-1914 By R. G. Harris, Christopher Warner. ISBN 978-0-85045-308-9 

• Gurcharn Singh Sandhu, I serve ("Ich dien"): saga of the Eighteenth Cavalry, Lancer International, 1991 (Original 
from the University of California) Digitized 4 Sep 2008, ISBN 81-7062-104-6, ISBN 978-81-7062-104-1 

External links 

Follow this link to view the uniforms of the late 19th Century 

• http://www.members.tripod.com/~Glosters/IAcavalryl.htm 



The Central India Horse (21st King George V's Own Horse) 



196 



The Central India Horse (21st King George V's 
Own Horse) 



The Central India Horse (21st King George V's 
Own Horse) 







1 





A havildar of the 1st Central India Horse in 1886 



Active 


1857 - 1947 


Country 


British India 


Allegiance 


British Crown 


Branch 


British Indian Army 


Type 


Cavalry 


Size 


Regiment 


Part of 


Indian Cavalry Corps 


Engagements 


Indian Mutiny 
Second Afghan War 
World War I 
World War II 



The Central India Horse (21st King George V's Own Horse) was a regular cavalry regiment of the British Indian 
Army. They were formed at the start of the Mutiny of 1857 and served in the Great War and World War II. 



Formation 

The regiment was founded as two irregular cavalry regiments in 1857, at the outset of the Indian Rebellion of 1857 
by Henry Otway Mayne, and was known initially as Mayne's Horse and the 2nd regiment which was known as 
Beatson's Horse 

They were based at the town of Guna, in the state of Gwalior and Augar in central India. In 1860 Mayne's Horse was 
renamed the 1st Regiment Central India Horse, and Beatson's Horse was renamed the 2nd Regiment Central 
India Horse. 

In 1860 the officer commanding the Central India Horse was made the British political officer for the small states of 
Raghugarh, Khaniadhana (after 1888), Paron, Garha, Umri, and Bhadaura, which were made a separate charge from 
that of the Resident of Gwalior. This arrangement was abolished in 1896, when these states were again placed under 
the resident, with the officer commanding at Guna continuing to act as ex-officio assistant to the Resident, with very 
limited powers. Both Regiments would serve together in the Second Afghan War. 



The Central India Horse (21st King George V's Own Horse) 



197 



Twentieth century 

During the Kitchener reorganisation of the Indian Army of 1903, the 1st Regiment became the 38th Regiment 
Central India Horse, and the 2nd regiment became the 39th Regiment Central India Horse. In 1906, the 
regiments were renamed the 38th and 39th Prince of Wales's Own Central India Horse, and in 1910 the 38th and 
39th King George's Own Central Indian Horse. 

The Great War 

During the Great War the 38th King George's Own Central India Horse was part of the 5th (Mhow) Cavalry Brigade 
in the 2nd Indian Cavalry Division the brigade consisted of the; 

6th (Inniskilling) Dragoons 

2nd Lancers (Gardner's Horse) 

38th King George's Own Central India Horse 

Signal Troop 

and the 39th King George's Own Central India Horse remained in India stationed in Poona. 

Amalgamation 

In 1921, the two regiments were amalgamated into the 38th/39th Cavalry, which was renamed the 38th/39th King 
George's Own Light Cavalry (1922), The Central India Horse (21st King George's Own Horse) (1923), and 
The Central India Horse (21st King George V's Own Horse) (1937). 



World War II 

On March 20, 1942 Captain Arthur 
Sandeman of the Central India Horse 
leading a 60 man patrol of the Sikh 
sowars of the Frontier Force cavalry, 
against Japanese infantry near 
Toungoo airfield in central Burma 
charged in the old style with sabres and 
most (including Sandeman} were 
killed. 

During World War II the Central India 

Horse was the divisional 

reconnaissance regiment for the 4th 

Indian Division there equipment 

consisted of Light Tanks and Indian 

Carriers. Attached to the 4th Indian 

they were involved in the Western 

Desert Campaign the East African 

Campaign the Tunisia Campaign and 

the Italian Campaign. It was during the 

Italian Campaign that two members of 

the Regiment would be posthumously awarded the George Cross Ditto Ram and St. John Graham Young attached 

from the Royal Tank Regiment 




An Indian Pattern Carrier Mk IIA named 'Dhar IV, North Africa, 10 April 1942 of the 
type used by the Central India Horse. 



The Central India Horse (21st King George V's Own Horse) 198 

T21 
Notice of the award was published in the London Gazette on 20 July 1945. Young had been leading a night patrol 

on 23 July 1944, when he and his men found themselves in any enemy minefield. He received the full force of a 

mine explosion, severely injuring both legs. Despite his wounds, his encouragement enabled the majority of his men 

to reach safety. One of them, Sowar Ditto Ram, was also posthumously awarded the GC for his actions in the same 

incident. 

Independence 

Upon India's independence, the Central India Horse (21st King George V's Own Horse) was allocated to India, 
although a Muslim Punjabi squadron was transferred to the 19th King George V's Own Lancers in exchange for its 
Jat squadron. When India became a republic in 1950, the regiment was renamed The Central India Horse which is 
one of the decorated regiment of Indian Army. The Central India Horse is now a tank regiment of the Indian Army. 

References 

[1] "cwgc.org" (http://www.cwgc. org/ypres/content.asp?id=33&menu=subsub). . 

[2] London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 37185. p. 3765 (http://www.london-gazette.co.uk/issues/37185/supplements/3765). 17 July 1945. 

Retrieved 2008-05-27. 
[3] "Commonwealth War Graves Commission — Casualty details — Young, St John Graham" (http://www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details. 

aspx?casualty=2098122). Commonwealth War Graves Commission. . Retrieved 2008-05-27. 

External links 

Follow this link to view the uniforms of the late 19th Century 
• http://www.members.tripod.com/~Glosters/IAcavalryl.htm 

41 Armoured Regiment (India) 

The 41 Armoured Regiment, part of the Armoured Corps of the Indian army, was raised at Ahmednagar on July 1, 
1980, under then Lieut-Col J. P. Singh. The regiment was declared fit for war service in February 1981. 

T21 
The regiment celebrated its silver jubilee in 2006. To commemorate the special day, a "Sainik Sammelan" 

(soldier's gathering), was organised. The founder of the Regiment, Brigadier J. P. Singh, also graced the occasion. A 

number of ex-servicemen participated in the celebrations. 

References 

[1] " Bharat-Rakshak, " (http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/ARMY/Reg-Arm.html) 

[2] " Silver jubilee of 41 Armoured Regiment ," (http://www.tribuneindia.eom/2006/20060323/aplus.htm#10) Rashmi Talwar, The Tribune - 
Amritsar Plus, 



42 Armoured Regiment (India) 199 



42 Armoured Regiment (India) 



The 42nd Armoured Regiment is an armoured regiment of the Indian Army Armoured Corps that was raised in 
January 1981. Prior to the World War II, the regiment existed under different names. Its slogan is "karma shourya 
vijaya", which means work, valour, victory. It is commanded by an officer of the rank of Colonel. It has in its history 
some very bright and brave officers, reflecting the high regimental standards, who went on to do well later in their 
career and lives. The men are very passionate about their regiment and squadrons. The regiment has served in many 
different locations mostly across northern India. Some of the locations include Ambala, Jalandhar, Lucknow, Babina, 
Banner, Amritsar,. 



45th Cavalry Regiment 



200 



45th Cavalry Regiment 



45th Cavalry Regiment 


® 


Active 


1941-1946, 1965-present 


Country 


India 


Branch 


Army 


Type 


Armoured Regiment 


Garrison/HQ 


Pathankot (Mamoon Cantt) 


Nickname 


Paintalis Risala 


Motto 


Veer Bhogya Vasundhara 

(The World is for the Brave) 


Equipment 


T-55 Main Battle Tank Upgunned 


Engagements 


Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 
Battle of Garibpur 


Decorations 


Indo Pak War 71 - Maj D S Narang MVC (Posth.), 2Lt S Chandravarkar SM (Posth), Maj H S Puri SM, 
Singh, SC (Posth.), 


RisRP 


Battle honours 


Darsana 


Insignia 


Unit pin 





The 45th Cavalry Regiment is an Indian Army armoured unit. It was first created during World War II and was 
active from 1941 to 1946. It was reformed in 1965 and is currently stationed in Pathankot (Mamoon Cantt) India. 
The unit took part in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 in East Pakistan (now independent Bangladesh), under the 
command of 9th Infantry Division. 

The regiment was then equipped with Russian PT-76 amphibious light battle tanks and fought in the Battles of 
Garibpur, Kushtia and Jessore. 

In peacetime, the regiment was based at Kanchrapara in the 24 Parganas district of West Bengal, in its amphibious 
role, although "C" Squadron was re-equipped with T-55 Main Battle Tanks. 

In due course, the aging warhorses, the PT-76 tanks, were phased out and the 45th Cavalry Regiment was finally 
fully reequiped and subsequently converted all its squadrons to the up-gunned version of the T-55 MBT. 



References 

[1] John H. Gill, An Atlas of the 1971 India - Pakistan War: The Creation of Bangladesh, Near East South Asia Centre for Strategic Studies 
(National Defense University), p. 71 



External links 

• http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/LAND-FORCES/Army/Reg-Arm.html 

• http://www.regiments.org/regiments/southasia/lists/ial947.htm 



61st Cavalry Regiment 201 



61st Cavalry Regiment 



61st Cavalry Regiment may refer to: 

• 61st Cavalry Regiment (India) 

• 61st Cavalry Regiment (United States) 

62nd Cavalry Regiment 



The 62nd Cavalry is an Armoured Regiment of the Indian Army and was raised by Lt Col RS Butalia on 31 Mar 
1957 at Ambala Cantonment. Drawn from the existing cavalry regiments of the time, the 62nd Cavalry is recruited 
from the Sikh, Jat and Dogra communities. 

The Regiment was born as the first Armoured Regiment to be raised in Independent India and was the First Indian 
Armoured Regiment to be raised entirely on Tanks. In its ninth year, the 62nd Cavalry took part in the 1965 War 
against Pakistan. The regiment, equipped with obsolete Sherman tanks fought modern Pakistani Patton tanks and 
outgunned and out-tanked them. The Regiment was honoured by President Neelam Sanjiva Reddy during its silver 
Jubilee when he presented a Guidon to them on 31 March 1981. 

The Regiment celebrated its Golden Jubilee with a mounted parade reviewed by the Chief of Army Staff on 31 
March 2006. During the parade the COAS bestowed the Regiment with a Standard in recognition of its 
achievements. The celebrations were attended by the Chief Minister of Punjab, Capt. Amarinder Singh, in 
recognition of the services rendered by 62nd Cavalry personnel who hail from Punjab apart from Lt Gen GD Singh, 
Deputy Chief of Army Staff (P&S), the Colonel of the Regiment of 62 CAVALRY. [2] 



References 

[1] http://pib.nic. in/release/rel_print_pagel.asp?relid=16890 

[2] http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/LAND-FORCES/Units/Armoured.html 



67 Armoured Regiment (India) 202 



67 Armoured Regiment (India) 



The 67th Armoured Regiment is an armoured regiment of the Indian Army formed in 1967. It is equipped with 
T-72 tanks 



90 Armoured Regiment 



90 Armoured Regiment was raised on 15 August 1979 by amalgamating three Independent Reconnaissance 
Squadrons of the Indian Armoured Corps. 90 Indep Recce Sqn belonged to The Poona Horse, 92 Indep Recce Sqn 
belonged to 18 Cavalry and 93 Indep Recce Sqn belonged to 65 Armoured Regiment. 

Though raised before a number of other Armoured Regiment it took the number 90 from the senior most among the 
Recce Squadrons that amalgamated to form this regiment. Lt Col Manjit Singh Sawhney of 18 Cavalry was the first 
Commandant while Ris Maj Bhanwar Khan of 92 Indep Recce Sqn was the first Risaldar Major. The regiment was 
raised under 10th Indian Division at Phaun Da Chak in Jammu and Kashmir. The Recce Squadrons merged 
completely with men & equipment. The squadron Commanders however returned to their respective regiments. 

"Death Before Dishonor" is the regimental motto. 

The regiment has over the years earned a number of gallantry awards and has excelled in all spheres of military 
activity. 



203 



Regiment of Artillery 



Regiment of Artillery 



Regiment of Artillery 




Active 


1827- Present 


Country 


India 


Allegiance 


Indian Army 


Type 


Artillery 


Garrison/HQ 


Nashik, Maharashtra 


Motto 


Sarvatra Izzat-o-Iqbal 


Anniversaries 


September 28 (Gunners' Day) 


Decorations 


Victoria Cross 1 
Vir Chakra 3 

YudhSeva Medal (YSM)l 
Sena Medal 19 
Shaurya Chakra 1 


Insignia 



Regimental insignia A gun with Star of India above it 

The Regiment of Artillery is an operational arm (a regiment/corps) of the Indian Army. Formerly part of Royal 
Indian Artillery (RIA) of British Indian Army which itself traces its origins to the formation of Bombay Artillery in 
1827. It was later involved in extensive service in the First World War, in East Africa, Gallipoli, Mesopotamia and 
Palestine . 

Today it is the second largest arm of the Indian Army, and with its guns, mortars, rocket launchers, unmand aerial 
vehicles, surveillance systems and missiles, artillery firepower, constitutes almost one-sixth of its total strength. 



History 

Historically Mughal Emperor Babur is popularly credited with introduction of Artillery in India, in the Battle of 
Panipat in 1526, where he decisively used gunpowder firearms and field artillery and defeated the much larger army 
of Ibrahim Lodhi, the ruler of the large North Indian Delhi Sultanate, thus not just laying the foundation of the 
Mughal Empire but also setting a precedent of all future battles in the subcontinent. However evidence of earlier use 
of gun by Bahmani Kings in the 'Battle of Adoni' in 1368 and King Mohammed Shah of Gujarat in fifteenth century 
have been recorded. 



Regiment of Artillery 



204 



The East India Company raised the first regular company of Artillery in 1748, with a small percentage of Indian 
Gunners called Gun Lashkars, Tindals and Serangs. A few Indian mountain artillery batteries, officered by the 
British, were raised in the 19th century and formed part of the Royal Artillery. The Royal Indian Artillery (RIA) of 
the British India Army, was raised on September 28, 1827, as a part of the Bombay Army, a presidency army of the 
Bombay Presidency. It was later renamed as 5 Bombay Mountain Battery, and participated in the First 
Anglo-Afghan War (1839-1842). The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was sparked off in Meerut on 10 May 1857, 

primarily by native artillery of Bengal Army, following which all Indian artillery units were banned except mountain 

131 
artillery batteries, though Major Richard Keatinge of Bombay Artillery was awarded the Victoria Cross in 1858 

for his service during the Indian Rebellion. 



In the 20th century, the Artillery was later involved in 
extensive service in the First World War, in East 
Africa, Gallipoli, Mesopotamia, and Palestine. 

The Regiment of Artillery was raised on 15 January 

1935, when the first three Indian Field Regiments, 

[41 
originally numbered A, B, and C were authorised. 

Originally called the 'Indian Regiment of Artillery', 

which later became 'The Regiment of Indian Artillery' 

on 1 November 1940 and 'Royal Regiment of Indian 

Artillery' in October 1945, after its success in World 




War II 



[3] 






A mountain artillery crew from the British Indian Army 
demonstrating assembly of the RML 2.5 inch Mountain Gun, ca 1895 



After the partition of India in 1947 RIA was divided 

between the newly formed artillery regiments of India 

[2i 
and Pakistan. In the coming years the artillery took 

part in all the operations fought by the Indian Army, 

the latest being the Kargil War. 

The School of Artillery of the Indian Army is situated at Devlali near Nashik, and the Regiment of Artillery 
Museum, established in 1970, is also situated in Nashik at Nasik Road Camp. 

The Regiment of Artillery was divided in the mid 1990s between the Field Artillery, the Corps of Air Defence 
Artillery formed in January 1994, and the Army Aviation Corps formed in November 1993. The Field Artillery is 
the largest successor branch, with 190 regiments, but no longer accounted for a sixth of the army's 1.2 million 1996 
strength. 

Jane's Defence Weekly said in 1996 that divisional artillery deployed on India's plains is expected to have a mix of 
130mm and 155mm guns. This could be a combination of three 130mm regiments and one regiment of 155mm 
guns, or two regiments of each calibre, depending on the anticipated threat and whether the division is to be 
employed for offensive or defensive operations. 

On 15 January 1985, a commemorative stamp depicting a Gunner and Howitzer from Mountain Battery was released 
by India Post, on the Golden Jubilee of the Regiment of Artillery 



[71 



Regiment of Artillery 



205 



Artillery of India 

Mortars 

• 120 mm El light mortar 
Anti-aircraft guns 

• All Weather Air Defence Gun System (AWADGS) 

• 40mm Bofors L/70 anti-aircraft gun (upgraded variant) 

• 40mm Bofors L/60 anti-aircraft gun (upgraded variant) 

• 23mm ZSU-23-2 anti-aircraft gun 

Field artillery 

105mm Indian Field Gun 
105mm Light Field Gun 
122mm D-30 Howitzer 

130mm M-46 Field Gun 

155mm El Metamorphosis gun 45 Caliber Howitzer 

155mm Haubits FH77/B Howitzer 

Self-propelled artillery 

• 105mm FV433 Abbot self-propelled gun 

• 130mm M-46 Catapult self-propelled gun 

Rocket artillery 

• 122mm BM-21 Grad Multiple Barrel Rocket Launcher 

• 214mm Pinaka Multi Barrel Rocket Launcher 

• 300mm BM-30 Smerch Multiple Barrel Rocket Launcher 




BL 10 pounder Mountain Gun crew in action. East Africa, World 
War I 



Notable personnel 

• Chief of Army Staff of the Indian Army 

• General Paramasiva Prabhakar Kumaramangalam (June 7, 1966 - 
June 7, 1969) 

• General Om Prakash Malhotra (May 31, 1978 - May 31, 1981) 

• General Sunith Francis Rodrigues (June 30, 1990 - June 30, 
1993) 

• General Sundararajan Padmanabhan (September 30, 2000 - 
December 31, 2002) 

• General Deepak Kapoor (September 30, 2007 - March 31, 2010) 

• Umrao Singh: Victoria Cross: World War II. 




Flag of Indian Army Regiment of Artillery 



Regiment of Artillery 206 

Further reading 

• History of the Regiment of Artillery, Indian Army, by Y. B. Gulati, D. K. Palit. Published by Leo Cooper, 1972. 
ISBN 0-85052-118-1. 

• Kargil '99: Blood, Guts and Firepower, by Gurmeet Kanwal, India Army. Regiment of Artillery. Published by 
Regiment of Artillery in association with Lancer Publishers, 2000. ISBN 1-897829-64-7. 

References 

[1] Regiment of Artillery - Honours and Awards (http://indianarmy.nic. in/arms/arty. html#Gallantry Awards During OP Vijay) Indian Army 

website. 

[2] History of Artillery (http://www.indianarmy.gov.in/hist_of_arty.PDF), Indian Army. 

[3] Regiment of Artillery (http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/artillery.htm) Global Security 

[4] Indian Field Artillery in World War II (http://members.tripod.com/~nigelef/indregt.htm) 

[5] Sawhney, Jane's Defence Weekly, 9 October 1996, p. 35 

[6] Pravin Sawhney, 'India's artillery a force in its own right,' Jane's Defence Weekly, 9 October 1996, p. 35-37 

[7] 15th Jan 1985 Stamp (http://www.indiapost.gov.in/APS/APS/apsweb/commemoratives_on_artillery.htm) India Post. 

External links 

• Regiment of Artillery at Official website of the Indian Army (http://indianarmy.nic.in/arms/index_arty.htm) 

• Martyrs of Regiment of Artillery (http://indianarmy.nic. in/martyrs/home.jsp?hidrecord=10&operation=& 
service=31&state=15&subform=Search) Indian Army 

• Regiment of Artillery (http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/ARMY/Reg-Art.html) at Bharat Rakshak 

• WeGunners (http://wegunners.webs.com) 

• 4 Hazara Mountain Battery (FF) (http://4hazara.blogspot.com/) 



207 



Engineer Groups 



Indian Army Corps of Engineers 





The logo of the Corps of Engineers 


Active 


1777-Present 


Country 


j^ India 


Branch 


^Q Indian Army 


Army Headquarters 


New Delhi, India 


Nickname 


Military Engineer Service (MES) 


Motto 


Ubique {Everywhere) 


Colours 


Gold, red and black 


Engagements 


Second Anglo-Afghan War 
First World War 
Second World War 

• Burma Campaign 

Sino-Indian War of 1962 Indo-Pakistani War of 

1947 

Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 

Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 

Indo-Pakistani War of 1999 


Commanders 


Colonel Commandant of the Corps of Engineers 


Lieutenant-General A.K. Nanda, Engineer-in-Chief 


Notable 
commanders 


Lt.Gen. Premindra Singh Bhagat 



The Indian Army Corps of Engineers has a long and history dating back to the mid-18th century. The earliest 
existing subunit of the Corps (18 Field Company) dates back to 1777 while the Corps officially recognises its birth 
as 1780 when the senior most group of the Corps, the Madras Sappers were raised. 

The Corps consists of three groups of combat engineers, namely the Madras Sappers, the Bengal Sappers and the 
Bombay Sappers. A group is roughly analogous to a regiment of Indian infantry, each group consisting of a number 
of engineer regiments. The engineer regiment is the basic combat engineer unit, analogous to an infantry battalion. 

Besides the combat engineers, the Corps mans and operates major engineering organisations such as the Military 
Engineering Service (MES), the Border Roads Organisation (BRO), the Married Accommodation Project and the 
Survey of India 



[l] 



Indian Army Corps of Engineers 



208 



History 

The Corps of Engineers is one of the oldest arms of the Indian Army. 
The origin of the Corps dates back to 1780 when the two regular 
pioneer companies were raised in the Madras Presidency Army. 
Subsequently, the Group of Madras, Bengal and Bombay Sappers were 
formed in their respective presidencies. These Groups came together 
when the British Indian Army was formed after 1857 and were later 
merged on 18 November 1932 to form the Corps of Indian Engineers. 
Engineer Groups initially consisted of field companies (a sub-unit 
organization that exists to this day). 




Corps of Bengal Sappers and Miners guarding 

their sector of the Sherpore Cantonment, outside 

the city boundary of Kabul, Afghanistan, during 

the Afghan War 1878-9 



Till 1911, the Sappers also had the duty of passing battlefield 

messages. Between 1911 and 1920, they handed this task to a batch of 

their own kinsmen who then formed the Corps of Signals. The Sappers 

also contributed the first batch of airmen when the Indian Air Force was raised in 1932. From 1942-1945 officers of 

the Indian Railways were recruited into this Corps to participate in Britain's Burma Campaign. 



Combat Engineers 

In war, Combat Engineers provide mobility to own forces by constructing bridges, tracks and helipads; on the other 
hand the Corps denies the same to the enemy by creating obstacles such as laying mine-fields and demolition of 
bridges. The need for accurate survey arose before combat engineering. Vast holdings had to be carefully delineated 
and mapped out, to plan the correct form of commercial extraction. By 1780, serious attention began to be given to 
the art of sapping and mining. 

Forts abound in the subcontinent, and to the forts the main defences withdrew for a protracted stand. On being 
invested, the siege (heavy) artillery including trench mortars or bombards went at it. The real work, not for the 
faint-hearted, went to the sappers who had to do the 'sapping' or mining. Sapping is the technique of accurately 
digging trenches, usually covered or zigzag, to cover one's approach to the point of assault. 



Military Engineering Service 

The Military Engineering Services, or the MES, are responsible for the design, construction and maintenance of all 
works, buildings, airfields, dock installations, etc.,. together with accessory services such as military roads, water and 
electricity supply, drainage, refrigeration, furniture, required by the Army, Navy and Air Force in India. 

The Military Engineering Services is the largest construction agency in the country. As the premier engineering arm 
of the Ministry of Defence, the MES primarily provides for the three arms of Defence forces, the Army, Air Force 
and Navy and also to other Defence related departments and organisations. It was founded in 1851 to provide 
rear-line-engineering support to the erstwhile British Indian Army. 



Indian Army Corps of Engineers 209 

Border Roads Organisation 

The Border Roads Organisation has made its own contribution to the nation by constructing national highways, 
airfields, buildings and bridges. The Border Roads, by constructing a large number of roads in once inaccessible 
areas of the Himalayas, Rajasthan and North Eastern States have contributed significantly to their economic 
development. 

Decorations 

General PS Bhagat of the Corps remains the first Indian Officer to have won the Victoria Cross in the Second World 
War. Another first in the same war, Subedar Subramaniam was awarded the George Cross. Later, during Kashmir 
operation soon after Independence, Major Rama Raghoba Rane was awarded the Param Vir Chakra for making a 
passage through enemy mine fields while crawling in front of a tank. Engineer units have been deployed abroad as 
part of UN Missions. 

The Corps of Engineers has to its credit one Param Vir Chakra, one Ashoka Chakra, one Padma Bhushan, 38 Param 
Vishisht Seva Medals, two Maha Vir Chakras, 13 Kirti Chakras, three Padma Shris, 88 Ati Vishisht Seva Medals, 25 
Vir Chakras, 93 Shaurya Chakras, six Yudh Seva Medals and many other awards. 

9 Engineer Regiment became one of the youngest Engineer Regiment in world history to enter the battlefield and got 
as many as 12 decorations including 01 Mahavir Chakra, 03 Vir Chakra, 04 Sena Medal, 04 Mention in Dispatch at 
the "Battle of Basantar" in 1971. 107 Engineer Regiment gained an Indian Institute of Bridging Engineers award for 
constructing a bridge in Himachal Pradesh in 2001. 268 Engineer Regiment was raised in 1964. As of 2009 it is 
based 'somewhere in the western sector'. 69 Engineer Regiment was raised in 2005. As of 2006 it is based at 
Chandigarh. 

Engineer regiments that served with the Indian Peace Keeping Force in Sri Lanka included the 
3,4,8,16,51,53,110,115, and 270. [6] 

References 

[1] Globalsecurity.org, Indian Corps of Engineers (http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/engineer.htm) 

[2] Globalsecurity.org, Military Engineer Services (http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/mes.htm) 

[3] 107 Engineer Regiment bags technical excellence award - Times Of India (http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/1817321896. 

cms) 
[4] The Tribune, Chandigarh, India - Chandigarh Stories (http://www.tribuneindia.com/2009/20091012/cthl.htm) 
[5] 69 Engineer Regiment celebrates 1st Raising Day (http://news.oneindia.in/2006/12/02/ 

69-engineer-regiment-celebrates- 1 st-raising-day- 1 165055656.html) 
[6] http://www.orbat.com/site/cimh/india/ipkf.html, Indian Peace Keeping Force orbat.com 8 September 2002 

External links 

• Indian Army, Army Engineers (http://indianarmy.nic.in/arengrsl.htm) 

• Royal Engineers Museum (http://www.remuseum.org.uk/corpshistory/rem_corps_partlO.htm) Indian 
Sappers (1740-1947) 

• Royal Engineers Museum (http://www.remuseum.org.uk/corpshistory/rem_corps_partl6.htm) The Corps in 
the Second World War (1939—45)- Indian Engineers in the Western Desert, Italian and Burma Campaigns 

• Royal Engineers Museum (http://www.remuseum.org.uk/biography/rem_bio_kitchener.htm) Biography of 
Lord Kitchener 



Madras Engineer Group 



210 



Madras Engineer Group 



Madras Engineer Group 



Active 



Madras Engineer Group (MEG) 



1780— present 



Country 
Branch 



Type 
Role 



Garrison/HQ 
Motto 



Engagements 
Battle honours 



India 

Corps of Engineers of Indian Army 



Combat Engineers 
Support 



Bangalore 
Sarvatra!{ Always) 



See Battle honours list 
See Battle honours list 



Madras Engineer Group (MEG) 
(Informal: Madras Sappers) are a regiment 
of the Corps of Engineers of the Indian 
Army. The Madras Sappers draw their 
origin from the erstwhile Madras Presidency 
army of the British Raj. This regiment has 
its HQ in Bangalore. The Madras Sappers 
are the oldest regiment of the Corps of 
Engineers. 

They are also the only regiment of the 
erstwhile Madras Presidency Army to 
survive the post- 1857 reorganizations 
unscathed. The thambis, as the troops of the 
Madras Sappers are popularly known, with 
their hallmark Shakos have distinguished 
themselves in many battle fields around the 
world for more than 200 years. 

In World War I they became particularly famous for inventing the mine clearing torpedo that goes by the name of 
Bangalore torpedo. 




Timeline 

• 1780 — Created Madras Pioneers from two company of Pioneers (On September 30, 1780 at Madras Patnam) 

• 1831 — Corps of Madras Sappers and Miners, Renamed as 



Madras Engineer Group 



211 



• 1876 — Queens 's Own, Prefixed with 

• 1903 - 2nd Queen's Own Madras 
Sappers and Miners, Renamed as part of 
the Kitchener Reforms 

• 191 1 — 2nd Queen Victoria's Own 
Madras Sappers and Miners, Renamed as 

• 1834 — Relocated HQ to Bangalore and 
where they remain today 




Madras Sappers & Miners joined Sir Colin Campbell in the second relief of 
Lucknow in November 1857 



History 

The second half of the eighteenth century found the East India Company involved in the politics of India and in 
conflict with the French and a number of native states, amongst whom Mysore, the Marathas and the remnants of the 
Mughal empire were prominent. The newly-raised army of the Madras Presidency was deficient of combat pioneers 
who were raised as 'ad hoc' companies and disbanded after the conflicts. The First Anglo-Mysore War highlighted 
this deficiency and led to the raising of two companies of the Madras Pioneers on September 30, 1780 at Fort St 
George. These men are the forefathers of the Madras Engineer Group of today and the Corps of Engineers of the 
Indian Army. 

The Madras Pioneers formed an integral part of the armed forces. Their principal job in active warfare was to dig 
'saps' or 'trenches' which permitted cannon to be brought in range of enemy fortifications and to dig 'mines' which 
would explode creating a breach in the fort walls. Hence the name, Sappers & Miners. In addition, the sappers used 
to lead the way to the breach for the 'forlorn hope' and infantry to follow. They also built roads, bridges, 
fortifications, wells, water-supply and fought as infantry when needed. 

Since this group was constituted by the Madras Presidency, and formed part of the Madras Army, they were called 
the Madras Sappers. Likewise in 1803 and again in 1824, the Bengal Sappers and Bombay Sappers were formed in 
the other presidencies. 

The Madras Sappers recruited and trained small tough and wiry men from South India. These engineer troops fought 
in numerous campaigns in India at Sholinghur, Seringapatam, Assaye (along with Major General Arthur Wellesley, 
later Duke of Wellington, and also in Egypt, China, Burma and other places abroad. 

The Madras Sappers moved into Bangalore in 1834, when they were involved in a major part of the construction 
activities of the Civilian and Military buildings in Bangalore. Their association with Bangalore, where the Centre is 
located, continues to this day. 

The motto of the Madras Sappers is that common to all three regiments of the Corps of Engineers, Sarvatra 
(Sanskrit:Everywhere) the Indian equivalent to 'ubique', the motto of the Royal Engineers. 



Madras Engineer Group 



212 



Gallery 






Sphinx symbol depicting the campaign in 
Egypt, 1801. 



Elephant emblem depicting the Battle of 
Assaye, 1803. 



Dragon symbol depicting the campaign in 
China, during the First Opium War, 1 840. 



Battle honours 



Pre-World War I 



Carnatic (1781-82) 
Sholinghur (1781-82) 
Mysore (1792) 
Seringapatam (1799) 
Egypt 1801 
Assaye (1803) 
Java (1811) 
Nagpur(1819) 
Mehidpur(1819) 
Ava(1825) 



China (1840) 
Meanee(1843) 
Hyderabad (1843) 
Pegu (1852) 
Persia (1856-57) 
Central India (1858) 
Lucknow (1858) 
Taku Forts (1860) 
Pekin(1860) 
Abyssinia (1868) 



Afghanistan (1878-80) 

Egypt (1882) 

Tel-el-Kebir (1882) 

Suakin(1885) 

Tofrek(1885) 

Burma (1885-87) 

Chitral (1895) 

Malakand(1897) 

Tirah (1897-98) 

Punjab Frontier (1897-98) 

Boxer Rebellion (1900) 



World War I 



France & Flanders (1914-15) 

Suez Canal (1915-17) 

Egypt (1915-17) 

Gaza (1917) 

Megiddo (1917) 

Sharon (1918) 

Palestine (1918) 



Baghdad (1915-18) 
Mesopotamia (1915-18) 
Tigris (1916) 
Kut-el-Amara (1917) 
India (1917) 
Persia (1918) 
N.W. Frontier (1914-15) 
East Africa (1918) 




War memorial on Brigade road, 
Bangalore 



Madras Engineer Group 



213 



World War II 



Mersa Matruh (1940-43) 
Ngakyedauk Pass (1942-45) 
Bishenpur (1942-45) 
Meiktila (1942-45) 



Tamu Road (1942-45) 
Cassino I (1943^5) 
Abyssinia (1940-41) 
North Africa (1940^43) 



Iraq (1941) 
Syria (1941) 
Malaya (1941-42) 
Burma (1942^5) 
Italy (1943-45) 



Post Independence 



Zoji La (1948) 
Basantar River (1971) 
Jammu & Kashmir (1947-48) 
Jammu & Kashmir (1965) 



Punjab (1965) 

Jammu & Kashmir (1971) 

Punjab (1971) 

East Pakistan (1971) 



Symbols 

The battle symbols of MEG are, a sphinx to commemorate the victory in Egypt in 1801, an elephant for the victory 
in Assaye in 1803, a dragon for China(1848), a bighorn sheep for Zoji La(1948) and a tank for Basantar(1971). 



External links 

• http://web.archive.org/web/2009 1027 133925/http://www. geocities.com/Athens/Acropolis/9460/remem. 
htm 

• http://www.regiments.org/regiments/southasia/art-eng-sig/sm-mad.htm 

• http://www.remuseum.org.uk/corpshistory/rem_corps_partlO.htm 

• http://sify.com/cities/bangalore/fullstory. php?id= 13958631 

• http://www.reubique.com/indpion.htm 



Bengal Engineer Group 



214 



Bengal Engineer Group 



Bengal Engineer Group 


Active 


1803-Present 


Country 


India 


Branch 


Corps of Engineers 


Role 


Support 


Regimental Centre 


Roorkee, Uttarakhand 


Motto 


God's Own 


Anniversaries 


November 7 


Decorations 


1 1 Victoria Cross 




116 Indian Order of 




Merit 




1 Padma Bhushan 




17 Shaurya Chakra 




93 Sena Medals 




1 1 Arjun Award 


Battle honours 


80 




1 1 Theatre honours 



The Bengal Engineer Group (BEG) or the 
Bengal Sappers or Bengal Engineers as 

they are informally known, are remnants of 

British Indian Army's Bengal Army of the 

Bengal Presidency in British India; now a 

regiment of the Corps of Engineers in the 

Indian Army. The Bengal Sappers have their 

regimental centre at Roorkee Cantonment in 

Haridwar district, Uttarakhand. The Bengal 

Sappers are one of the few remaining 

regiments of the erstwhile Bengal 

Presidency Army and survived the Mutiny 

due to their sterling work in the recapture of 

Delhi and other operations in 1857—58. The 

troops of the Bengal Sappers have been a 

familiar sight for over 200 years in the battlefields of British India with their never-say-die attitude of Chak De and 

brandishing their favourite tool the hamber. 




Bengal Sappers and Miners laying explosive charges and the subsequent Storming 
of Ghuznee. The Battle of Ghuznee First Afghan War, 23rd July 1839 



Over the years the Bengal Sappers have won many battle and theatre honours, 11 Victoria Cross, 116 Indian Order 
of Merit, 17 



Bengal Engineer Group 



215 



Shaurya Chakra, 93 Sena Medals and 11 
Arjun Awards, the highest number of won 
by any single organization in the 
country. Lt Gen Joginder Singh 

Dhillon, commissioned into Bengal 
Engineer Group in 1936, who commanded 
the First Republic Day Parade in Delhi, 
became the first Army Officer to be 
awarded the Padma Bhushan on 24 
November 1965. Among the three 
Sappers of Indian Army, Bengal Sappers 
was the first Engineer Group to receive the 
'President Colours' in recognition of its 
service to the nation, on January 12, 1989, 
by R Venkataraman, the then President of 
India, who presented the Regimental 
Colours to Bengal Engineer Group at 




Bengal Sappers and Miners Bastion, at Sherpur cantonment, Kabul, Second 
Afghan War, c. 1879. 



Roorkee 



[3] 



Besides service on the battlefield, the Bengal Engineers also rendered valuable peacetime contributions. The military 
engineer, Lt. James Agg, designed St John's Church in Calcutta. It was based on James Gibbs's St 



Martin-in-the-Fields in London and was consecrated in 1787 



[6] 



History 

Indian Army Corps of Engineers is one of the oldest arms of the Indian Army, dating back to 1780, when the two 

171 
regular pioneer companies of the Madras Sappers were raised, as a part of British East India Company army. Prior 

to its formation, by 1740s British officers and engineers served in the Bengal Engineers, Bombay Engineers and 

Madras Engineers, formed with the respective Presidency armies, while British soldiers served in each of the 

Presidencies' Sappers and Miner Companies, namely Bengal Sappers and Miners, Madras Sappers and Miners and 

Bombay Sappers and Miners. 

The Bengal Sappers and Miners, as they were earlier known, was originally the Corps of Bengal Pioneers, which 
was raised from two pioneer companies in 1803, part of Bengal Army of the Presidency of Bengal; one raised by 
Capt T. Wood at Kanpur as Bengal Pioneers in November 1803, also known as "Roorkee Safar Maina". In 
1819, at the conclusion of Third Maratha War, a part of Bengal Pioneers merged with the Company of Miners 
(raised in 1808) to become the Bengal Sappers and Miners, and raised at Allahabad, with Captain Thomas Anburey 
as the Commandant. The remaining part of the Corps of Bengal Pioneers was absorbed in 1833. In 1843 
'Broadfoot's Sappers', which had been raised in 1840, merged into the Bengal Sappers and Miners. 

In 1847 the Bengal Sappers and Miners was renamed the Bengal Sappers and Pioneers, and in 1851 it became the 
Corps of Bengal Sappers and Miners. On November 7, 1853, the regiment moved to Roorkee, where it has 
maintained its regimental centre ever since. Lord Kitchener's reforms in 1903 saw it redesignated as the 1st 
Sappers and Miners, which was again altered in 1906 to the 1st Prince of Wales's Own Sappers and Miners. 

On the accession of George V to the throne in 1910 it was renamed 1st King George V's Own Bengal Sappers and 

1121 

Miners, with the '1st' being dropped in 1923, to make it King George V's Own Bengal Sappers and Miners. In 
1937 it was renamed King George V's Bengal Sappers and Miners, and in 1941 they became the 'King George V's 
Bengal Sappers and Miners Group' of the Indian Engineers. In 1946 it became the 'King George V's Group' of the 
Royal Indian Engineers. On Indian independence and partition in 1947, about half of the serving personnel were 



Bengal Engineer Group 



216 



allocated to the Pakistan Royal Engineers. In 1950 they became the Bengal Centre, Corps of Engineers, after which 

ri3i 

they became the Bengal Engineer Group and Centre. 



Battle honours 

• Bharatpur (1826), [14] Battle of Ghazni (1839 First Anglo-Afghan War), 
Kabul 1842, Ferozeshah, Sobraon, Multan, Gujarat, Punjab, Delhi 1857, 



[15] 
[16] 



Lucknow, Ali Masjid, Charasiah, Kabul (1879 Second Afghan War) 

Ahmad Khel, Afghanistan 1878-80, Burma 1885-87, Chitral (1895), 1 

Punjab Frontier, Tirah, China 1900; 

World War I: La Bassee 1914, Festubert 1914 '15, Givenchy 1914, Neuve 

Chapelle, Aubers, Loos, France and Flanders 1914—15, Megiddo, Sharon, 

Damascus, Palestine 1918, Aden, Kut al Amara 1915 '17, Ctesiphon, 

Defence of Kut al Amara, Tigris 1916, Baghdad, Khan Baghdadi, Sharqat, 

Mesopotamia 1915-18, Persia 1918, North West Frontier India 1915 

'16-17, Baluchistan 1918; 

Afghanistan 1919; 

The Second World War: Kampar, Malaya 1941-42, North Africa 

1940-43, Cassino II, Italy 1943-45, [17] Yenangyaung 1942, Ngakedaung 

Pass, Jail Hill, Meiktila, Burma 1942-45 

Jammu and Kashmir 1947—48, Jammu and Kashmir 1965, Punjab 1965, 

Rajasthan 1965, East Pakistan 1971, Jammu and Kashmir 1971, Sindh 

1971 




Colonel Thomas Tupper 

Carter-Campbell of Possil (Lord 

Lieutenant and Justice of the Peace, 

Argyllshire) Esquire Corps of Royal 

Bengal Engineers. 



[13] 



Victoria Cross recipients 



Name 


Event 


Date of action 


Place of action 


Duncan Home 


Indian Mutiny 


14 September 1857 


Delhi, India 


James Innes 


Indian Mutiny 


28 February 1858 


Sultanpore, India 


Philip Salkeld 


Indian Mutiny 


14 September 1857 


Delhi, India 


John Smith 


Indian Mutiny 


14 September 1857 


Delhi, India [20] 


Edward Thackeray 


Indian Mutiny 


16 September 1857 


Delhi, India 


William Trevor 


Anglo-Bhutanese War 


30 April 1865 


Dewangiri, Deothang, Bhutan 


James Dundas 


Anglo-Bhutanese War 


30 April 1865 


Dewangiri, Deothang, Bhutan 


Edward Leach 


Second Afghan War 


17 March 1879 


[21] 
Khyber Pass, Afghanistan 


Fenton Aylmer 


Hunza-Naga Campaign 


2 December 1891 


Nilt Fort, British India [21][22] 


James Colvin 


First Mohmand Campaign 


16 September 1897 


[231 
Bilot, British India 


Thomas Watson 


First Mohmand Campaign 


16 September 1897 


[24] 
Bilot, British India 



Bengal Engineer Group 217 

References 

Short Histories: 

• The Indian Sappers and Miners ,By Lieut. -Colonel E.W.C. Sandes D.S.O., M.C., R.E. (Ret.), Published by The 

[251 
Institution of Royal Engineers, Chatham, 1948. Extracts 

• K.S. Calendar of battles, honours and awards : King George V's Own Bengal Sappers & Miners from 1803 to 
1939, by Rhamat Ullan Khan, ca. 1944. 

• History and digest of service of the 1st King George's Own Sappers & Miners. Roorkee : 1st King's Own Press, 
(ca. 1911) 

• Regimental history of the King George's Own Bengal Sappers & Miners. Roorkee : KGO Sappers & Miners 
Press, 1937. 

• Corps reunion and the unveiling of the war memorial. (Roorkee : King George V's own Bengal sappers and 
miners group, R.I. E), 1927. 

• History of the Corps of Royal Engineers, by Great Britain Army. Royal Engineers, Whitworth Porter. Published 
by Longmans, Green, 1952. 

• The Bengal Sappers 1803-2003, by General Sir George Cooper GCB MC and Major David Alexander. ISBN 
0-903530-24-4. 

• The Military Engineer in India, by Lt. Col. E.W.C Sandes. Reprint 2001, Original 1933.ISBN 9781843420422. 

First World War: 

• Cunningham, A.H., A Short history of the Corps of King George's Own Bengal Sappers & Miners during the 
War, 1914-1918. (1930) 

Second World War: 

• Pearson, G., Brief history of the K.G.V's own Bengal Sappers and Miners Group, R.I.E., August 1939-July 1946. 
Roorkee : Pearson, 1947. 

Notes 

[I] Bengal Sappers' saga of valour (http://www.tribuneindia.com/2008/20081124/dplusl.htm) The Tribune, November 24, 2008. 

[2] Bengal Sappers: 'Sarvatra' for Two Hundred Years (http://mod.nic.in/Samachar/novl-03/html/chl.htm) Sainik Samachar, Vol. 50, No. 

21, 1-15 November 2003, 10-24 Kartika, 1925 (Saka), Ministry of Defence, Govt, of India. 
[3] Corps of Engineers, Indian Army (http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/ARMY/Corps-Engineers.html) bharat-rakshak.com. 
[4] Bengal Engineering Group (http://haridwar.nic.in/beg.htm) Haridwar Official website. 
[5] Unique Achievements (http://www.bsoaroorkee.org/legend2.htm) Bengal Sappers. 
[6] http://www.kolkataonline.in/Tourism/ReligiousSpots/Churches.aspx 

[7] Corps of Engineers - History (http://indianarmy.nic.in/arms/index_engrs.htm) Indian Army Official website. 
[8] Indian Sappers (1740-1947) (http://www.remuseum.org.uk/corpshistory/rem_corps_partlO.htm) Royal Engineers Museum. 
[9] Indian Army Service Records (up to 1947) (http://www.remuseum.org.uk/rem_res_service.htm) Royal Engineers Museum. 
[10] THE BENGAL SAPPERS (http://www.nih.ernet.in/sub files/other_org.htm) National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee. 

[II] Institute Time Capsule (http://www.iitr.ac.in/institute/pages/Institute_Time_Capsule.html) IIT Roorkee. 

[12] 1st King George's Own Sappers and Miners - Officers & Non-Commissioned Officers and Men (http://www.reubique.com/ism.htm) 

[13] http://www.regiments.org/regiments/southasia/art-eng-sig/sm-ben.htm 

[14] Bengal Sappers' 200 yrs of valour (http://www.tribuneindia.eom/2003/20031029/nation.htm#l) The Tribune, October 29, 2003. 

[15] The Battle of Kabul 1879 (http://www.britishbattles.com/second-afghan-war/kabul-1879.htm) 

[16] Chitral 1895 - Fort Siege (http://www.devonheritage.org/Nonplace/DevonReg/Chitrall895-thefortundersiege.htm) 

[17] Cassino Memorial (http://www.sikhspectrum.com/052005/sikhsoldiersitaly.htm) 

[18] Lieutenant James John McLeod INNES VC (http://www.remuseum.org.uk/vc/rem_vc_innes.htm) Royal Engineers Museum. 

[19] Lieutenant Philip SALKELD VC (http://www.remuseum.org.uk/vc/rem_vc_salkeld.htm) Royal Engineers Museum. 

[20] Sergeant John SMITH VC (http://www.remuseum.org.uk/vc/rem_vc_smith.htm) Royal Engineers Museum. 

[21] The Royal Engineers Museum - Victoria Crosses held by the Royal Engineers Museum (http://64.233.183.104/ 

search?q=cache:-L91a213yaEJ:www.victoriacross.org.uk/ccroyeng.htm+bengal+sappers+and+miners&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=8&gl=uk) 

[22] Captain Fenton John AYLMER VC (http://www.remuseum.org.uk/vc/rem_vc_aylmer.htm) Royal Engineers Museum. 

[23] Lieutenant James Morris Colquhoun COLVIN VC (http://www.remuseum.org.uk/vc/rem_vc_colvin.htm) Royal Engineers Museum. 



Bengal Engineer Group 218 

[24] Lieutenant Thomas Colclough WATSON VC (http://www.remuseum.org.uk/vc/rem_vc_watson.htm) Royal Engineers Museum. 
[25] http://www.newman-family-tree.net/Madras_S&M_p662-666.pdf 

External links 

• Martyrs of Bengal Engineer Group (http://indianarmy.nic. in/martyrs/home.jsp?status=&service=17& 
operation=&state=&hidrecord=10&subform=Search&subform=Search) at Indian Army 

• The Bengal Snappers - Roorkee, Official website (http://www.bsoaroorkee.org/trail4.htm) 

• Bengal Sappers and Miners on the Royal Engineers website (http://www.remuseum.org.uk/corpshistory/ 
rem_corps_partl0.htm) Royal Engineers Museum 

• Bengal Sappers and Miners on Regiments.org (http://www.regiments.org/regiments/southasia/art-eng-sig/ 
sm-ben.htm) 

• Bengal Sappers and Miners and the Victoria Cross (http://64.233. 183. 104/ 
search?q=cache:-L91a213yaEJ:www.victoriacross.org.uk/ccroyeng.htm+bengal+sappers+and+miners& 
hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=8&gl=uk) 



Bombay Engineer Group 



219 



Bombay Engineer Group 



Bombay Engineer Group 



Active 



Bombay Engineer Group (BEG) 



1780— present 



Country 
Branch 



Type 
Role 



Garrison/HQ 
Motto 



Engagements 
Battle honours 



India 

Corps of Engineers of Indian Army 



Combat Engineers 
Support 



Khadki, Pune 
Sarvatra! 



See Battle honours list 
See Battle honours list 



The Bombay Engineering Group, or the Bombay Sappers as they are informally known, are a regiment of the 
Indian Army Corps of Engineers. The Bombay Sappers draw their origin from the erstwhile Bombay Presidency 
army of the British Raj. This regiment has its centre in Khadki, Pune in Maharashtra state. The Bombay Sappers 
have gone to on to win many accolades in battle throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, both before and after 
Independence, including the British Victoria Cross and the French Legion of Honour before independence, as well as 
the Param Vir Chakra and Ashok Chakra as part of Independent India. The Group has also made its mark in 
peacetime activities such as sport, adventure, aid to civil authority and prestigious construction projects. The troops 
of the Bombay Sappers are renowned for their endurance, courage and valour on the battlefield. 



Brief history 



The Bombay Sappers draw their origins 
back to the late 18th century when the 
British had become a new force in the 
politics of India which consisted of a large 
number of kingdoms and fiefdoms; the 
principal ones being the Maratha 
confederacy, Mysore, Hyderabad and 
Berar, with British presidencies at 
Bombay, Madras and Bengal in addition 
to their factories at Surat. The British 
engaged in conflict with Tipu Sultan and 
later the Marathas, which along with 
diplomatic measures resulted in British 
overlordship over large parts of India. 

The earliest instance of recruitment of 
native sappers was the formation of a 




Sutilir.Ti tij'tfv. Btimlxiy Safjjjers and Miners: HavUdar, Suhedar, Ndik and Sepoy. 
Their uniform is very muck on the British pattern, here shown with 'puttees' and 
hobnailed boots. The Mules on the right, carried the specialist equipment of 
these Engineering Units. 

(From a Photograpfi by Frank Bremner c. 1895) 

Bombay Sappers soldiers 



Bombay Engineer Group 



220 



company of Pioneer Lascars, comprising 
100 men, in 1777 by Major Lawrence 
Nilson, the first Chief Engineer of the 
Bombay Presidency. Over the next few 
years, these newly born Lascars saw 
action mostly in skirmishes with the 

Marathas. Soon after being recognised as 

T21 
a Pioneer Corps in 1781, they 

participated in the 1782—84 expedition to 

the Malabar coast against Tipu Sultan's 

forces in the Second Mysore War and also 

saw action in the Third Mysore War, 

when they served at Calicut and at the 



first siege of Seringapatam 



[3] 




No. 2 Company, Bombay Sappers and Miners, China 1900. 

In 1797, the Bombay Pioneer Corps was 

organised afresh with 4 companies of 100 men each, under Captain-Lieutenant Bryce Moncrieff (Bo.E.) into which 
the Pioneer Lascars were wholly absorbed. The Bombay Pioneers rendered sterling service in road construction 
and survey of the Malabar and Kanara for some years, in the midst of which they participated with merit in the 
Fourth Mysore War (1799), participating in the defense of Manatana, Battle of Seedaseer and the siege and capture 
of Seringapatam. The Bombay Pioneers next saw service in 1803 during the Second Maratha War under Sir Arthur 
Wellesley, later the Duke of Wellington, excelling at Gawilgarh and rendering sterling service in the many 
campaigns by maintaining lines of communication and helping the heavy cannons reach the battlefield. 

The successful defeat of Maratha ambitions South of the Vindhyas was followed by stringent economisation in 1807 
which found the Bombay Pioneers reduced to only one company, till, in 1812, the inescapable demands of a 
vibrant and growing Presidency led to the Corps being increased to a strength of four companies, Numbers 1 to 4. 
Soon after during the Third Maratha War (1818—1820), the four companies paid a vital role in the capture of the 
erstwhile Peshwa's territories by the reduction of as many as 33 forts in the Konkan, Khandesh and Deccan. 
Impending operations in Central India led to the Corps being expanded to 6 companies in 1819 and to 8 companies 
in 1822 when they were officially recognised as a battalion. 

Besides the Bombay Pioneers, a separate company of Engineer Lascars had been raised in 1820 and designated as 

ro] 

'Sappers and Miners Company'. This field company was the first Bombay Sapper unit to proceed abroad when in 
1821 it sailed for operations against pirates on the Arabian coast and earned for itself the first battle honour of the 
Corps, Beni Boo Alii. In 1826, a second company was raised and the 'Sappers & Miners' made into the Engineer 
Corps in 1829. [9] 

Earlier, in 1803, a pontoon train had been raised by the British at Bombay to help with river crossing of the rivers of 
the Deccan in monsoon. This proved unable to keep up with the swift movement of infantry and cavalry 



[10] 



This 



characteristic of Sir Arthur Wellesley's manouvres, but later proved to be useful for operations in Gujarat, 
too was merged with the Engineer Corps. 

In 1830 the Bombay Pioneers were reduced from 8 to 6 companies and the pioneer companies merged into the 
Engineer Corps. The Engineer Corps were reduced in strength yet again in 1834 as part of a general retrenchment 
to just one Sapper & Miner and 3 Pioneer companies. Soon after in 1839, the Bombay Engineer companies took 
part in operations in Afghanistan, distinguishing themselves at Ghuznee and Khelat. 

In 1840, all the pioneer companies were converted into Sappers & Miners and the 'Engineer Corps' renamed as the 
Bombay Sappers & Miners. The Corps took part in many operations both in India and abroad, the long list of 
battle and theatre honours earned giving an idea of the sterling service rendered by the Corps both in peace and war. 



Bombay Engineer Group 



221 



In the 19th century and prior to World War I, the Bombay Sappers served in Arabia, Persia, Abyssinia, China, 
Somaliland; in India fought in the Mysore, Maratha and Anglo-Sikh Wars; fought in the aftermath of the Mutiny in 
Mhow, Jhansi, Saugor and Kathiawar and many times over in the Punjab, North West Frontier Province and 
Afghanistan. 

In the 1903 reorganisation of the Indian Army, the Corps was renamed in the newly unified Indian Army as the 3rd 
Sappers & Miners. A mistaken interpretation of the historic records led to the Bombay Sappers being considered as 
junior to the Madras and Bengal Sappers whereas they could trace an unbroken descent from before the Madras or 
Bengal Sappers were formed; the case for reversion being taken up a number of times unsuccessfully, presumably 
due to inadequate records of the services of the Corps in the late 18th century. 

The Bombay Sappers expanded greatly during the 'Great War' to meet the large number of Indian engineer troops 
required by the Empire. The Bombay Sappers fought against the Germans and the Turks in Europe, Palestine, 
Mesopotamia, Aden, Persia, East Africa and also in Afghanistan, Baluchistan and the North West Frontier Province, 
winning as many as 29 battle and theatre honours. The very large losses of 20 and 21 Field Companies in Europe in 
1914—15 led to the Malerkotla Sappers & Miners joining the Corps where they remained affiliated till 1945 when all 
state forces sapper companies were transferred to the Bengal Sappers ostensibly on grounds of administrative 
convenience. 

In recognition of the prodigious contribution of the Bombay Sappers in World War I, the title 'Royal' was bestowed 
on the Corps in 1921 and they became the 3rd Royal Bombay Sappers and Miners. The numeral 3rd was removed in 
1923 and the Corps became the Royal Bombay Sappers and Miners and were so called right until the end of World 
War II. 

The Second World War once again saw a great wartime expansion and the Bombay Sappers fought the Germans, 
Italians and the Japanese in Malaya, Singapore, Burma, Abyssinia, Eritrea, North Africa, Syria, Italy and Greece. 

After independence, the Group became part of the Corps of Engineers of the Army of independent India. 

Battle and Theatre honours 

The list of battle and theatre honours of the Bombay Sappers are as follows: 

Pre-World War I 



Beni Boo Alii (1821) 
Afghanistan 1839 
Ghuznee 1839 
Khelat(1839) 
Punjaub (1848-49) 
Mooltan (1848^19) 
Goojerat(1849) 



Persia (1856-57) 
Reshire(1856) 
Bushire(1856) 
Koosh-Ab (1856) 
Central India (1858) 
Abyssinia (1867) 
Afghanistan 1878-80 



Kandahar 1880 

Burma 1885-87 

Punjab Frontier (1897-98) 

Tirah (1897) 

China 1900 

Somaliland 1901-04 



Bombay Engineer Group 



222 



World War I 



European theatre 

France and Flanders 1914-15 
LaBassee 1914 
Armentieres 1914 
Festubert 1914, Festubert 1915 
Givenchy 1914 
NeuveChappelle(1914) 
Ypres 1915 
St Mien (1915) 
Aubers 1915 



Palestine 

• Palestine 1918 

• Megiddo(1918) 

• Sharon (1918) 

• Nablus(1918) 

• Damascus (1918) 

Persia, Aden, East Africa 

• Persia 1918-19 

• Aden 1918 

• East Africa 1914-18 

• Kilimanjaro 1916 



Mesopotamia 

Mesopotamia 1914-18 

Basra (1914) 

Shaiba(1915) 

Ctesiphon(1916) 

Tigris 1916 

Defence of Kut al Amara (1915-16) 

Kut al Amara 1915 Kut al Amara 1917 

Baghdad 1917 

India 

• North West Frontier India 1 916—1 7 

• Baluchistan 1918 

• Afghanistan 1919 



World War II 



North Africa & Europe South-East Asia 

North Africa 1940-43 • Malaya 1941-42 
Abyssinia 1940^11 
Syria 1941 
Italy 1943-45 
Greece 1944-45 



Kuantan (1941-42) 
Burma 1942-45 
Defence of Sinzweya (1944) 
Myinmu Bridge Head (1945) 
Defence of Meiktila (1945) 



Post-Indian Independence 



Indo-Pak War (1947-46) Indo-Pak War (1965) Indo-Pak War (1971) Kargil incursion 

• Jammu & Kashmir (1947-48) • Jammu & Kashmir (1965) • East Pakistan (1971) • Ladakh(1999) 

• Rajaori (1948) • Sylhet(1971) • Dras(1999) 

• Jammu & Kashmir (1971) 

• Punjab (1971) 



Class Composition 

The Group presently recruits a mix of Marathas, Muslims, Mazhabi and Ramdasiya Sikhs besides various other 
Indian castes. The training centre, titled Bombay Engineer Group and Centre, is located in Khadki. 



Notes 

1. Bombay Engineers: The Bombay Engineers (abbreviated above as Bo.E.) were a corps of engineer officers 
granted a commission by the East India Company for specific service of the Bombay Presidency. The Corps 
provided engineers for military works, garrison duties and command of engineer troops in the field. The Bombay 
Sappers & Miners were officered by the Bombay Engineers from 1777 to 1802 and from 1820 to 1862 when they 
were absorbed into the Royal Engineers. In the years between apparent shortages of trained engineers led to the 
Bombay Pioneers being officered by British officers of the Bombay Native Infantry. Likewise, the Madras 
Engineers (M.E.) and Bengal Engineers (B.E.) served the same functions in other presidencies. 

2. About Battle & Theatre honours: 

:(a). The battle & theatre honours are intermixed and arranged chronologically for reader's convenience. The 



Bombay Engineer Group 223 

World War honours are also grouped as per theatre of operations. 

:(b). Dates without parentheses form part of the battle/theatre honour title. Dates not forming part of the title have 
been added with parentheses for chronological ease of readers and do not form part of the title of the honour. 
:(c). The honours have been distinguished into Battle Honours or Theatre Honours vide the lists on pg 53 and 54 
respectively of A Brief history of the Bombay Engineer Group, (1996), with the theatre honours being placed in 
italics to determine them from battle honours which are without italics. 

References 

[I] Sandes (1948). Today, this company is known as the 18 Field Company and is part of the 106 Engineer Regiment. The Indian Sappers & 
Miners, pg 29. 

[2] Babayya et al. (2006) A Tradition of Valour pg 3. 
[3] Sandes (1948). The Indian Sappers & Miners, pg 32—33. 
[4] Sandes (1948). The Indian Sappers & Miners, pg 50. 
[5] Sandes (1948). The Indian Sappers & Miners, pg 53. 
[6] Sandes (1948). The Indian Sappers & Miners, pg 75. 
[7] Sandes (1948). The Indian Sappers & Miners, pg 85. 
[8] Sandes (1948). The Indian Sappers & Miners, pg 85-86. 
[9] Sandes (1948). The Indian Sappers & Miners, pg 108. 
[10] Sandes (1948). The Indian Sappers & Miners, pg 38. 

[II] Sandes (1948). The Indian Sappers & Miners, pg 109. 
[12] Sandes (1948). The Indian Sappers & Miners, pg 164. 

Bibliography 

• Anonymous 1996. A brief history of the Bombay Engineer Group. The Bombay Engineering Group & Centre, 
Khadki, Pune. Preface & 95 pages. 

• Babayya, Brig. K., Ahlawat, Col. Satpal, Kahlon, Col. H.S. & Rawat, Lt.Col. S.S. (eds) 2006 A Tradition of 
Valour 1820—2006 — an illustrated saga of the Bombay Sappers. The Bombay Engineering Group & Centre, 
Khadki, Pune. i to xvii. 280 pages. 

• Sandes, Lt.Col. E.W.C. 1948. The Indian Sappers and Miners. The Institution of Royal Engineers, Chatham. 726 
pp, 31 plates, 51 campaign maps/plans inside and 3 general maps in the end jacket pocket. 

• Singh, Maj. Sarbans 1993. Battle Honours of the Indian Army 1757—1971. Vision Books, New Delhi. Pages 372 
with 24 Maps, Appendices A to F, Bibliography & Index. 

• Barker- Wyatt,Brig. D.A., Jones,Lt.Col. D.L. and Norman,Capt. E.L. 1999. The Royal Bombay Sappers & Miners 
1939—1947. The Royal Bombay Sappers & Miners Officers Association. 640 pages and 66 maps. 



224 



Indian Army Corps of Signals 

Indian Army Corps of Signals 



Indian Army Corps of Signals 


Active 


1911 -Present 


Country 


^2 India 


Branch 


^Q Indian Army 


Army Headquarters 


New Delhi, India 


Nickname 


The Corps of Signals 


Motto 


"Teevra Chaukas" ("Swift and Secure") 


Engagements 


First World War 
Second World War 

• Burma Campaign 






Sino-Indian War of 1962 Indo-Pakistani War 


of 




1947 






Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 






Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 






Indo-Pakistani War of 1999 





Indian Army Corps of Signals is a corps and an arm of the Indian Army, which handles its military 
communications. It was formed on the 15 February 1911 as a separate entity under Lt Col S H Powell, and went on 
to make important contributions to World War I and World War II. The corps celebrated 100 years of its raising on 
15th February 2011 



[l] 



History 

After a notification was issued as a Special Army Order dated February 3, 1911, for the organisation of the signal 
companies, the corps was formed on February 15, 1911, when 31st and 32nd Divisional Signal Companies, the first 
Signals units, were raised at Fatehgarh in present Uttar Pradesh. Lt Col SH Powell, Royal Engineers, was the 
founder and first head of the Indian Signal Service which later became the Indian Signal Corps. Till then, the 
Sappers part of the Indian Army Corps of Engineers established in 1777, where in charge of passing battlefield 
messages. Subsequently, the 33rd and 34th Divisional Signal Companies were raised at Ahmednagar, along with the 
nucleus of 41st Wireless Squadron at Roorkee on March 1, 1911. 

After Independence in 1947, Brig CHI Acehurst was the first head of the Corps of Signals, after the 1965 and 1971 
wars, the corps underwent important expansions. The corps formally received its regimental colours on 20 February 
1965 and on 15 February 1981. [3] 

In the mid-1980s, a dedicated organisation to test communication systems was formed, it is now known as the Army 
Centre for Electromagnetics (ACE), eventually Indian Army became the first agency to use digital technology for 
both switching and transmission 



r-\ 



Indian Army Corps of Signals 225 

Overview 

The Corps works closely with Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) to develop command and 
control software , notably Samyukta Electronic Warfare System, a mobile integrated electronic warfare system, 
developed along with Bharat Electronics Limited. 

Military College of Telecommunication Engineering (MCTE), Mhow is a premiere training institute of the Corps of 
Signals, while its war museum is situated at Jabalpur, where 1 Signal Regiment is based. 

References 

[1] "Corps Of Signals — Inaugural: Ceremony Centenary Year" (http://pih.nic. in/newsite/erelease.aspx?relid=57818). Ministry of Defence. 

15 February, 2010. . 
[2] "The Corps of Signals: Wise with Waves" (http://mod.nic.in/samachar/febl5-06/h2.htm). Ministry of Defense. . 
[3] "Corps of Signals celebrates 98th Raising Day" (http://www.expressindia.com/latest-news/corps-of-signals-celebrates-98th-raising-day/ 

273663/). Indian Express. Feb 16, 2008. . 
[4] Army gets hi-tech warfare system (http://www.deccanherald.com/Archives/jan202004/nll.asp) 
[5] DRDO Develops Mobile Electronic Warfare System (http://www.cmcltd.com/news_events/press_reports/200404apr/ 

20040407_DRDO_devlp_moblie.htm) 

External links 

• Corps of Signals (http://indianarmy.nic.in/Site/FormTemplete/frmTemplPLargewithoutsize. 
aspx?MnId=x8Fpf75MzqasnBsvabeyrA==&ParentID=B3c22nY0088v8VALaeX+eA==& 
flag=qfl0D8YqgA4v9zQoEO2G4Q==) at Indian Army website 

• Corps of Signals (http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/LAND-FORCES/Units/Other/227-Corps-Of-Signals. 
html) at Bharat Rakshak website 

• Corps of Signals (http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/signal.htm) at Global Security website 



226 



Army Aviation Corps 



Army Aviation Corps (India) 



Active 



Army Aviation Corps(India) 




Army Aviation Badge 



02 November 1987-present 



Country 
Branch 



India 
Indian Army 



Type 
Role 



Army aviation branch 

Tactical Air Transport, Assault duties and anti-tank warfare, Reconnaissance, Liaison, Disaster Relief, MEDEVAC, 
CSAR. 



Size 
Decorations 



158 aircraft 

2 Maha Vir Chakra, 1 Uttam Yudh Seva Medal 16 Vir Chakra 3 Ati Vishisht Seva Medals, 1 1 Shaurya Chakra,5 
Yudh Seva Medals ,1 Bar to Sena Medal ,54 Sena Medals, 8 Vayu Sena Medals,19 Vishisht Seva Medals,45 
Mention-in-Despatches, 1 54 Chief of Army Staff Commendation Cards and a number of Chief of Air Staff 
Commendation Cards. 



Aircraft flown 



Attack 



HAL Dhruv 



Transport 



HAL Dhruv, Aerospatiale SA 316 Alouette III, Aerospatiale SA 315 Lama 



The Army Aviation Corps is a component of the Indian Army formed on 2 November 1987. The aviation arm is 
headed by an Additional Director General of the rank of Major General at the Army HQ, New Delhi. 



Army Aviation Corps (India) 



227 



Role 

The army aviation pilots are drawn from other combat arms, including artillery officers, to form a composite third 
dimensional force for an integrated battle. IAF operates & flies attack Helicopters like the Mil Mi-25/Mi-35 which 
are owned and administered by the Indian Air Force, but under the operational control of the Army & play a major 
role to support the armoured columns and infantry in the Thar desert and 

in the plains of Punjab. Apart from the attack role, helicopters like the HAL Chetak (Aerospatiale SA 316 Alouette 
III), HAL Cheetah (Aerospatiale SA 315 Lama) and HAL Dhruv provide logistical support for the Indian Army in 
remote and inaccessible areas, specially the Siachen Glacier. Army Aviation Corps(AAC) also perform tasks like 
search and rescue (CSAR) and medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) during war and also in the case of natural 
calamities. 

Operational history 

In 1984, the Indian Army's Northern Command inducted the HAL Cheetah into the Siachen Glacier. The daredevil 
pilots were put to the ultimate test professionally and also in terms of human endurance. In 1986, the "Air 
Observation Post" units were transferred from the Air Force to the Army to form the Army Aviation branch. Using 
nine helicopter squadrons, Army Aviation has supported ground units by carrying men and material in the highest 
battlefield on earth, culminating in the conquest of the entire 72 km of the Siachen Glacier. Innumerable skirmishes 
and confrontations are taking place in the ongoing operations in the Siachen Glacier and the Army Aviation Corps is 
providing the required support for sustenance of our troops. 

The Sri Lankan operations saw full-fledged jungle warfare application of the army's aviation resources in extremely 
hostile conditions. The Corps won laurels for its daring performance in the face of all odds. The Corps has also been 
operating in the jungle, mountain and riverine terrains of India since long. 

A unit of the Army Aviation Corps had the unique distinction of operating in Somalia, as part of UNOSOM-II 
(United Nations Operation in Somalia-II), from October 1993 to November 1994. During these operations, the flight 
flew over 2000 hours without any accident and maintained 100% serviceability in an environment akin to our desert 
terrain. Army aviators have also been operating in the desert areas since long. In fact, some of the Army's biggest 
battles and peacetime exercises have been carried out in the deserts and areas contiguous to the plains of Punjab. The 
Corps has an exposure of participating in a war-like scenario in Operation Vijay - 1999 Kargil Conflict. 



Aircraft inventory 

The Indian Army operates around 158 helicopters 



[l] 





HAL Dhruv at ILA-Berlin 
in 2008 



HAL Light Combat 
helicopter 



HAL Light Observation 
Helicopter 



/'' 










■2»liJBiHB- 



Dhruv of the Indian Army 



Army Aviation Corps (India) 



228 



Training 



Training is imparted to all candidates at the Combat Army Aviation 
Training School (CATS) at Nashik. The Army Aviation training was 
previously conducted in School of Artillery, Deolali. But now it is 
carried out in an independent Combat Air Training School also at 
Deolali. 

The Cheetah Helicopter Simulator has been set up at Combat Army 

Aviation Training School (CATS). It is expected to reduce substantial 

cost in training and also to reduce pilot risk during training. The 

simulator is designed to expose the trainee to different weather 

conditions like snow,rain,storm and different terrains in addition to 

night flying training in handling emergencies, tactical handling of the 

flying machine, its different maneuvers and more. The project to install a simulator was proposed in December 2000 

and approved in April 2002, with CATS Nashik chosen as the centre for installation. Macmet Technologies Ltd, who 

won the bid over Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), completed the project by 2005 at a cost of Rs 16.26 crore. 

After stringent checks, the facility was accepted by the Army in December 2005. 




Dhruv performing some aerobatic maneuvers in 
Aero India 2009. 




HAL Dhruv with BMP-2 and Stryker IFVs. 



Future 

The army is currently evaluating helicopters from Kamov, Eurocopter 
and AgustaWestland for the 197 light helicopter contract for lifting 
supplies for the troops stationed at high altitudes. Reports suggest that 
Augusta Westland is out of the competition as they brought a civilian 
version instead of a military version for the trials. While both Kamov 
and Eurocopter are said to be performing equally well in the trials, the 
window is still open as no clear winner has emerged. Sources said that 
Augusta Westland would be informed about the reason for their 
disqualification. After the summer trials, the Army will prepare a 
detailed technical report on the performance of the two machines that 
will be considered by the MoD. 

As on 19 May 2010 the Indian Defence Ministry is expected to yet 
again cancel the tender for acquiring 197 reconnaissance and 
surveillance helicopters for the Indian Army, due to certain 
inconsistencies in the recent trials. 

Although the cancellation of the tender for 197 helicopters is not 

confirmed, it seems the Indian Defence Ministry has noted certain 

shortcomings in the trials of the choppers. The Indian Defence 

Ministry had earlier cancelled the same tender in December 2007 and 

re-issued a fresh one in July 2008. The Indian Defence Ministry had earlier cited that the reason for the cancellation 

of the tender in 2007 was due to the lack of adherence of the bidders to the formulated guidelines. 




Army Aviation Corps (India) 



229 



In the earlier cancellation of the tender, the Indian Defence Ministry 
had cited the deviations that occurred from its requirements and 
guidelines. The tenders were sent to Russian Rosoboronexport (ROE) 
for Kamovs, Bell and Sikorsky from US, European consortium's 
EADS' Eurocopter and Anglo-Italian Agusta Westland, but only 
Eurocopter, ROE and Augusta Westland qualified for trials. 

The helicopter model offered by Eurocopter was unable to perform 
high altitude ho ver-out-of- ground-effect (HOGE). The problem with 
ROE's Kamov was that the engine to be fitted on Kamov 226T will be 
Arrius 2G1 which is not yet certified. While Agusta Westland was 
facing serious problems due to some misunderstanding over some classification issue with the Defence Ministry. 

The $750 million deal for the 197 helicopters for the defence forces aims to replace the aging 1970s vintage Chetak 
and Cheetah helicopters and will be for high altitude, surveillance and logistics. The successful bidder will provide 
60 helicopters in a flyaway condition, while the remaining 137 aircraft will be licence-produced by Hindustan 
Aeronautics Limited (HAL). Under the offsets clause, the winning bidder must also invest at least 30% of the 
contracted cost in India 




Rustom-l UAV 



[3] 



The army is also planning to acquire HAL Light Combat Helicopter, which is under-development by the Hindustan 
Aeronautics Limited to meet its requirements for an attack helicopter which can operate at high altitude( 16,300 feet) 
to fit into an anti-armour and anti-infantry role. Army is also planning to acquire a 3-tonne single-engine HAL Light 
Observation Helicopter which is also under-development for recce and observation role. As of 2007 the Army 

Ml 

Aviation Corps modernisation plans were: 

• Reconnaissance and Surveillance Helicopters - HAL Dhruv will replace the existing fleet of Cheetah / Chetak 
helicopters. While some helicopters will be procured as 'Buy' category, others will be 'Designed and Developed' 
by HAL as 'Make' category. RFP for the former has been issued and the procurement was likely to commence 
soon. 

• Armed Helicopters - Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH)-weapon system Integrated are being developed by HAL. 
Integration of weapon systems on the ALH is already under way including test firing of weapons. The helicopter 
was to be ready for first flight by 2009. 

• Tactical Battle Support Helicopter - This is being developed as a tri-services project by HAL. The helicopter will 
be called Indian Multi Role Helicopter. By 2007 the procurement process had already has been "set into motion" 
for Battle Support helicopters. These machines should be capable of carrying 10 - 12 men into the battlefield. 

• Spl Ops Squadron - A Spl Ops Squadron is being raised to provide dedicated integral aviation support to the Para 
Commandos (India). 

• Heliborne Early-Warning Flight - Raising of a Heliborne EarlyWarning flight has been planned to optimally 
exploit the third dimension to enhance the reach and potency of Electronic Warfare effort. 

• Light Fixed Wing Aircraft - The Army is also planning to induct light fixed-wing aircraft in future for 
surveillance and communication tasks. 



Army Aviation Corps (India) 230 

References 

[1] OrBat India - MilAvia Press.com: Military Aviation Publications (http://www.milaviapress.com/orbat/india/index.php) 

[2] :: Bharat-Rakshak.com - Indian Military News Headlines :: (http://bharat-rakshak.com/NEWS/newsrf.php?newsid=12885) 

[3] :: Bharat-Rakshak.com - Indian Military News Headlines :: (http://bharat-rakshak.com/NEWS/newsrf.php?newsid=12918) 

[4] Army Aviation Corps (http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/army-av.htm) 

External links 

• Army Aviation Corps(India) (http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/ARMY/Corps-AAC.html/) 

• Army Aviation-A Force Multiplier (http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/ARMY/Articles/Article24.html/) 



231 



Territorial Army 



Territorial Army (India) 



The Territorial Army in India (commonly referred to as TA in India) is an organization of volunteers who receive 
military training for a few days in a year so that in case of an emergency they can be mobilized for the defence of the 
country. 

It is a second line of defense after the Regular Indian Army; the Indian Territorial Army is not a profession, 
occupation or a source of employment. It is only meant for those people who are already in mainstay civilian 
professions, in fact, gainful employment or self-employment in a civil profession is a pre-requisite for joining the 
Territorial Army. 

History 

The Indian Defence Force, incorporating Europeans and Indians in separate sections, was formed by the British in 
1917. It was replaced by the Auxiliary Force (India) (for Europeans and Eurasians) and the Indian Territorial Force 
(for Indians) in 1920. 

The modern Territorial Army was formally inaugurated by the first Indian Governor General Shri C. 
Rajagopalachari on October 9, 1949 after the Independence Territorial Army Act was passed in 1948. October 9 is 
celebrated as Prime Minister's Territorial Army Day Parade. 

The Territorial Army initially had various types of units such as armoured regiments, infantry battalions, air defence, 
medical regiments, engineers field park companies, signal regiments, EME workshops, coast batteries, ASC GT 
Coy, ASC Compo PI, and AMC field ambulances. By 1972 these units were either disbanded or converted to 
Regular Army units with the exception of infantry battalions. 

Territorial Army units were actively involved in military operations in 1962, 1965 and 1971 . The "Terriers" have 
also taken part in Operation Pawan in Srilanka, Operation Rakshak in Punjab & J&K, Operation Rhino and 
Operation Bajrang in the North East. Departmental units came to the aid of the civil authorities during industrial 
unrest and natural calamities, most famous being earthquake in Latoor (Maharastra), Uttarkashi in Garhwal 
Himalaya and the super cyclone in Orissa. The Ecological units have arrested man made environmental degradation 
by planting 2.5 crore trees over 20,000 hectare of land in Mussoori Hills & Pithoragarh (Uttarakhand), Bikaner & 
Jaisalmer (Rajasthan) and ravines of Chambal in Madhya Pradesh. 

Force structure 

The Territorial Army is part of the regular Indian Army. The present role of the Territorial Army is to relieve the 
Regular Army from static duties and assist civil administration in dealing with natural calamities and maintenance of 
essential services in situations where life of the communities is affected or the security of the country is threatened, 
and to provide units for the Regular Army as and when required. Presently the Territorial Army has a strength of 
approximately 40,000 first line troops (and 160,000 second line troops) comprising departmental Territorial Army 
units such as Railway, IOC, ONGC, Telecommunication and General Hospital, and the non Departmental Territorial 
Army units of Infantry Battalion and Ecological Battalion affiliated to various Infantry Regiments. 



Territorial Army (India) 232 

Training 

Infantry training is carried out on urban and provincial systems. 
Urban systems of training 

• Recruit Training: Training is carried out on weekends and holidays. Four hours of training is counted as one day. 
Thirty-two days in the first year only including a camp of not less than four days if the trainee volunteers with the 
written consent of his employer, if any. 

• Annual Training: A minimum of thirty days, with extensions up to a maximum of sixty days including a camp for 
fourteen days. 

• Post Commission Training: All Officers are required to undergo ten weeks of Post commission training within 
two years of their commissioning. 

• Voluntary training to gain additional military training, provided the trainee Volunteers with the written consent of 
the employer, if any. 

Provincial systems of training 

• Recruit Training: For a continuous period of thirty days in the first year only. 

• Annual Training: For a continuous period of two calendar months in the first and subsequent years. 

• Post commission Training: Officers receive ten weeks of compulsory post commission training within two years 
of commissioning. 

• Voluntary Training to gain additional military training, provided the trainee volunteers with the written consent of 
his employer, if any. 

Notable Members 

Many famous Indians have been members of this unique force, including Brigadier K P Singh Deo, former Cabinet 
Minister; Captain Rao Birender Singh, former Chief Minister of the State of Haryana; Subir Raha, former Chairman, 
ONGC; Padam Shree, Brigadier ( Retd ) Dr. Kapil Mohan V.S.M. PhD Managing Director, Mohan Meakin 
Breweries and various present ministers, legislators, senior civil officers and professionals. 

Muthukrishnan Iyyappan, commissioned in 1999 was the first officer of the Territorial Army to be permanently 
seconded to the regular army. He joined the 3rd battalion of 8 Gorkha Rifles and served a tenure at the Siachen 
Glacier - again the first officer of Territorial Army to serve in the Siachen Glacier. Capt. Muthukrishnan Iyyappan 
was also the first officer of the Territorial Army to be posted at the Defense Services Staff College where he was the 
Officer Commanding - Troops during 1999-2000.. 

Navdeep Singh, a lawyer, is known to have received the highest number of decorations/awards in the Territorial 
Army. Major Vishal Bakshi, Chairman of VR Industries, was awarded with the Vishisht Seva Medal, on Republic 
Day, 2010. [2] 

Prof. Dr. Deepak Rao, a military trainer, scientist, author, and physician is considered to be an authority in the field 
of Close Quarter Battle training. He has been conferred an Honorary Rank of Major in the Territorial Army after 
17 years of imparting special Close Quarter Battle commando training to the armed forces. He serves as the 
Executive Director of the Unarmed & Commando Combat Academy and has been appointed as Resource Personnel 
for imparting training in Close Quarter Battle by the Ministry of Home Affairs, India. 

On 1 Nov, 2011 Mahendra Singh Dhoni and Abhinav Bindra has also been awarded the rank of Lt. Colonel in 
Territorial Army for their contribution in the field of cricket and shooting respectively 

ro] 

Mechanical Engineer from SCRA 96 Batch. Prashant Kumar Singh, posted as Deputy Chief Mechanical Engineer 
at Carriage & Wagon Workshop, Alambagh represented Indian Railways TA at Rastrapati Bhawan Captain 
Prashant Kumar Singh participated and presented the tableau from Railway's side in Prime minister's Territorial 



Territorial Army (India) 233 

Army Day parade on October 4 in Parade Ground Delhi. He is the only officer to have received the General Manager 
Railway Award on the recommendation of Territorial Army. He represented Indian Railway Territorial Army before 
the President of India, Pratibha Devi Singh Patil, at the 'Calling On the President' that was held at Rashtrapati 
Bhawanon 13.10.2011. 

Honorary Officers 

• Kapil Dev joined the Territorial Army on September 24, 2008 and was commissioned as an Hon. Lieutenant 
Colonel [11][12] . 

• 'Mohanlal joined Territorial Army as Hon. Lieutenant Colonel on 9 July 2009 - the army announced his 
appointment in December 2008. He is the first and only actor who have been conferred this title. His role in two 

films, Keerthichakra and Kurukshetra (2008 film), as an army member,led to his interest in the army and he 

ri3i 
voluntarily joined the Territorial Army. 

• Deepak Rao was commissioned into the Para TA Regiment with the Hon. Rank of Major by the President of 
India on 1 Nov 201 1 for his contribution of 17 years in modernization of Close Quarter Battle for the 
Indian Army. He serves as the Executive Director of the Unarmed & Commando Combat Academy and has 
also been appointed as Resource Person for imparting training in Close Quarter Battle by the Ministry of Home 
Affairs, India. 

• Mahendra Singh Dhoni and Abhinav Bindra were conferred the rank of (Hony) Lt Col for their contribution in 
the field of cricket and shooting respectively. 

References 

[I] http://indianarmy.nic.in/ta/index_ta.htm 

[2] http://www.hindu.com/2010/01/26/stories/2010012659920300.htm 

[3] http://www.firstpost.com/fwire/army-to-confer-lt-col-rank-upon-dhoni-bindra-120146.html 

[4] http://www.rediff.com/news/slide-show/slide-show-l-army-to-confer-lt-col-rank-upon-bindra-dhoni/20111031.htm 

[5] http://blackbeltcombat.tripod.com/idl49.html 

[6] http://www.firstpost.com/fwire/army-to-confer-lt-col-rank-upon-dhoni-bindra-120146.html 

[7] http://www.rediff.com/news/slide-show/slide-show-l-army-to-confer-lt-col-rank-upon-bindra-dhoni/20111031.htm 

[8] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special_Class_Railway_Apprentice 

[9] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alambagh 

[10] http://irsme.nic. in/show_personal_news.asp?stringl=24 

[II] http://www.rediff.com/cricket/2008/sep/24kapil.htm 

[12] http://www.dailypioneer.com/indexnl2.asp?main_variable=front%5Fpage&file_name=story6%2Etxt&counter_img=6 

[13] http://ibnlive.in.com/news/mohanlal-wants-to-join-territorial-army/77204-8.html 

[14] http://www.rediff.com/news/slide-show/slide-show-l-army-to-confer-lt-col-rank-upon-bindra-dhoni/20111031.htm 

[15] http://www.firstpost.com/fwire/army-to-confer-lt-col-rank-upon-dhoni-bindra-120146.html 

[16] http://blackbeltcombat.tripod.com/idl37.html 

[17] http://blackbeltcombat.tripod.com/idl49.html 

[18] http://www.rediff.com/news/slide-show/slide-show-l-army-to-confer-lt-col-rank-upon-bindra-dhoni/20111031.htm 

[19] http://www.firstpost.com/fwire/army-to-confer-lt-col-rank-upon-dhoni-bindra-120146.html 

• http://www.rediff.com/movies/2008/dec/15mohanlal-to-become-lt-col.htm 



Territorial Army (India) 234 

External links 

• http://www. bharat-rakshak.com/LAND-FORCES/index. php?page=shop.browse&category_id=22& 
option=com_virtuemart&Itemid=26&vmcchk=l&Itemid=26 

• http://indianarmy.nic.in/ta/index_ta.htm The official website of the Territorial Army in India 

• http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/ta.htm 

• http://mod.nic.in/samachar/17/html/chl 1. htm An article in Sainik samachar about Territorial Army 
evolution 

• http ://india. go v . in/sectors/de fence/ territorial_army .php 

Video 

• Territorial Army parade (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q3kkNi5pI0c) 



Services 



235 



Corps of Military Police (India) 



The Corps of Military Police (CMP) is the military police of the 
Indian Army. In addition, the CMP is trained to handle prisoners of 
war and to regulate traffic, as well as to handle basic 
telecommunication equipment such as telephone exchanges. They can 
be identified by their red berets, white lanyards and belts, and they also 
wear a black brassard with the letters "MP" imprinted in red. 

The term 'red berets' is synonymous with the personnel of the elite 
Corps of Military Police (CMP), since all ranks of this Corps adorn the 
exclusive red berets along with white belts to distinguish themselves 
from other Corps of Army. The role of this Corps is primarily to assist 
Army formations in maintaining a high standard of discipline of its 
troops, prevent breaches of various rules and regulations and to assist 
in the preservation of high morale of all ranks of the formation. 




India's Corps of Military Police (India) personnel 

patrolling the Wagah border crossing in the 

Punjab in a Maruti Gypsy. 



External links 

• Official website of the Indian Army 

References 



[1] http://indianarmy.nic.in 



Military Nursing Service (India) 236 



Military Nursing Service (India) 



The Indian Military Nursing Service is a corps or regiment of the Indian Army, first formed when under British 
rule in 1881. 

History 

First World War 

The Military Nursing Service Indian Army has its origin from the Army Nursing Service formed in 1881 part of the 
British Army. The force went through many changes in its 126 years of glorious existence. In 1893, it was 
designated as Indian Army Nursing Service. The force went through further changes in 1902, when the Indian 
Nursing Service and the Army Nursing Service were combined and on 27 March 1902, it was redesignated to Queen 
Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing Service [1]. At the outbreak of world war in 1914 there were just fewer than 
300 nurses in the QAIMNS, by the end of the war this had raised to 10,404. The Army nurses served in Flanders, the 
Mediterranean, the Balkans, the Middle East and onboard hospital ships. Of the 200 plus army nurses died on active 
service, many were Indians. After, the war on 1st Octoberl926, the Nursing Services was granted permanent status 
in Indian Army. This date is formally recognised as the formation day of Military Nursing Service, though in actual 
its origins occurred 45 five years before (many Corps of the Army, including Army Medical Corps [2] traces its 
origin to more than hundreds of years back in the similar way, though they were actually formed after 
independence). 

Second World War 

With the outbreak of second world war, nurses once again found themselves serving all over the world, including 
Singapore, Burma, Italy, Mesopotamia, Ceylon, Egypt and Western Africa. The changing working conditions and 
wartime shortages led to changes in uniform. Khaki slacks and battledress blouses replaced the grey and scarlet ward 
dress and rank insignia was adopted to signify the officer status of the nurses. In the Far East, the fall of Hong Kong 
and Singapore led to many army nurses (including Indian) being captured by the Japanese and endured terrible 
hardships and deprivations of the Far East prisoner-of-war camps. During the middle of the war in 1943, the Indian 
arm of the Nursing Services was separated through Indian Military Nursing Service Ordinance, 1943 and 
redesignated it, thereby constituting the Military Nursing Service (MNS) in its present form. 

The Officers of the Military Nursing Service are governed by Indian Military Nursing Service Ordinance 1943 and 
Military Nursing Service Rules, 1944. The Section 5 of the ordinance provides that, all members of the Indian 
Military Nursing Service shall be of commissioned rank and shall be appointed as officers of the Indian Military 
Nursing Service by the Central Government by notification in the Official Gazette. The Nursing Service Officers are 
also subject to Army Act 1950, Army Rules 1954, Defence Service Regulations and various Government Orders, 
Army Instructions, Army Orders, issued from time to time. 

The Military Nursing Service stands out as one of the oldest services where women have contributed directly to the 
nation's war effort by providing care to the sick and wounded soldiers. This is also true for all the armed forces of the 
world. The army nurses have made a permanent place in every Nation's heart by nursing millions of sick and 
wounded soldiers back to health. The Officers of Military Nursing Service had distinguished themselves in the 
Second World War, through the care of the sick and wounded soldiers in India and also at many foreign theatres of 
war. Post independence, the Nursing Officers cared for the wounded soldiers in five major bloody conflicts with the 
neighboring countries. Many Soldiers injured in encounters with militants in terrorism strafed North and North 
Eastern states owes their life to these brave women who were forced to remain in the shadows. 



Military Nursing Service (India) 237 

Post Independence 

Now, the Military Nursing Service is an integral part of the Armed Forces Medical Services (AFMS)[3]. The AFMS 
consists of Army Medical Corps (AMC), Army Dental Corps [4] (ADC) and Military Nursing Service (MNS). The 
AFMS personnel serve in the medical establishments of Army, Navy and Air Force. Among the three, the AMC 
occupies the proud of the place. The Military Nursing Service was treated as under dogs since the inception of 
AFMS in 1948 (the AMC and ADC are more or less equally positioned, though most of the cream appointments in 
AFMS are occupied by AMC). However, they have silently endured the negative changes happened around them in 
the armed forces (being actively encouraged by AMC) and so far rendered glorious service to the armed forces and 
nation by delivering the best nursing care in the Country. The mission of MNS is 'Excellence in Patient Care' both in 
war and peace, which is pursued with utmost fervor, zeal and zest. After the independence, the Officers of MNS 
have not only served in India but have also played a vital role in United Nations peace keeping missions abroad in 
UN missions to Lebanon, Cambodia, Somalia and scores of other Nations. Many of such missions are still active. 

Milestones 

Recently, they had been a part of the Medical team, which was sent to Iran to give medical cover to the wounded in a 
devastating earthquake, which struck Bam in Iran. Their professional capabilities have been highly recognized and 
appreciated by all (even by the Army Doctors!). They have received a number of distinguished service medals and 
other military recognitions. Apart from the professional activities, MNS Officers have also participated in sports and 
adventure activities at National and International levels. An MNS Major won a gold medal in shooting in the last 
Common Wealth Games. 

Rank Structure 

The various ranks of the Military Nursing Service are listed below in descending order: Commissioned Officers 

• Major-General 

• Brigadier 

• Colonel 

• Lieutenant-Colonel 

• Major 

• Captain 

• Lieutenant 

Presently there are no personnel below officer rank (PBOR) in Military Nursing Service as the other nursing 
personnel such as Nursing Assistants, Ambulance assistant, Stretcher Bearer etc. are part of Army Medical Corps. 

Relevant Provisions of Military Law 
Indian Military Nursing Service Ordinance, 1943 

The Military Nursing Service was formally established in the present form through the Indian Military Nursing 
Service Ordinance, 1943. The Section 5 of the ordinance ordained that, all members of the Indian Military Nursing 
Service shall be of commissioned rank and shall be appointed as officers of the Indian Military Nursing Service by 
the Central Government by notification in the Official Gazette. The Section 9(1) provides that provisions of the 
Indian Army Act, 1911 (now Army Act 1950), shall, to such extent and subject to such adaptations and 
modifications as may be prescribed, apply to Officers of the Indian Military Nursing Service as they apply to Indian 
commissioned officers, unless they are clearly inapplicable to women. The modifications and adaptations of the 
Indian Army Act 1911, as applicable to Officers of Indian Military Nursing Service were published in the War 
Department notification no. 923 dated 13 Jun 1944. After the independence of our country, through a special gazette 



Military Nursing Service (India) 238 

of India notification, the Army Act 1950 was subsequently made applicable to the Officers of Military Nursing 
Service with suitable modification and adaptation. These adaptations and modifications are contained in Army Order 
197/59. These modifications and adaptations of Army Act, 1950 are only pertaining to Military Offences, otherwise, 
the rest of the Army Act in its entirety is applicable to MNS Officers. The Sections of Army Act dealing with 
offences (at that time) were modified for the Military Nursing Service, because it was constituted as an all women 
force. The Nursing Service Officers were the only women serving in the Indian armed forces during the Second 
World War. 

Military Nursing Service (India) Rules, 1944 

The Central Government, under the powers conferred by Section 10 of Indian Military Nursing Service Ordinance, 
1943, framed the Military Nursing Service (India) Rules, 1944. The Rule 3(a) lays down that the provisions of the 
Indian Army Act, 1911, shall apply to officers of the Nursing Services mentioned in Sub Section 1 of Section 9 of 
the Ordinance, as if they were Indian Commissioned Officers, and Sub Rule (b) stipulates that, the provisions of the 
Army Act shall apply to officers of the Nursing Service mentioned in Sub Section (2) of the said Section, as if they 
were Officers of the Regular Forces. The Rules 5 and 6 gives the specific adaptations and modification as ordained 
in Section 9(1) of the Ordinance. As a whole, the Rules lay down the modalities for the implementation of the 
Ordinance. 

Army Act, 1950 and Rules 1954 

The Army Act, 1950 is applicable to the Officers of Nursing Services, with some exceptions to certain sections, 
which are from Section 34 to 70 dealing with offences. Of the provisions of the Army Act dealing with offences, 
only Section 39 - Absence without leave and Section 63 - Violation of good order and discipline shall apply to 
offences committed by Officers of Nursing Services. The Army Rule, 1954, in its entirety is applicable to Officers of 
Nursing Services. The Rule 16A lays down the authority for release of Officers from Nursing Services. The Rule 
16A: Retirement of officers. — (1) Officers shall be retired from service under the orders of the Central 
Government, or the authorities specified in sub-rule (2), with effect from the afternoon of the last date of the month 
in which they — (a) Attain the age limits specified in sub-rule (5);or (b) Complete the tenures of appointment 
specified in sub-rule 5 (f) (ii) and (g) (ii) and sub-rule (6), whichever is earlier.(2) The authorities referred to in 
sub-rule (1) shall be — (a) The Director-General, Armed Forces Medical Services in respect of officers of the Army 
Medical Corps, Army Dental Corps and Military Nursing Service; 

Defence Service Regulations & Other Rules 

The Officers of Nursing Services are governed by Defence Service Regulations - Regulations for the Army 1987, 
various Government Orders, Army Instructions and Army Orders. The Defence Service Regulations - Regulations 
for the Army (DSR), Para 733 (b) ordained that women officers serving in the Army Medical Corps and officers in 
the Military Nursing Service will rank equally with male officers of the same titular rank The Army Rank was 
granted to Nursing Officers by Army Instruction 4/59. They are entitled to salute and other compliments as laid 
down in Army Order 353/73. The Army Order 70/73 lays down that, persons subject to Army Act who are placed 
under the professional care of officers of the Military Nursing Service shall obey and comply with professional 
orders and direction of such Nursing Officers. They shall be liable to be punished for non-compliance of such orders, 
under Section 63 of Army Act, 1950 for violation of good order and discipline. The pay and allowances of Officers 
of Nursing Services are as per the government orders issued from time to time. The Army Order 1 1/82 lays down the 
order of precedence of Military Nursing Service in the hierarchy of the Arms and Services of the Army. The DSR, 
Vol - I Para 235, assigns ADGMNS (Additional Director General MNS - held by an Officer of Major General 
rank), the duty of technical advisor to DGAFMS, DGMS (Army), DGMS (Navy) and DGMS (Air Force). Further, 
the DSR, Vol — I, Para 242 (read with Para 243, 247, 250 and 251) lays down that, all Nursing Officers in charges of 



Military Nursing Service (India) 239 

wards and departments are responsible only to the Principal Matron of the Military (including Navy and Air Force) 
Hospital (Medical Establishment). 

References: 

1. Military Nursing Service Ordinance, 1943 

2. Military Nursing Service Rules, 1944 

3. Army Act, 1950 

4. Army Rules, 1954 

5. Defence Service Regulations (Regulations for the Army) 

6. Law Governing the Armed Forces (Rekha Choudhary & Nilendra Kumar) 

7. Gazette of India Part IV notifications 

8. Report of Parliament Standing Committee on Defence, 2006 

9. Geneva Convention, 1949 

10. Ten member committee report on grievances of MNS Officers 
1 1 PIB on parliament questions 

12. Sainik Samachar, September 16 — 30, 2006 

13. Number of web sites on Army Nurse Corps/ Medical Corps of the other countries on Internet. 

14. Joint Services Staff Duties Manual (JSSD) Vol-II 

15. Certain letters originated within AFMS 

[5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] 

References 

[I] http://www.qaranc.co.uk/ 

[2] http://indianarmy.nic.in/arms/index_amc.htm 

[3] http://indianarmy.nic.in/dgafms/index.htm 

[4] http://www.indianarmy.gov.in/army_dental_corps/heritage4.htm 

[5] 1. Military Nursing Service Ordinance, 1943 

[6] 2. Military Nursing Service Rules, 1944 

[7] 3. Army Act, 1950 

[8] 4. Army Rules, 1954 

[9] 5. Defence Service Regulations (Regulations for the Army) 

[10] 6. Law Governing the Armed Forces (Rekha Choudhary & Nilendra Kumar) 

[II] 7. Gazette of India Part IV notifications 

[12] 8. Report of Parliament Standing Committee on Defence, 2006 

[13] 9. Geneva Convention, 1949 

[14] 10. Ten member committee report on grievances of MNS Officers 

[15] 11 PIB on parliament questions 

[16] 12. Sainik Samachar, September 16 — 30, 2006 

[17] 13. Number of web sites on Army Nurse Corps/ Medical Corps of the other countries on Internet. 

[18] 14Joint Services Staff Duties Manual (JSSD) Vol-II 

[19] 15. Certain letters originated within AFMS 

External links 

• Official website (http://indianarmy.nic.in/) 



Article Sources and Contributors 240 

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Parachute Regiment Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php'?oldid=4737 18763 Contributors: Boleyn3, DexDor, Hammersfan, Hippo43, Jpfagerback, Klemen Kocjancic, Max rspct, Mild 
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Rajputana Rifles Source: http: //en. wiki pedia.org/ w/index.php?oldid=48 1895793 Contributors: Ajay ijn, Aldis90, Arthena, AustralianRupert, Buckshot06, Caerwine, Crusoe8181, DBigXray, 
Dimadick, Drmies, Erebus555, ErikHaugen, Hammersfan, Hemanshu, Hstjw, Idleguy, IndianGeneralist, Jargonash, Jim Sweeney, John of Reading, Kedar Borhade, Kirrages, MER-C, MisfitToys : 
Mks86, Mskadu, Nick. passion, Nickk. writer, Nikhil78, PassionApple, Peter. kopec ek, Pranav21391, RJASE1, Rakeshsharma, Rama's Arrow, Shyamsunder, Simfan934, Skud, SoLando, Trugster, 
Vianello, Vikas duhan, Vstata, Werdan7, 27 anonymous edits 

Rajput Regiment Source : http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php'?oldid=45669641 1 Contributors: Ajay ijn, Aldis90, Atulsnischal, Barastert, Bidur Dhaul, Blaawan, Bobblehead, Bobol92, 
Buckshot06, Chanakyathegreat, Dana boomer, DuncanHill, Everyking, Fieldday-sunday, Fratrep, GoingBatty, GraemeLeggett, Gurkhaboy, HFret, Hammersfan, JaGa, Jim Sweeney, Kirrages, 
Leutha, MER-C, Mattisse, Mikeslackenerny, Nick Number, Nmabhinandan, Premlotlikar, RJASE1, Rakeshsharma, Ricky J234, Rjwilmsi, Rorkadian, Sadads, Sardanaphalus, Shyamsunder, 
Sumitkachroo, Thiseye, Vstata, Wundermac, YUL89YYZ, Yvhlla, 27 anonymous edits 

Jat Regiment Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=493914787 Contributors: ltruthsoul, Abstruce, Ahoerstemeier, Ajay ijn, Aldis90, Aliali3303, Angr, AustralianRupert, 
Buckshot06, Cmdrjameson, Dominic, Duk, Fluffy WhiteCat, Fratrep, Garzo, Guptadeepak, Hammersfan, Hmains, JMRAMOS0109, JaGa, James smith2, Jasmeetsinghsekhon, JessBr, Jim 
Sweeney, John of Reading, King-Rishab, Klemen Kocjancic, LRBurdak, Last Emperor, Lerdthenerd, LordVinl, MToje, Manxruler, Nmabhinandan, Npeters22, Phantomsteve, Philip Trueman, 
RJASE1, Rakeshsharma, Ravi Chaudhary, Riana, Ricky81682, Rjwilmsi, Rsrikanth05, SamuelTheGhost, Siddiqui, Sitush, SpacemanSpiff, Spartian, Stickee, T-borg, Travelbird, Tristan benedict, 
Trv93, Weekday schedule, Woohookitty, Yorkist, 79 anonymous edits 



Article Sources and Contributors 241 

Sikh Regiment Source: http://en. wikipedia. org/w/index.php7oldid=490789581 Contributors: Acs4b, Aldis90, BDerrly, Benjaminwl, Bhadani, BigBen212, Biglovinb, British Raja, Buckshot06, 
Chandruvee, Cmdrjameson, Colonies Chris, Dorieo21, DuncanHill, EoGuy, Epeeist smudge, Fatbuu, Fxd25, GTBacchus, Gaius Cornelius, Glacialfox, Good Olfactory, GraemeLeggett, Ground 
Zero, Hammersfan, Harisimran S Sandhu, Historian info, JHackert, Jack Porter, Jangvijay, Jarryl250, Jas.nanda, Jim Sweeney, John of Reading, Jon Ascton, Josephabradshaw, Joshuadowney, 
Joyson Prabhu, KhanilOO, Kirill Lokshin, LilHelpa, LizGere, MER-C, Mark83, Mislerconginialtastical, Mks86, Mskadu, Msp4realmf, Necrothesp, Nick Number, Night of the Big Wind, 
Nirvana888, Nmabhinandan, Nv8200p, Ominae, Pakowal, Peter johnson4, PhnomPencil, Pranav21391, R'n'B, Rakeshsharma, Relata refero, Rich Farmbrough, Rorro, Rwalker, Sam Hocevar, 
Sandhuman, SchreiberBike, Sikh-history, Slon02, Stud jatt, Sunray, This user has left wikipedia, Utcursch, Venika, Vstata, Wizmo, Woohookitty, Zscout370, 204 anonymous edits 

Sikh Light Infantry Source: http: //en. wikipedia. org/ w/index.php'?oldid=4828 87 3 90 Contributors: Ahoerstemeier, Bal537, Buckshot06, Chanakyathegreat, Chris the speller, Colvktalwar, 
EmanWilm, Eugene-elgato, Good Olfactory, GraemeLeggett, Ground Zero, Hammersfan, HitroMilanese, Jack Porter, JamesBWatson, Jim Sweeney, KelleyCook, Lahiru k, LilHelpa, LindsayH, 
Littleboy58, MER-C, Mboverload, Msp4realmf, Nick Number, Niteout, NuclearUmpf, Pakowal, Pranav21391, Premlotlikar, Profitoftruth85, R'n'B, Ravinderl21, Risingstarl2, Rjwilmsi, 
Rmky87, Sikh-history, Smith012, Stud jatt, Thisthat201 1, Woohookitty, Xdamr, A, 40 anonymous edits 

Dogra Regiment Source: http://en.wikipedia.Org/w/index.php7oldid =48 1895008 Contributors: Ajay ijn, Aldis90, Buckshot06, DBigXray, Dwight83, Hammersfan, Jaraalbe, Jim Sweeney, 
MER-C, Nmabhinandan, Pranav21391, Quale, RJASE1, Rakeshsharma, Rueben lys, Sadads, SoLando, Tristan benedict, Vinay84, Vstata, WALTHAM2, 14 anonymous edits 

The Garhwal Rifles Source: http://en.wikipedia.Org/w/index.php7oldid =493689352 Contributors: Ajay ijn, Aldis90, Aspuar, AustralianRupert, Avicennasis, BirgitteSB, Buckshot06, Celique, 
Damiens.rf, Darklilac, Demophon, Ekabhishek, EoGuy, Euchiasmus, Eugene-elgato, Gaius Cornelius, Giraffedata, GraemeLeggett, Hammersfan, IndianGeneralist, Iridescent, J04n, 
JMRAMOS0109, JaGa, Jackl956, Joyl963, Lightmouse, LilHelpa, MER-C, Mandarax, Manuj.negi, MatthewVanitas, Mboverload, Moonraker, Orenburgl, PMLawrence, Pahari Sahib, 
Pinethicket, Pranav21391, Premlotlikar, R'n'B, Rakeshsharma, Samseng78, Sarath628, Serein (renamed because of SUL), Slylenser, THemant Rawat, Tarbooj, Tassedethe, Thegarhwalis, 
Tribhuwan, Tristan benedict, Tychocat, Utcursch, Vinay84, Vstata, Welsh, Woohookitty, Wyatt915, Yorkist, 163 anonymous edits 

Kumaon Regiment Source: http://en. wikipedia. org/w/index.php7oldid=48601 1377 Contributors: Ajay ijn, Aldis90, Alren, Amalas, AustralianRupert, BD2412, Berkshire, Buckshot06, Cjrother, 
Dcbisht, Deepak Sunariya, Dimadick, Ekabhishek, Euchiasmus, Garybel, GraemeLeggett, GreatWhiteNortherner, Hammersfan, Hul2, Hugo999, Imdabs, IndianGeneralist, Jim Sweeney, John of 
Reading, Jonathan O'Donnell, Kalikumaun, Kausis, Mkeranat, Mystic. varun, Niceguyedc, NielsenGW, PMDrivel061, Paharithree nine, Penalba2000, Pranav21391, R'n'B, RJASE1, 
Rakeshsharma, Reuben. cornel, Rl, RoslynSKP, Safemariner, Sidcool6, Skapur, Skcpublic, Skysmith, TJRC, Tribhuwan, Tristan benedict, Utcursch, Vinay84, Vkumarzone, Vstata, Wilhelmina 
Will, 42 anonymous edits 

Jammu & Kashmir Rifles Source: http://e11.wikipedia.0rg/w/index. php?oldid=472709147 Contributors: Ahoerstemeier, Ajay ijn, Bryan Derksen, Buckshot06, Dimadick, Eumolpo, 
Hammersfan, Hmains, Idleguy, J04n, JamesAM, Jaraalbe, LordVinl, Pranav21391, Rama, Rich Farmbrough, Sarkar2, Sitush, Skyring, TheObtuseAngleOfDoom, Uriber, 12 anonymous edits 

Jammu and Kashmir Light Infantry Source: http://en. wikipedia. org/w/index.php7oldid=487520558 Contributors: Ajay ijn, Aspuar, Barticus88, Buckshot06, Dogaroon, Hammersfan, 
Kerowyn, Materialscientist, Mountainsands, Nick Number, Pol098, Pranav21391, Skcpublic, Woohookitty, 14 anonymous edits 

Assam Regiment Source: http://en.wikipedia.Org/w/index.php7oldid =490089202 Contributors: Ajay ijn, Aldis90, Bethling, Buckshot06, Ched Davis, Chris the speller, ChrisCork, D6, Deepraj, 
Degen Earthfast, Ekabhishek, EyeSerene, Fox4ben, Gryffon, Hammersfan, 128713, Jonathanvarunbenjamin, Namiba, Nv8200p, Pearle, PhnomPencil, Prashant2a, Premlotlikar, Rakeshsharma, 
Riana, Ser Amantio di Nicolao, Siamlawma, SridharlOO, Thiseye, WereSpielChequers, Woohookitty, 64 anonymous edits 

Mahar Regiment Source: http://en. wikipedia. org/w/index.php?oldid=493668447 Contributors: Ajay ijn, Ashwinikumarmore, Buckshot06, Chris the speller, Cmdrjameson, DaGizza, Dumelow, 
Fratrep, Gaius Cornelius, Ground Zero, Gurch, Hammersfan, Ikonoblast, Jim Sweeney, Kesangh, Klemen Kocjancic, Kunalthakar, MER-C, Magioladitis, MichaelMaggs, Pahari Sahib, 
Pranav21391, Rakeshsharma, Red Director, Rjwilmsi, Shantanu786, Spartiate, Vstata, WereSpielChequers, Woohookitty, 16 anonymous edits 

Mechanised Infantry Regiment Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=482229277 Contributors: A930913, Ajay ijn, AshLin, Buckshot06, DBigXray, Hammersfan, Jaraalbe, 
Nmabhinandan, Rakeshsharma. Signalhead, SoLando, Topbanana, 10 anonymous edits 

Naga Regiment Source: http://en. wikipedia. org/w/index.php?oldid=488000017 Contributors: Ajay ijn, Aldis90, Alexf, Bigevilreturns, Buckshot06, F.desert, Flamingkrug, Hammersfan, J04n, 
Jaraalbe, Kirill Lokshin, LeaHazel, Meaghan, PhilKnight, Pranav21391, RJASE1, Rakeshsharma, Rettetast, 11 anonymous edits 

The Ladakh Scouts Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=489343370 Contributors: Axeman89, Esiserva, Idlem, Mild Bill Hiccup, Pranav21391, Skcpublic, Utcursch, 3 
anonymous edits 

Assam Rifles Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=490342687 Contributors: AmanPuri, Amikake3, Armybrat, Ashish20, AustralianRupert, B. Mandal, Boolyme, Bsimmons666, 
Crusoe8 181, Dave 1 1 85, Der Eberswalder, Dimadick, Enviroboy, Faizhaider, Green Giant, Greenshed, Hammersfan, Hugo999, Jovianeye, Kaushal mehta, Krich, Kunalverma, LarryJeff, Lihaas, 
Logrithm, Mandarax, Necrothesp, Ninetyone, Nkcs, Philip Baird Shearer, Pranav21391, Prophetl21, Rambsunar, Rfcom, S Schaffter, Sardanaphalus, Shadowjams, Shovon76, Skcpublic, 
Skysmith, Sniperzl 1, SoLando, Srinivasasha, Stevenj, Sumanthesuman, Taketa, Terissn, Victor D, Woohookitty, Xuz, Z57N, 39 anonymous edits 

Indian Army Armoured Corps Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=485651870 Contributors: Aditya.yadav, Aldis90, AshLin, Auntof6, Bakheroo, Buckshot06, 
Desertcharioteer, Ekabhishek, Neddyseagoon, Oblivionisathand, Solarium2, Topbanana, Welsh, Woody, 1 1 anonymous edits 

President's Bodyguard (India) Source: http://en.wikipedia.0rg/w/index. php?oldid=492598230 Contributors: Amtiwari, AshLin, Buckshot06, BulbulS, Captain-tucker, Cecil, Chanakyathegreat, 
Cjrother, Colonies Chris, Emperor Genius, Garion96, Geoff Plourde, GoingBatty, Hammersfan, Khazar2, LilHelpa, Lt sumit, MER-C, Marshalll984, MarxOl, P64, Phantomsteve, R'n'B, Rath 
prashant, Snowforme, SoLando, Tom soldier, UltimaThule, Victor D, Vikas duhan, 30 anonymous edits 

1st Duke of York's Own Skinner's Horse Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=480665010 Contributors: Akkida, AshLin, Auntof6, Axeman89, Buckshot06, Cjrother, Dimadick, 
Ekabhishek, Giraffedata, GraemeLeggett, Hiimtod, James086, Jaraalbe, Jim Sweeney, JulesN, Kateshortforbob, KhanilOO, Kirrages, LilHelpa, Lotje, Necrothesp, Nick Number, Shiva (Visnu), 
Skysmith, Sundar, Tassedethe, Victorian Military Society, Vinay84, Yorkist, 6 anonymous edits 

2nd Lancers (Gardner's Horse) Source: http://en. wikipedia. org/w/index.php?oldid=490858016 Contributors: ColonelFogey, Dimadick, Fiachral0003, Gracefool, Greynose, Hamish59, 
Hugo999, Ironholds, Jaraalbe, Jim Sweeney, Kateshortforbob, Mboverload, Necrothesp, Ohconfucius, RASAM, Sassf, Stemonitis, Sus scrofa, Vasyatkal, Victorian Military Society, Vinay84, 
Woody, 4 anonymous edits 

3rd Cavalry Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=463621757 Contributors: Dark Mage, Esowteric, GraemeLeggett, Jim Sweeney, R'n'B, Symorsebrown, Tristan benedict, 
WereSpielChequers, 1 anonymous edits 

4th Duke of Cambridge's Own Hodson's Horse Source: http ://en. wikipedia. org/w/index.php?oldid=493 825 907 Contributors: Ahmerkhan, Ajji74, Amalas, Brat32, Buckshot06, CultureDrone, 
DJ Clayworth, Dimadick, Dv82matt, Fayenatic london, GraemeLeggett, Jim Sweeney, Lobsterthermidor, Minikaurl, Ohconfucius, Profitoftruth85 , Roger Davies, Skysmith, Tristan benedict, 
Varlaam, Woohookitty, Xn4, 15 anonymous edits 

7th Light Cavalry Source: http: //en. wikipedia. org/ w/index.php?oldid=47 3 67 0074 Contributors: AustralianRupert, Axeman89, Buckshot06, Chowbok, DuncanHill, Hmains, Hugo999, Jim 
Sweeney, LilHelpa, R'n'B, Rich Farmbrough, The edl7, Valentinejoesmith, Vancouver Outlaw, Woody, Woohookitty, 1 anonymous edits 

8th King George's Own Light Cavalry Source: http://en.wikipedia.Org/w/index.php7oldid =485 07 6748 Contributors: Aldis90, AustralianRupert, Beetstra, Buckshot06, Download, Drbreznjev, 
Elpezmuerto, Euchiasmus, FwdObserver, Jackl956, Jim Sweeney, Rich Farmbrough, Sus scrofa, Tristan benedict, 5 anonymous edits 

9th Royal Deccan Horse Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=484798133 Contributors: Akkida, Andyo2000, Drbreznjev, DuncanHill, FwdObserver, Hugo999, Jim Sweeney, 
Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Signalhead, Sus scrofa, Ulricl313, Woohookitty, Xtzou, 2 anonymous edits 

5th King Edward's Own Probyn's Horse Source: http://en. wikipedia. org/w/index.php?oldid=492040415 Contributors: AustralianRupert, Beloochee, Buckshot06, Cjrother, Drbreznjev, 
GraemeLeggett, Jim Sweeney, Profitoftruth85. ReddyRose, Rjwilmsi, Woohookitty, 1 anonymous edits 

14th Prince of Wales's Own Scinde Horse Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=4733 1 49 1 6 Contributors: D6, Fayenatic london, Hmains, Hugo999, Jim Sweeney, Kipoc, 
Lobsterthermidor, Paxse, R'n'B, Sus scrofa 

15th Lancers Source: http://en. wikipedia. org/w/index.php?oldid=483548102 Contributors: Beloochee, CommonsDelinker, Jim Sweeney, Mephiston999, PigFlu Oink, RASAM, 1 anonymous 
edits 



Article Sources and Contributors 242 

16th Light Cavalry Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=492047729 Contributors: Aditya.yadav, AshLin, AustralianRupert, Badagnani, GraemeLeggett, Hmains, Hugo999, Jim 
Sweeney, LindsayH, R'n'B, Rjwilmsi, Useight, 4 anonymous edits 

The Poona Horse Source: http://en.wikipedia.Org/w/index.php7oldid =48094445 3 Contributors: Aldis90, AshLin, Auntof6, Benea, Buckshot06, Cjrother, D12000, Gaius Cornelius, Giraffedata, 
GraemeLeggett, Grafen, IndianCow, Jim Sweeney, LilHelpa, Niceguyedc, Noclador, Opera hat, Pahari Sahib, Rjwilmsi, Robert Skyhawk, SoLando, Spartiate, Sus scrofa, Synique, Tabletop, 
Tm3108, Yorkist, 19 anonymous edits 

18th King Edward's Own Cavalry Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=492048687 Contributors: Buckshot06, Cjrother, Cloudbound, Hamish59, Hmains, Hugo999, Jim 
Sweeney, John of Reading, LilHelpa, Little Wink, Mild Bill Hiccup, PigFlu Oink, R'n'B, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Sus scrofa, Symorsebrown, TheJJJunk, 1 anonymous edits 

The Central India Horse (21st King George V's Own Horse) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=486048810 Contributors: Aldis90, Chris the speller, FwdObserver, Hugo999, 
Jim Sweeney, Katharineamy, Profitoftruth85, Rath prashant, Tabletop, Yorkist, 2 anonymous edits 

41 Armoured Regiment (India) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=451607800 Contributors: Aldis90, Bobol92, Buckshot06, Cocytus, Jasynnash2, Maanas8, Malcolma, 
Marathi mulgaa, Nevermorestr, RASAM, Wilhelmina Will, 1 anonymous edits 

42 Armoured Regiment (India) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=4691 10042 Contributors: Alai, Ben Ben, Buckshot06, Crownjewel82, GraemeLeggett, Kernel Saunters, 
LilHelpa, Niranjan007, Notedgrant, Pen of bushido, Whpq, Woohookitty, 1 anonymous edits 

45th Cavalry Regiment Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=489736085 Contributors: Aldis90, Awotter, Buckshot06, Carlossuarez46, Hmains, Hugo999, Sadads, Shyamsunder, 
VikramPuri, 9 anonymous edits 

61st Cavalry Regiment Source: http://e11.wikipedia.0rg/w/index. php?oldid=488741759 Contributors: Cerebellum 

62nd Cavalry Regiment Source: http://en.wiki pedia.org/ w/index.php?oldid=4 12232572 Contributors: Buckshot06, Sadads, Spartiate, Vinay84 

67 Armoured Regiment (India) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=448 186765 Contributors: Aldis90, Buckshot06, Indiangeologist, Ironholds, Rich Farmbrough, Rpyle731, 
Vinay84, 1 anonymous edits 

90 Armoured Regiment Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=44635471 1 Contributors: Aldis90, Bearcat, Buckshot06, Diannaa, Katharineamy, Rich Farmbrough, 
WereSpielChequers, Worldobserver, 1 anonymous edits 

Regiment of Artillery Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=482893534 Contributors: Anna Lincoln, AshLin, Buckshot06, Chris the speller, Dattakillerneo, Dhondusaxena, 
Ekabhishek, FJS15, FlagSteward, Hugo999, Mild Bill Hiccup, Necrothesp, Prathiumnan, R'n'B, Vinay84, 17 anonymous edits 

Indian Army Corps of Engineers Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=491933816 Contributors: Ajay ijn, AndrewHowse, AshLin, Bender235, Betacommand, Buckshot06, 
DBigXray. Drgkl, Ekabhishek, Hmains, Hugo999, Ironboyl 1, Jackl956, Jaraalbe, Molestash, Nichalp, Orange Suede Sofa, Queenmomcat, 10 anonymous edits 

Madras Engineer Group Source: http://en.wiki pedia.org/ w/index.php?oldid=48 8 1 64822 Contributors: Arch dude, AshLin, Benea, Blow of Light, Buckshot06, ErikHaugen, Frietjes, Hugo999, 
IronGargoyle, MCG, Mr pand, Prasidh.naik, R'n'B, Shyamal, Tassedethe, Tonyl, Vprajkumar, Woohookitty, YUL89YYZ 

Bengal Engineer Group Source: http://e11.wikipedia.0rg/w/index. php?oldid=473679201 Contributors: Androstachys, AshLin, AustralianRupert, Buckshot06, Ekabhishek, Frietjes, 
FwdObserver, GDibyendu, Hmains, Hugo999, J04n, Jackl956, Kernel Saunters, MCG, NeOFreedom, Necrothesp, Pax:Vobiscum, Profetarr, Rcpant, Strawless, Vnomad, Vprajkumar, 
Woohookitty, Xn4, 1 anonymous edits 

Bombay Engineer Group Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=493125429 Contributors: ABF, AshLin, Auntof6, Betacommand, Bostonbrahmin20, Buckshot06, Bunnyhopl 1, 
Choess, Ekabhishek, ErikHaugen, FwdObserver, George Burgess, GraemeLeggett, Hmains, Ka Faraq Gatri, MCG, Mjsl991, Mskadu, Omarl0101971, R'n'B, Rjwilmsi, Sachinvenga, Tonyl, 
Topbanana, Tristan benedict, Vprajkumar, Welsh, Woohookitty, 5 anonymous edits 

Indian Army Corps of Signals Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=483064162 Contributors: DBigXray, Ekabhishek, Shyamsunder 

Army Aviation Corps (India) Source: http: //en. wiki pedia.org/ w/index.php?oldid=48 1876696 Contributors: AshLin, AustralianRupert, Bcs09, BilCat, Buckshot06, Chris the speller, 
CommonsDelinker, DBigXray, Darkwind, EkkiOl , Flayer, HappylnGeneral, Hibernian, J Milburn, MSGJ, MilborneOne, Niceguyedc, PigFlu Oink, Sidkoode, Tabletop, Tim!, 
Touchtheskywithglory, Varunkrish89, Varunkrishnan89, WikiLaurent, Woe90i, 33 anonymous edits 

Territorial Army (India) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=493491926 Contributors: Iifes4v3r, Aldis90, Arjun024, Arka prava, Bcs09, Buckshot06, Cjrother, Fabrictramp, 
Hibernian tears, Ka Faraq Gatri, Lawexpert, MKar, Matej Grabovsky, N.shankar, Necrothesp, Nick Number, Onef9day, Patoldanga'r Tenida, Pgallert, Rodoacer, Rollerscroller, Saj2009, Slon02, 
Sujit, Sujithk, Sunil060902, TomStar81, Tomanishkb, Tusker-machine, Vibhijain, 94 anonymous edits 

Corps of Military Police (India) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=447000516 Contributors: Advait.ghaisas, Aimk, Aldis90, Aspuar, Buckshot06, Degen Earthfast, Ebyabe, 
Ekabhishek, GiW, Hadrianheugh, Necrothesp, Ninetyone, RJFJR, S, Sarsdran, Shyamsunder, Skysmith, Sunnypoonia, Ynhockey, A, 1 anonymous edits 

Military Nursing Service (India) Source: http ://en. wiki pedia. org/ w/index.php?oldid=47 628445 5 Contributors: Aldis90, AshLin, Buckshot06, Chzz, Colonelmathew, D6, Dhrvmankad, 
Ekabhishek, John of Reading, Nick-D, Shyamsunder, 4 anonymous edits 



Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 243 

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 

File:Flag of Indian Army.svg Source: http: //en. wikipedia.org/w /index. php?title=File:Flag_of_Indian_Army.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported 

Contributors: Fred the Oyster 
Image :Flag_of_Indian_Army.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Indian_Army.svg License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported 

Contributors: Fred the Oyster 

File: Operation Crusader.jpg Source: http://en.wiki pedia.org/ w/index.php?tit!e=FiIe: Opera tion_Crusader.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Idleguy at 
en.wikipedia 

File:Op Polo Surrender.jpg Source: http: //en. wiki pedia.org/ w/index.php?title=File: Op_Polo_Surrender.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Unknown 

File: 18Cav on move.jpg Source: http: //en.wikipedia. org/ w/index.php'?title=File: 1 8Cav_on_move.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Abhinayrathore at 
en.wikipedia 

File:KargiI.map.buildup.gif Source: http ://en. wiki pedia.org/ w/index.php?title=File: Kargil.map.buildup.gif License: Public Domain Contributors: Stbalbach at en.wikipedia 
File:Kargil Op Vijay Memorial l.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Kargil_Op_Vijay_Memorial_l.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 

Contributors: Photo-Curry 

File: IndiansoldiersKoreal953.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.Org/w/index. php'?title=File:IndiansoldiersKoreal953.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Van Scoyk (US Army) 
File:UN forces in Somalia.JPEG Source: http: //en. wikipedia.org/w /index. php'?title=File:UN_forces_in_Somalia. JPEG License: Public Domain Contributors: Airelle, Duch.seb, High Contrast 
File:IA T-90 in actionjpg Source: http://e11.wikipedia.0rg/w/index. php?title=File: IA_T-90_in_action.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Contributors: celll05 
File:Yudh Abhyas 2012.ogv Source: http://e11.wikipedia.0rg/w/index. php?title=File:Yudh_Abhyas_20I2.ogv License: Public Domain Contributors: Chanakyathegreat 
File: Indian Army Structure.png Source: http: //en. wikipedia.org/w /index. php?title=File:Indian_Army_Structure.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: 
Noclador 

File: Indian Army HQ.jpg Source: http://e11.wikipedia.0rg/w/index. php?title=File:Indian_Army_HQ.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Sumanch 
File:yudh Abhyas 2010 IA reconnaissance mission training.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/iiidex.php?title=File:Yudh_Abhyas_2010_IA_reconnaissance_mission_traiiiing.jpg License: 
Public Domain Contributors: Spc. Ashley M. Armstrong, 94th Army Air and Missile Defense Command 

File:Indian Army-Rajput regimentjpeg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/iiidex.php?title=File:Indian_Army-Rajput_regiment.jpeg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: 
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